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Clara Landsberg

Clara Landsberg was an American educator. She was the leader of the adult education programme at Hull House, was a close collaborator of Nobel laureate Jane Addams, she taught at Bryn Mawr School with her lifelong friend Margaret Hamilton. Clara Landsberg was born in Rochester, New York, the daughter of Max Landsberg, a German-American Reform rabbi, Miriam Isengarten, a good friend of Susan B. Anthony, she was one of the first graduates of Bryn Mawr College, where she was a classmate and friend of Margaret Hamilton. She attended the University of Paris as a student of German in the winter 1898-1899, while Margaret Hamilton studied Biology and Norah Hamilton Art. Landsberg was to become Margaret Hamilton's lifetime companion. After the Sorbonne, while Hamilton was a student at Johns Hopkins University, Landsberg became the Reference Librarian at the Reynolds' Library, New York. In 1899 Clara Landsberg became a resident at Hull House, where she was in charge of the adult education programs from 1900 to 1920, shared a room with Alice Hamilton.

Landsberg and Ethel Dewey interviewed each new student, each was placed according to his attainments and was graded upon reports made by the teachers. For the most part of her time at Hull House, Landsberg taught German at the University School for Girls. Hilda S. Polacheck, a Polish immigrant said about Landsberg: "She opened new vistas in reading for me. In her class we would be assigned a book, which we were to read during the week and discuss the following session of the class; the class met once a week. I not only read the assigned books but every book I could borrow. Dickens, Thackeray, Louisa May Alcott, Victor Hugo, Alexander Dumas, many others now become my friends; the daily monotony of making cuffs was eased by thinking of these books and looking forward to evenings at Hull House."In her 1912 Twenty Years at Hull-House with Autobiographical Notes, Jane Addams said she was grateful to Landsberg "for the making of the index and for many other services". In May 1914, together with Louise DeKoven Bowen, joined Addams and Mary Rozet Smith in Naples, the four women travelled together to Sicily and Rome.

Landsberg and Smith sailed back to the United States in June. In 1933, together with Alice Hamilton, went on a trip to Germany to protest the discharge of Jewish doctors. Landsberg left Hull House to teach Latin at Bryn Mawr School, where Edith Hamilton was headmistress. Margaret Hamilton became a science teacher at Bryn Mawr School and took over as headmistress in 1933 before retiring in 1935. Alice Hamilton considered Clara Landsberg part of the Hamilton family, "I could not think of a life in which Clara did not have a great part, she has become part of my life as if she were one of us."Landsberg, the Hamilton sisters and Edith's companion, Doris Fielding Reid, spent their retirement years in Hadlyme, Connecticut, at the house they purchased in 1916. Landsberg died in Lyme in 1966, is buried with Margaret Hamilton at Cove Cemetery in Hadlyme, Connecticut, in the same cemetery as Hamilton's mother and her sisters, Doris Fielding Reid; the Clara Landsberg papers consisting of correspondence addressed to Clara Landsberg are preserved at the Special Collections and University Archives, University of Illinois at Chicago.

Clara Landsberg at Find a Grave

Spatial data infrastructure

A spatial data infrastructure is a data infrastructure implementing a framework of geographic data, metadata and tools that are interactively connected in order to use spatial data in an efficient and flexible way. Another definition is "the technology, standards, human resources, related activities necessary to acquire, distribute, use and preserve spatial data". A further definition is given in Kuhn: "An SDI is a coordinated series of agreements on technology standards, institutional arrangements, policies that enable the discovery and use of geospatial information by users and for purposes other than those it was created for." Some of the main principles are that data and metadata should not be managed centrally, but by the data originator and/or owner, that tools and services connect via computer networks to the various sources. A GIS is the platform for deploying an individual node within an SDI. To achieve these objectives, good coordination between all the actors is necessary and the definition of standards is important.

Due to its nature (size, number of t-related. An example of an existing SDI, since 2002, is the NSDI created by the OMB Circular A-16 in the United States. At the European side, since 2007, the INSPIRE is a European Commission initiative to build a European SDI beyond national boundaries and the United Nations Spatial Data Infrastructure will do the same for over 30 UN Funds, Specialized Agencies and member countries. An SDI should enable the discovery and delivery of spatial data from a data repository, via a spatial service provider, to a user; as mentioned earlier it is wished that the data provider is able to update spatial data stored in a repository. Hence, the basic software components of an SDI are: Software client - to display and analyse spatial data Catalogue service - for the discovery and querying of metadata or spatial services, spatial datasets and other resources Spatial data service - allowing the delivery of the data via the Internet Processing services - such as datum and projection transformations, or the transformation of cadastral survey observations and owner requests into Cadastral documentation data repository - to store data, e.g. a spatial database GIS software - to create and update spatial dataBesides these software components, a range of technical standards are necessary that allow interaction between the different software components.

Among those are geospatial standards defined by the Open Geospatial Consortium and ISO for the delivery of maps and raster data, but data format and internet transfer standards by W3C consortium. List by country or administrative zone, it is not complete, is a sample of NSDIs with stable official website. GeoSUR GEOSS GMES INSPIRE UNSDI GIS file formats GIS software The INSPIRE Directive: a brief description GSDI 11 World Conference: The Geo-Spatial event of 2009, Rotterdam The Netherlands International Cartographic Association, the world body for mapping and GIScience professionals Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Association Links to SDI initiatives from the GSDI Association website The Netherlands Coordination Office of UNSDI The GeoNetwork portal of UNSDI-NCO Laboratory of Geo-Information Science and Remote Sensing SNIG - Portuguese National System for Geographic Information International Journal of Spatial Data Infrastructure Research The SDI Cookbook from the Global Spatial Data Infrastructur Organisation Research and Theory in Advancing Spatial Data Infrastructure Concepts GIS Worlds: Creating Spatial Data Infrastructures Building European Spatial Data Infrastructures geOrchestra is a free and interoperable Spatial Data Infrastructure software that includes other software like GeoNetwork, GeoServer, GeoWebCache...

GeoNetwork is a free and open source cataloging application for spatially referenced resources, GeoNode is a web-based application and platform for developing geospatial information systems and for deploying spatial data infrastructures, OpenSDI includes Open Source components like GeoServer and GeoNetwork, easySDI is a complete web-based platform for deploying any geoportal. Geoportal Server is an open source solution for building SDI models where a central SDI node is populated with content from distributed nodes, as well as SDI models where each node participates in a federated mode, it requires a closed-source solution to operate

Sexism in the technology industry

Sexism in the technology industry is occupational sexism in the technology industry. It has been variously argued in the media that a high ratio of men to women, graduation rates for engineering degrees, the culture of the industry itself cause sexism in the technology industry. In 1970, 13.6% of U. S. computer science and information science bachelor's degrees were awarded to women. By 1984, that number rose to 37.1%. In 2011, only 17.6% of undergraduate computer science degrees went to women. In May 2014, Google posted on its official blog that only 30 percent of its employees globally were women. In January 2015, the New York Times said "the largest technology companies have released reports showing that only 30% of their employees are women", with the percentage of technical employees being lower. A Fortune Magazine review of data available for the 92 US-based venture capital firms which had raised "at least one fund of $200 million or more" between 2009-2014 found "only 17 had one senior female partner", 4.2% of "partner level VCs" were female.

An Open Diversity Data website has been created to provide access to diversity data for specific companies. Only 11% of Silicon Valley executives and about 20% of software developers are women. At Google, only 18% of technical employees are women. On Forbes' 2015 Top Tech Investors list, of 100 investors, only 5% are women. Women in technology earn less with men earning up to 61 % more than women. "Bias against women in tech is pervasive", according to an October 2014 op-ed in The New York Times. A 2015 survey entitle "The Elephant in the Valley" conducted a survey of two hundred senior-level women in Silicon Valley. 84% of participants were told they were "too aggressive" in the office, 66% said that they were excluded from important events due to their gender. In addition, 60% of women said that they received unwanted sexual advances in their respective workplaces – the majority of which came from a superior. 40% did not report the incidents out of fear of retaliation. The New York Times obtained a copy of Google's Salary Spreadsheet in 2014, which depicts each employee's salary and bonus information.

This spreadsheet reports that at Google, women receive lower salaries than their male counterparts for five out of six job titles that are listed on the spreadsheet. In 1997, Anita Borg a senior researcher at Digital Equipment Corporation complained that women "run into subtle sexism every day." At the time only one woman, Carol Bartz of Autodesk, was a chief executive officer among the largest Silicon Valley technology companies, only 5.6% of the area's 1,686 major tech firms were run by women. It was harder for female entrepreneurs. Of the $33.5 billion in venture capital invested in tech from 1991 through the second quarter of 1996, only 1.6% went to companies launched or headed by women. The 2015 Crunchies award event, organized by Silicon Valley tech industry blogs, was criticized for its use of derogatory language towards women. Multiple gender harassment and discrimination lawsuits in Silicon Valley have received media attention. One of the most reported was Pao v. Kleiner Perkins, a discrimination lawsuit against Kleiner Perkins by Reddit interim CEO Ellen Pao, which went to trial in 2015.

Pao's lawsuit, which alleged that Kleiner Perkins indulged in double standards and denied her the senior partner position, resulted in a verdict for the defendant. Three jurors cited. On September 20, 2016, Tesla employee AJ Vandermayden filed a lawsuit against her company alleging sex discrimination and other workplace violations. Vandermayden brought about this lawsuit after learning her salary was lower than those of the eight other employees, all male, with whom she worked most despite the fact that some of them had just finished college, she was subjected to a much harsher standard in order to receive a promotion and pay raise that many of her male colleagues had received for working at the company for a certain period of time. There are several possible theories behind sexism in the technology industry; some scholars studying discrimination in the tech industry argue that since decision-makers in the tech industry believe that men are inherently more technically competent than women, they think that it is economically a better investment to employ male tech personnel and to give higher budgets to the male staff than to the female staff.

According to this model, those investments lead to more opportunities for male staff to produce high quality results, which in turn reinforces the statistical bias and is used as an argument for male technical superiority, causing a self-fulfilling prophecy. These scholars argue that the main problem is not unconscious bias, but conscious belief in scientific notions of sex differences, citing that the percentage of women in the highest quality tech work have decreased despite a decline in traditional and unconscious gender bias and quotas of women at lower levels of tech. While this model states that there is systematic discrimination towards women in tech, it explains it as a result of specific economical investment issues and does not presume a society-wide patriarchal structure nor that discrimination must favor men in all aspects of society. Men are more authoritative and influential than women. In tasks that are perceived as masculine by society, women have less influence and are not considered experts.

Only when a task is stereotyped as feminine will a women have more influence or authority than a man. Violating gender-stereotypic norms resu

Seven Kings railway station

Seven Kings railway station is on the Great Eastern Main Line serving the district of Seven Kings in the London Borough of Redbridge, east London. It is 8 miles 46 chains down the line from London Liverpool Street and is situated between Ilford and Goodmayes, its three-letter station code is SVK and it is in Travelcard Zone 4. The station was opened in 1899 by the Great Eastern Railway, it is managed by TfL Rail. Services call at Seven Kings as part of the Shenfield-Liverpool Street stopping "metro" service. In the future the TfL Rail service will be re-branded as the Elizabeth line as part of the Crossrail project; the Elizabeth line service will be extended beyond Liverpool Street to Paddington and onwards to Reading and Heathrow Airport. Seven Kings station was opened on 1 March 1899. Before the London Underground's Central line was extended from Stratford via Gants Hill to Newbury Park in 1947, Seven Kings was one of two junctions for the Fairlop Loop to Woodford via Hainault. Seven Kings West Junction was closed in 1956, though the other connection, from Ilford, was severed as early as 1947 due to the expansion of the Ilford sheds, which are visible from the western end of Seven Kings' platforms.

The carriage sheds comprise a large depot. On 23 January 1963, eight people were injured in a collision between two trains on the main line just outside of Seven Kings station. An express train from Harwich Parkeston Quay to London passed a signal at danger and ran into the rear of a Southend-London stopping service at "fairly low speed"; the express train was subsequently found to have a fault with one of its brakes. A Ministry of Transport report on the incident stated that the express train's driver "cannot be excused from responsibility" given his passing of the red signal; the line was reopened four hours after the incident. The typical Monday-Saturday off-peak service is six trains per hour in each direction between Liverpool Street and Shenfield, reduced on Sundays to four per hour in each direction: During peak times service frequency is increased and calling patterns may be varied. In addition, there is one early-morning service between Colchester and Liverpool Street operated by Abellio Greater Anglia.

In June 2017 new Class 345 trains began entering service in preparation for the opening of Crossrail. There are no plans to extend the regularly-used platforms 3 and 4 from their current length of 187 metres to accommodate the new trains which will be over 200 metres long, so selective door opening will be utilised. New lifts, help points, customer information screens and CCTV will be installed. London Buses routes N86 serve the station. Media related to Seven Kings railway station at Wikimedia Commons Train times and station information for Seven Kings railway station from National Rail Excel file displaying National Rail station usage information for 2005/06

Air-gap malware

Air-gap malware is malware, designed to defeat the air-gap isolation of secure computer systems using various air-gap covert channels. Because most modern computers laptops, have built-in microphones and speakers, air-gap malware can be designed to communicate secure information acoustically, at frequencies near or beyond the limit of human hearing; the technique is limited to computers in close physical proximity, is limited by the requirement that both the transmitting and receiving machines be infected with the proper malware to form the communication link. The physical proximity limit can be overcome by creating an acoustically linked mesh network, but is only effective if the mesh network has a traditional Ethernet connection to the outside world by which the secure information can be removed from the secure facility. In 2014, researchers introduced ″AirHopper″, a bifurcated attack pattern showing the feasibility of data exfiltration from an isolated computer to a nearby mobile phone, using FM frequency signals.

In 2015, "BitWhisper", a covert signaling channel between air-gapped computers using thermal manipulations was introduced. "BitWhisper" supports bidirectional communication and requires no additional dedicated peripheral hardware. In 2015, researchers introduced "GSMem", a method for exfiltrating data from air-gapped computers over cellular frequencies; the transmission - generated by a standard internal bus - renders the computer into a small cellular transmitter antenna. In 2016, researchers categorized various "out-of-band covert channels", which are malware communication channels that require no specialized hardware at the transmitter or receiver. OOB-CCs are not as high-bandwidth as conventional radio-frequency channels. In general, researchers demonstrated that air-gap covert channels can be realized over a number of different mediums, including: acoustic light seismic magnetic thermal radio-frequency physical media Air gap BadBIOS Guri, Mordechai. "Air Hopper: Bridging the Air-Gap between Isolated Networks and Mobile Phones using Radio Frequencies".

ArXiv:1411.0237. Do, Quang. "Exfiltrating data from Android devices". Computers & Security. Elsevier. 48: 74–91. Doi:10.1016/j.cose.2014.10.016. O'Malley, Samuel Joseph. Bridging the Air Gap: Inaudible Data Exfiltration by Insiders. 20th Americas Conference on Information Systems. Association for Information Systems. SSRN 2431593