The Oranges locally are a group of four municipalities in Essex County, New Jersey, all of which have the word Orange in their name. All of these communities were named for William III of Orange, Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, from 1689 till 1712 King of England and Scotland; the four municipalities are the City of Orange Township, City of East Orange, Township of South Orange Village and Township of West Orange. Orange was a part of Newark, but it was known as "Newark Mountains". On June 7, 1780, the townspeople of Newark Mountains voted to adopt the name Orange. At the time, there was a significant number of people in favor of secession from Newark. However, this would not occur until November 27, 1806, when the township of Orange—then including all of the territory encompassing all of the Oranges—officially separated from Newark. Orange was incorporated as a town on January 31, 1860, it began fragmenting into smaller communities because of local disputes about the costs of establishing paid police and street departments.
South Orange was organized on January 26, 1861, Fairmount on March 11, 1862, East Orange on March 4, 1863, West Orange on March 14, 1863. Today, the different municipalities of the Oranges are quite different from one another. All four were once among the richest communities in New Jersey; however and East Orange are urban and working-class, while South Orange and West Orange remain affluent suburban enclaves. In addition, the residents of Orange and East Orange are predominantly African American, while those of South Orange and West Orange are predominantly white. While each community has its own independent government, the four municipalities have no shared governance, the term is used to refer to the area, including on highway exit signs. Signage for Exit 47A on Interstate 80 and exit 145 on the Garden State Parkway refer to "The Oranges" as a destination. Interstate 280 refers to "The Oranges" as a control city as it passes directly through three out of the four municipalities. For other groups of named municipalities in New Jersey, see: The Amboys The Brunswicks The Caldwells The Plainfields The Ridgefields The Wildwoods
Native Americans in the United States
Native Americans known as American Indians, Indigenous Americans and other terms, are the indigenous peoples of the United States, except Hawaii. There are over 500 federally recognized tribes within the US, about half of which are associated with Indian reservations; the term "American Indian" excludes Native Hawaiians and some Alaska Natives, while Native Americans are American Indians, plus Alaska Natives of all ethnicities. Native Hawaiians are not counted as Native Americans by the US Census, instead being included in the Census grouping of "Native Hawaiian and other Pacific Islander"; the ancestors of modern Native Americans arrived in what is now the United States at least 15,000 years ago much earlier, from Asia via Beringia. A vast variety of peoples and cultures subsequently developed. Native Americans were affected by the European colonization of the Americas, which began in 1492, their population declined precipitously due to introduced diseases as well as warfare, territorial confiscation and slavery.
After the founding of the United States, many Native American peoples were subjected to warfare and one-sided treaties, they continued to suffer from discriminatory government policies into the 20th century. Since the 1960s, Native American self-determination movements have resulted in changes to the lives of Native Americans, though there are still many contemporary issues faced by Native Americans. Today, there are over five million Native Americans in the United States, 78% of whom live outside reservations; when the United States was created, established Native American tribes were considered semi-independent nations, as they lived in communities separate from British settlers. The federal government signed treaties at a government-to-government level until the Indian Appropriations Act of 1871 ended recognition of independent native nations, started treating them as "domestic dependent nations" subject to federal law; this law did preserve the rights and privileges agreed to under the treaties, including a large degree of tribal sovereignty.
For this reason, many Native American reservations are still independent of state law and actions of tribal citizens on these reservations are subject only to tribal courts and federal law. The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924 granted U. S. citizenship to all Native Americans born in the United States. This emptied the "Indians not taxed" category established by the United States Constitution, allowed natives to vote in state and federal elections, extended the Fourteenth Amendment protections granted to people "subject to the jurisdiction" of the United States. However, some states continued to deny Native Americans voting rights for several decades. Bill of Rights protections do not apply to tribal governments, except for those mandated by the Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968. Since the end of the 15th century, the migration of Europeans to the Americas has led to centuries of population and agricultural transfer and adjustment between Old and New World societies, a process known as the Columbian exchange.
As most Native American groups had preserved their histories by oral traditions and artwork, the first written sources of the conflict were written by Europeans. Ethnographers classify the indigenous peoples of North America into ten geographical regions with shared cultural traits, called cultural areas; some scholars combine the Plateau and Great Basin regions into the Intermontane West, some separate Prairie peoples from Great Plains peoples, while some separate Great Lakes tribes from the Northeastern Woodlands. The ten cultural areas are as follows: Arctic, including Aleut and Yupik peoples Subarctic Northeastern Woodlands Southeastern Woodlands Great Plains Great Basin Northwest Plateau Northwest Coast California Southwest At the time of the first contact, the indigenous cultures were quite different from those of the proto-industrial and Christian immigrants; some Northeastern and Southwestern cultures, in particular, were matrilineal and operated on a more collective basis than that with which Europeans were familiar.
The majority of Indigenous American tribes maintained their hunting grounds and agricultural lands for use of the entire tribe. Europeans at that time had patriarchal cultures and had developed concepts of individual property rights with respect to land that were different; the differences in cultures between the established Native Americans and immigrant Europeans, as well as shifting alliances among different nations in times of war, caused extensive political tension, ethnic violence, social disruption. Before the European settlement of what is now the United States, Native Americans suffered high fatalities from contact with new European diseases, to which they had not yet acquired immunity. Smallpox epidemics are thought to have caused the greatest loss of life for indigenous populations. William M Denevan, noted author and Professor Emeritus of Geography at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, said on this subject in his essay "The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492".
Old World diseases were the primary killer. In many regions the tropical lowlands, populations fell by 90 percent or more in the first century after the contact. "Estimates of the pre-Columbian population of what today constitutes the U. S. vary ranging from William M Denevan's 3.8 million in his 1992 w
Verona, New Jersey
Verona is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 13,332 reflecting a decline of 201 from the 13,533 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn declined by 64 from the 13,597 counted in the 1990 Census. In 2008, New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Verona #1 in Essex County and #3 in New Jersey as "Top Places to Live in New Jersey". Verona and several neighboring towns were all one town known as the Horseneck Tract. In 1702, a group of settlers left Newark and purchased a large tract of land northwest of their home city for the equivalent of a few hundred dollars from the Lenni Lenape Native Americans; this piece of land extended west and north to the Passaic River, south to the town center of what would become Livingston, east to the First Watchung Mountain, was called Horseneck by the natives because it resembled the neck and head of a horse. What was known as Horseneck contained most of the present day northern Essex County towns: Verona, along with Caldwell, West Caldwell, Cedar Grove, Essex Fells, North Caldwell, Roseland are all located in Horseneck, parts of what are today Livingston and West Orange were contained in the Horseneck Tract.
After the Revolutionary War, the area of Horseneck was incorporated as "Caldwell Township" in honor of local war hero James Caldwell, a pastor who used pages from his church's bibles as wadding to ignite the ammo in soldiers' cannons and helped to drive the British out of Horseneck. The area of present-day Verona was part of; the name was rejected when residents applied to the United States Postal Service, as the name had been in use for an area in Sussex County. Verona was chosen as the alternative name for the community; the township's name is derived from Italy. At various times between 1798 and 1892, issues arose which caused dissatisfaction between the Caldwell and Verona areas; these included a desire of the citizens of Verona to more control their own governmental affairs. With the population growing, Verona needed to centrally locate essential services such as schools and places of worship. On February 17, 1892, the citizens of Verona voted to secede from Caldwell Township to form Verona Township.
Further growth and the need for a water system and other public utilities found Verona moving ahead of the other half of the township and in 1902 the two areas decided to separate into two separate municipalities: Verona Township and Verona Borough. It took two sessions of the state legislature to approve the new borough, but on April 18, 1907, the borough of Verona was approved by an act of the New Jersey Legislature, pending the results of a referendum held on April 30, 1907, in which the new borough passed by a 224-77 margin. Residents of the newly formed borough had sought to disassociate themselves from the Overbrook County Insane Asylum and the Newark City Home, as well as from the settlement of Cedar Grove, considered a settlement of farmers. On April 9, 1908, Verona Township changed its name to Cedar Grove Township. In 1981, the borough was one of seven Essex County municipalities to pass a referendum to become a township, joining four municipalities that had made the change, of what would be more than a dozen Essex County municipalities to reclassify themselves as townships in order take advantage of federal revenue sharing policies that allocated townships a greater share of government aid to municipalities on a per capita basis.
As an example of the potential benefits of switching to a township, Verona Borough received $213,000 in federal aid in 1976, while sized Cedar Grove Township received $1.24 million. Today, Verona uses just "Township of Verona" in most official documents. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 2.776 square miles, including 2.755 square miles of land and 0.021 square miles of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Hillcrest and Verona Lake; the township is bordered by West Orange Township, Cedar Grove Township, Montclair Township, Essex Fells and North Caldwell. Verona lies between two mountains, the First and Second Watchung Mountains with a small river, the Peckman, flowing at the bottom of the valley towards the Passaic River at Little Falls. Verona cool/cold winters; the climate is cooler overall during the summer than in New York City because there is no urban heat island effect. January tends to be the coldest month, with average high temperatures in the upper 30s and lows in the lower 20s.
July is the warmest months with high temperatures in the mid lows in the mid 60s. From April to June and from September to early November, Verona enjoys temperatures from the lower 60s to upper 70s. Rainfall is plentiful, with around 44 inches a year. Snowfall is common from mid-January to early March and nor'easters can bring significant amounts of snow. In January 1996, a weather station in nearby Newark, New Jersey recorded over 31.8 inches of snow from the North American blizzard of 1996. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 13,332 people, 5,315 households, 3,523.845 families residing in the township. The population density was 4,838.4 per square mile. There were 5,523 housing units at an average density of 2,004.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 91.24% White, 1.97% Black or African American, 0.03% Native America
Millburn, New Jersey
Millburn is a suburban township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 20,149, reflecting an increase of 384 from the 19,765 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 1,135 from the 18,630 counted in the 1990 Census. Millburn was created as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 20, 1857, from portions of Springfield Township, when Union County was formed. Earlier known variously as Milltown, Rum Brook and Vauxhall, the name "Millburn" was adopted before the township was established; the township's name derives from the burn. The township is home to the South Mountain Reservation, The Mall at Short Hills and the Paper Mill Playhouse, an established regional theater. New Jersey Monthly magazine ranked Millburn as the 53rd best place to live in New Jersey in its 2008 rankings of the "Best Places To Live" in New Jersey. Millburn had the highest annual property tax bills in the U. S. state of New Jersey in 2009 at $19,097, compared to the statewide average of $7,300 that year, the highest in the United States.
This is a function of high property values, as Millburn had the lowest effective property tax rate in 2014 among the 22 municipalities in Essex County. In June 2007, Millburn celebrated its 150th birthday in its downtown, in one of the biggest celebrations in Millburn history. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township had a total area of 9.876 square miles, including 9.322 square miles of land and 0.554 square mile of water. Unincorporated communities and place names located or within the township include Brantwood, Canoe Brook, Short Hills, Washington Rock, White Oak Ridge and Wyoming. Millburn comprises the South Mountain and Millburn Center areas. Short Hills contains the sections of Knollwood, Brookhaven, Country Club, Deerfield-Crossroads, White Oak Ridge, Old Short Hills Estates. Situated 15 miles from Manhattan, Millburn Township is bordered by the Essex County communities of Livingston and West Orange to the north and northeast, Maplewood to the east; the West Branch of the Rahway River runs through downtown Millburn.
Dun & Bradstreet has its headquarters in the Short Hills section of Millburn. The Mall at Short Hills is an upscale shopping mall anchored by Neiman Marcus, Bloomingdale's and Macy's, with a gross leasable area of 1,400,000 square feet. Paper Mill Playhouse is a 1,200-seat regional theater established in 1938, designated as the "State Theatre of New Jersey". B'nai Israel synagogue was designed by architect Percival Goodman and features works by Herbert Ferber, Adolph Gottlieb and Robert Motherwell. Cora Hartshorn Arboretum and Bird Sanctuary - A site owned by the daughter of Short Hills founder Stewart Hartshorn, the 16 acres park with its 3 miles of trails was donated to the township in 1958. South Mountain Reservation, an Essex County nature reserve covering more than 2,000 acres of land in Millburn and West Orange. Old Short Hills Park, Gero Park, Taylor Park and Slayton Field Park. Fishing and kayaking is available on the Rahway River. Millburn has one of the largest Jewish communities in Essex County, along with neighboring Livingston and South Orange.
Philip Roth's popular novel Goodbye, Columbus about a newly affluent Jewish family in the 1950s, was set in the Short Hills section of Millburn, a key scene takes place at the Millburn High School track. The township has attracted professionals moving out of Manhattan, thanks to direct train service to Penn Station. In a report performed by the United Way of Northern New Jersey based on 2012 data, around 11% of Millburn households were classified as "Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed" households, struggling with basic necessities, such as housing, food, health care, transportation, compared to 38% statewide and 47% in Essex County; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 20,149 people, 6,813 households, 5,552.595 families residing in the township. The population density was 2,161.3 per square mile. There were 7,106 housing units at an average density of 762.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the township was 80.17% White, 1.63% Black or African American, 0.03% Native American, 15.66% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.51% from other races, 1.97% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.49% of the population. There were 6,813 households out of which 48.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 72.2% were married couples living together, 7.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 18.5% were non-families. 15.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.96 and the average family size was 3.32. In the township, the population was spread out with 32.3% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 21.1% from 25 to 44, 31.2% from 45 to 64, 11.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41.0 years. For every 100 females there were 95.3 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 90.8 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that (
Livingston, New Jersey
Livingston is a township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the township's population was 29,366, reflecting an increase of 1,975 from the 27,391 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 782 from the 26,609 counted in the 1990 Census. Livingston was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on February 5, 1813, from portions of Caldwell Township and Springfield Township. Portions of the township were taken to form Roseland; the township was named for the first Governor of New Jersey. In 2017, the Township of Livingston adopted a new logo. Livingston's history dates back to 1699, they set up a committee to negotiate from Lenni Lenape Native Americans for the purchase of the Horseneck Tract which today includes Livingston and eight other northern municipalities. Between 1698 and 1702, the rules for property ownership were unclear. There were many disputes between the English proprietors. For some unknown reasons, the Newark settlers did not obtain a grant from the proprietors before negotiating with the natives.
They obtained the deed directly from Lenni Lenape in 1702 for £130. The settlements began until around the 1740s as the dispute between the proprietors and the settlers continued; the dispute came to a breaking point in September 1745 when the East Jersey proprietors began to evict a settler only six months after a house fire in Newark destroyed the original deed, the only evidence of the purchase. During that period, William Livingston, one of the few landed aristocrats joined the settlers against the proprietors. Livingston owned land around today's south western corner of the Township of Livingston, his land, like other settlers, was levied with quit rents in the amount 40 shillings per acre. He defended many settlers; this series of events caused the settlers, led by Timothy Meeker, to form a group to riot against the British government. The Horseneck Riots lasted for 10 years from 1745 to 1755; the group was one of the first colonial militia which had periodic battles for 32 years leading up to the Revolutionary War as the group joined the Continental Army in 1776.
After the Revolutionary War, more permanent settlements took place with the first school built in 1783. In 1811, a petition was filed to incorporate the township from about 100 people who lived in seven distinct areas: Centerville, Morehousetown, Squiretown and Washington Place. On February 5, 1813, the township was incorporated; the first town meeting was held on the same day and they decided to run the township by a Township Committee system. During the 1800s, lumber and farming were major industries in the town. Shoemaking and dairy farming became major industries after the Civil War. However, the population grew because it was not accessible. Mt. Pleasant Avenue –, one of the first turnpikes in New Jersey – was the only primary access to the town through stagecoaches; the population grew after the 1920s when automobiles became more accessible. As a suburb of Newark, the town experienced many housing developments after World War II with its peak in 1970 of more than thirty thousand residents.
During this growth period, many services were organized including volunteer Fire Department in 1922, first regular Livingston Police Department chief in 1929, a Planning Commission in 1930, two hospitals opened in 1959 and 1960, new public library in 1961, new municipal complex in 1963. The last surviving Harrison Cider Apple tree, the most famous of the 18th century Newark cider apples was rescued from extinction in 1976 in Livingston. Today, around 29,000 people live in this suburban community, which lies around an hour from New York City, its school system, which had last been nationally recognized in 1998, other programs have been drawing new residents to the town. Its population has maintained a level of diversity while the residents continue the tradition of community volunteerism. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Township of Livingston had a total area of 14.081 square miles, including 13.768 square miles as land and 0.313 square miles as water. Livingston is in the New York metropolitan area.
It is in southwestern Essex County. Within Essex County it is bordered by Roseland to the north, West Orange to the east, Millburn/Short Hills to the south. To the west it is bordered by East Hanover; the western border is the Passaic River. Localities and place names located or within the township include Cedar Ridge, Morehousetown, Washington Place and West Livingston. According to the 2002 results of the National Jewish Population Survey, there were 12,600 Jews in Livingston 46% of the population, one of the highest percentages of Jews in any American municipality; the neighboring towns of South Orange and Millburn have high Jewish populations. In a report performed by the United Way of Northern New Jersey based on 2012 data, around 14% of Livingston households were classified as "Asset Limited, Income Constrained, Employed" ho
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party referred to as the GOP, is one of the two major political parties in the United States. The GOP was founded in 1854 by opponents of the Kansas-Nebraska Act, which had expanded slavery into U. S. territories. The party subscribed to classical liberalism and took ideological stands that were anti-slavery and pro-economic reform. Abraham Lincoln was the first Republican president in the history of the United States; the Party was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System and Fourth Party System. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt formed the Progressive Party after being rejected by the GOP and ran unsuccessfully as a third-party presidential candidate calling for social reforms. After the 1912 election, many Roosevelt supporters left the Party, the Party underwent an ideological shift to the right; the liberal Republican element in the GOP was overwhelmed by a conservative surge begun by Barry Goldwater in 1964 that continued during the Reagan Era in the 1980s. After the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965, the party's core base shifted, with the Southern states becoming more reliably Republican in presidential politics and the Northeastern states becoming more reliably Democratic.
White voters identified with the Republican Party after the 1960s. Following the Supreme Court's 1973 decision in Roe v. Wade, the Republican Party made opposition to abortion a key plank of its national party platform and grew its support among evangelicals. By 2000, the Republican Party was aligned with Christian conservatism; the Party's core support since the 1990s comes chiefly from the South, the Great Plains, the Mountain States and rural areas in the North. The 21st century Republican Party ideology is American conservatism, which contrasts with the Democrats' liberal platform and progressive wing; the GOP supports lower taxes, free market capitalism, a strong national defense, gun rights and restrictions on labor unions. The GOP was committed to protectionism and tariffs from its founding until the 1930s when it was based in the industrial Northeast and Midwest, but has grown more supportive of free trade since 1952. In addition to advocating for conservative economic policies, the Republican Party is conservative.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by abolitionists, modernizers, ex-Whigs and ex-Free Soilers, the Republican Party became the principal opposition to the dominant Democratic Party and the popular Know Nothing Party. The party grew out of opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and opened Kansas Territory and Nebraska Territory to slavery and future admission as slave states; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil. The first public meeting of the general anti-Nebraska movement, at which the name Republican was suggested for a new anti-slavery party, was held on March 20, 1854 in a schoolhouse in Ripon, Wisconsin; the name was chosen to pay homage to Thomas Jefferson's Republican Party. The first official party convention was held on July 1854 in Jackson, Michigan. At the 1856 Republican National Convention, the party adopted a national platform emphasizing opposition to the expansion of slavery into U. S. territories. While Republican candidate John C.
Frémont lost the 1856 United States presidential election to James Buchanan, he did win 11 of the 16 northern states. The Republican Party first came to power in the elections of 1860 when it won control of both houses of Congress and its candidate, former congressman Abraham Lincoln, was elected President. In the election of 1864, it united with War Democrats to nominate Lincoln on the National Union Party ticket. Under Republican congressional leadership, the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution—which banned slavery in the United States—passed the Senate in 1864 and the House in 1865; the party's success created factionalism within the party in the 1870s. Those who felt that Reconstruction had been accomplished, was continued to promote the large-scale corruption tolerated by President Ulysses S. Grant, ran Horace Greeley for the presidency; the Stalwart faction defended Grant and the spoils system, whereas the Half-Breeds pushed for reform of the civil service. The Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act was passed in 1883.
The Republican Party supported hard money, high tariffs to promote economic growth, high wages and high profits, generous pensions for Union veterans, the annexation of Hawaii. The Republicans had strong support from pietistic Protestants, but they resisted demands for Prohibition; as the Northern postwar economy boomed with heavy and light industry, mines, fast-growing cities, prosperous agriculture, the Republicans took credit and promoted policies to sustain the fast growth. The GOP was dominant over the Democrats during the Third Party System. However, by 1890 the Republicans had agreed to the Sherman Antitrust Act and the Interstate Commerce Commission in response to complaints from owners of small businesses and farmers; the high McKinley Tariff of 1890 hurt the party and the Democrats swept to a landslide in the off-year elections defeating McKinley himself. The Democrats elected Grover Cleveland in 1884 and 1892; the election of William McKinley in 1896 was marked by a resurgence of Republican dominance that lasted until 1932.
McKinley promised that high tariffs would end the severe hardship caused by the Pa
Madison, New Jersey
Madison is a borough in Morris County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 15,845, reflecting a drop in population of 685 from the 16,530 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 680 from the 15,850 counted in the 1990 Census, it was named in honor of President James Madison. Native Americans occupied the areas that would become New Jersey, Madison, following the retreat of the Wisconsin Glacier for many thousands of years. Settlements of the Lenape were agriculturally based following matrilineal lines; the protected lands nearby, Jockey Hollow, are. Occupation changed with the seasons, the variable nature of the climate, to preserve the fertility of the rich soil, their fishing and hunting territories were wide-ranging and divided among the three clans of the matrilineal culture in this Eastern Woodland environment. Trade with these native peoples for food and furs was conducted by the Dutch during the period of colonization of New Netherland.
Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required their colonists to purchase land that they settled, but trading relationships were established in this area, rather than Dutch settlements. During the British colonial period, the earliest settlers of European descent arrived in this portion of the colony of New Jersey. Traditional native trails and pathways were followed. Pressures upon the Lenape drove them westward. About 1715 the village of Bottle Hill was established at the crossing of Ridgedale Avenue and Kings Road. Village governance principles followed the British model; the Luke Miller house at 105 Ridgedale Avenue is thought to be the oldest remaining home, having been built around 1730. During British colonial rule, Kings Road was a toll road that assessed fees levied by the government appointed by the English king. Farther south was the Shunpike, a road with a parallel path, used deliberately by colonists to avoid the fees.
Morris County, created in 1739, was divided into three townships. The portion of the village north of Kings Road was put under the governance of Hanover Township and the portion to the south, under the governance of Morris Township. A meeting house for the Presbyterian Church of South Hanover, as Madison was called at that time, was started in 1747 where the Presbyterian Cemetery still exists between Kings Road and Madison Avenue. With the Treaty of Easton in 1758, the Lenape were required to vacate their lands in colonial New Jersey and to move westward, their leaders allied with the colonists during the American Revolutionary War in hopes of regaining former lands, but, never realized. Following the revolution, changes to governing methods in the former colonies occurred as the new nation organized herself; the state of New Jersey debated best policies. During the reorganization of Morris County in 1806, Chatham Township was established and included all of present-day Chatham Township, along with the three existing pre-Revolutionary War villages as well as all of the lands still governed by the current Chatham Township, thus the governmental division of Bottle Hill was ended.
In 1834, the name of the settlement was changed to Madison. As a tribute to the name every year there is a fair, called Bottle Hill Day. On December 27, 1889, based on the results of a referendum passed on December 24, 1889, the village seceded from Chatham Township and adopted the newly created, borough form of government, in order to develop a local water supply system for its population of 3,250. Madison annexed additional portions of Chatham Township in 1891, again each year from 1894 to 1898, followed by an exchange of certain lands in 1899 with Chatham Township; the Morris and Essex Railroad connected the town with Newark and Hoboken in 1838 and provided good transportation for farm produce grown at Madison. The railroad made possible the establishment of a flourishing rose growing industry, still commemorated in Madison's nickname, The Rose City; the rail service connected the commerce to the markets of Manhattan. Madison's growth accelerated after the Civil War and the Morris and Essex Lines became one of America's first commuter railroads, attracting well-to-do families from Manhattan and contributing to the development of "Millionaire's Row", which stretched from downtown Madison to downtown Morristown.
Greenhouses dotted the countryside. Talented horticulturalists were attracted to the area for employment at the many wealthy estates in the immediate area and to establish related businesses. One of the first grand houses to be built on "Millionaire's Row" was the Ross Estate. In 1893, Florence Adele Vanderbilt and her husband Hamilton McKown Twombly began to built the impressive Florham estate. Now home to Fairleigh Dickinson University, Florham is a gilded age mansion and the 9th largest house in the United States. Madison's historic railroad station was funded by the community which passed an ordinance authorizing $159,000 for railroad improvement bonds; the result with the cooperation of the D. L. & W. R. R. in the planning was completed in 1916. The tracks were elevated through the downtown and no established roadways were hindered by crossing delays. Mrs. D. Willis James financed much of the road grading caused by the elevation of the tracks; the station included baggage and cargo facilities accessible by wagons as well as the stationmaster offices, a newssta