Djoser was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch. He is known by his Hellenized names Tosorthros and Sesorthos, he was the son of king Khasekhemwy and queen Nimaathap, but whether he was the direct throne successor is still unclear. Most Ramesside Kinglists name a king Nebka before him, but since there are still difficulties in connecting that name with contemporary Horus names, some Egyptologists question the received throne sequence; the painted limestone statue of Djoser, now in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, is the oldest known life-sized Egyptian statue. Today at the site in Saqqara where it was found, a plaster copy of the statue stands in place of the original; the statue was found during the Antiquities Service Excavations of 1924–1925. In contemporary inscriptions, he is called Netjerikhet, meaning "divine of body." Sources, which include a New Kingdom reference to his construction, help confirm that Netjerikhet and Djoser are the same person.
While Manetho names Necherophes and the Turin King List names Nebka as the first ruler of the Third dynasty, many Egyptologists now believe Djoser was first king of this dynasty, pointing out that the order in which some predecessors of Khufu are mentioned in the Papyrus Westcar suggests Nebka should be placed between Djoser and Huni, not before Djoser. More the English Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson has demonstrated that burial seals found at the entrance to Khasekhemwy's tomb in Abydos name only Djoser, rather than Nebka; this supports the view that it was Djoser who buried and, directly succeeded Khasekhemwy, rather than Nebka. Djoser is linked to Khasekhemwy, the last king of the Second dynasty of Egypt, through his wife Queen Nimaethap via seals found in Khasekhemwy's tomb and at Beit Khallaf; the seal at Abydos names Nimaat-hap as the "mother of the king's children, Nimaat-hap". On mastaba K1 at Beit Khallaf, the same person is mentioned as the "mother of the dual king". Dating of other seals at the Beit Khallaf site place them to the reign of Djoser.
This evidence suggests that Khasekhemwy is either the direct father of Djoser or that Nimaat-hap had him through a previous husband. German Egyptologist Gunter Dreyer found Djoser's sealings at Khasekhemwy's tomb, further suggesting that Djoser was the direct successor of Khasekhemwy and that he finished the construction of the tomb, her cult seems to have still been active in the reign of Sneferu. Hetephernebti is identified as one of Djoser's queens "on a series of boundary stela from the Step Pyramid enclosure and a fragment of relief from a building at Hermopolis" in the Egyptian museum of Turin. Inetkawes was their only daughter known by name. There was a third royal female attested during Djoser's reign, but her name is destroyed; the relationship between Djoser and his successor, Sekhemkhet, is not known, the date of his death is uncertain. The lands of Upper and Lower Egypt were united into a single kingdom sometime around 2686 BC; the period following the unification of the crowns was one of prosperity, marked by the start of the Third Dynasty and the Old Kingdom of Egypt.
The exact identity of the founder of the dynasty is a matter of debate, due to the fragmentary nature of the records from the period. Djoser is one of the principal candidates for the founder of the Third Dynasty. Other candidates are Sanakht. Complicating matters further is the possibility that Nebka and Sanakht are referring to the same person. Egyptologist Toby Wilkinson believes that the weight of archeological evidence favours Djoser as Khasekhemwy's successor and therefore founder of the Third Dynasty. A seal from Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos, in combination with a seal from mastaba K1 at Beit Khallaf dated to Djoser's reign, links the two pharaohs together as father and son respectively; the seal at Abydos names a'Nimaat-hap' as the mother of Khasekhemwy's children, while the other seal at Beit Khallaf names the same person as the'mother of the dual-king'. Further archaeological evidence linking the reigns of the two pharaohs together are found at Shunet et-Zebib, which suggest that Djoser oversaw the burial of his predecessor.
Ritual stone vessels found at the sites of the tombs – Khasekhemwy's tomb at Abydos and Djoser's tomb at Saqqara – of the two pharaohs appear to have come from the same collection, as samples from both sites contain identical imagery of the god Min. This archeological evidence is supplemented by at least one historical source, the Saqqara king list, which names Djoser as the immediate successor of Beby – a misreading of Khasekhemwy. Manetho states Djoser ruled Egypt for twenty-nine years, while the Turin King List states it was only nineteen years; because of his many substantial building projects at Saqqara, some scholars argue Djoser must have enjoyed a reign of nearly three decades. Manetho's figure appears to be more accurate, according to Wilkinson's analysis and reconstruction of the Royal Annals. Wilkinson reconstructs the Annals as giving Djoser "28 complete or partial years", noting that the cattle counts recorded on Palermo stone register V, Cairo Fragment 1, register V, for the beginning and ending of Djoser's reign, would most indicate his regnal years 1–5 and 19–28.
Next to all entrances are illegible today. The Year of coronation is preserved, followed by the year events receiving the twin-pillars and stretching the cords for the fortress Qau-Netjerw. Various sources provide various dates for Djoser's reign. Ancient Near East history professor Marc van de Mieroop dates Djoser's reign to somewhere between 2686 BC to 2648 BC. Authors Joann Fletcher and Michael
Fourth Dynasty of Egypt
The Fourth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is characterized as a "golden age" of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. Dynasty IV lasted from c. 2613 to 2494 BC. It was a time of peace and prosperity as well as one during which trade with other countries is documented; the Fourth Dynasty heralded the height of the pyramid-building age. The relative peace of the Third Dynasty allowed the Dynasty IV rulers the leisure to explore more artistic and cultural pursuits. King Sneferu's building experiments led to the evolution from the mastaba styled step pyramids to the smooth sided “true” pyramids, such as those on the Giza Plateau. No other period in Egypt's history equaled Dynasty IV's architectural accomplishments; each of the rulers of this dynasty commissioned at least one pyramid to serve as a cenotaph. It was the second of four dynasties that made up the "Old Kingdom", it has been acknowledged as the most remarkable of all in that isolated period of Egyptian history. It was part of the golden age of Egyptian culture and took place between 2613 and 2494 B.
C. King Sneferu, the first king of the fourth dynasty, held territory in ancient Libya to the Sinai Peninsula, Nubia in the south, it was a successful period and this era is known for its advancement and concentrated government, as seen in the organized building of pyramids and other monuments. Our understanding of the Old Kingdom comes from these structures and objects discovered in the desert cemeteries of Giza, it is not easy to measure the extent of change or explain the causes since there are not many records from the time. They did not have primitive customs or barbarous habits such as in other countries. An example of this would be. Religion and knowledge were where their aspirations lay, they had little aspiration for war and conquest, they were domestic, fond of art, social in their manners. Fourth Dynasty timeline King Sneferu, lauded as "Bringer of Beauty", "Master of All Justice", "Ruler of Lower and Upper Nile", was the first pharaoh of the fourth dynasty and single-handedly marked the climax of the Old Kingdom.
He descended from a family in the Middle Kingdom, that lived near the city Hermopolis and most he ascended to the throne by marrying a royal heiress. There still is debate as to who his father was, the credit being given to Huni, but this cannot be confirmed due to the break in dynasties, his mother, Meresanhk I was either a lesser wife or concubine of Huni which, if it was the latter, would technically not qualify him as having royal blood. Egypt in the third Millennium BC was, by all accounts, a land of plenty. Elites ate fattened ducks and geese and wore fine white linens—when they wore clothes at all. Snefru had a high opinion of himself, proving so when he floated in a boat down the Nile covered only with fishnets; until his reign, an Egyptian king was thought to be a worldly incarnation of Horus, obtaining total deification in death. Snefru was the first king proclaim that he was the embodiment of another sun deity. Khufu, would pursue his father's path, taking the name, Son of the Sun God.
Egypt, in general, was ruled by two schools of legal authority and traditional authority. Legal authority constituted the king governing, not the people directly, but viziers and nomarches, all posted at different positions. Snefru made use of this by having several posts for trade, military practices, slaveholders. Traditional authority was. At the heart of it, the fourth dynasty Egyptian government became organized so that only the king could direct traditional authority; the Bent Pyramid was Sneferu's first attempt at building a perfect structure, but it slopes and bends to a lower angle, giving the structure a squished look. His Red Pyramid is considered the first true pyramid and earned its name from the reddish tint in the limestone used; the Red Pyramid was considered the first pyramid 150 years after the structures built by King Djoser. The Red Pyramid was the first to be given a solid foundation so that it was stable enough for a taller building, he is said to be responsible for a series of pyramids built in Seila.
He commissioned a total of three pyramids. Although he did not construct any of the pyramids at Giza, he is known as the king who moved the most stone and brick. A lot of Sneferu's political expeditions were to other countries to secure two things: a substantial labor force and access to a large store of materials, he traveled to Libya for these things. His incursions in these areas allowed Sneferu to secure a large labor force, so large, in fact, that it caused huge devastation to the raided countries, he needed cattle and other food sources to provide to the people building his pyramids. By the end of his military efforts, he managed to capture 11,000 prisoners and 13,100 heads of cattle. Khufu, Sneferu's successor—though it is unclear whether he was the biological son of Sneferu—was a widely-known king, he is still known well in present-day media, being featured in movies and television shows. His fame stems from his pyramid on the northeastern plateau at Giza, his mortuary temple was built on the northern end of the pyramid, no longer accessible due to ravages by grave robbers.
Only three-dimensional reliefs have been recovered and have lasted into modern day, including many limestone busts and clay figurines. Khufu's activities in and out of Egypt are not well documented and was romanticized by the Ancient Greeks; these Greeks felt that Khufu was a wicked man who offended the deities an
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology
The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—commonly called the Penn Museum—is an archaeology and anthropology museum, part of the University of Pennsylvania. It is located on Penn's campus in the University City neighborhood of Philadelphia; the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology—which has conducted more than 300 archaeological and anthropological expeditions around the world—was founded during the administration of Provost William Pepper. In 1887, Provost Pepper persuaded the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania to erect a fireproof building to house artifacts from an upcoming expedition to the ancient site of Nippur in modern-day Iraq. During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, North American and European museums sponsored such excavations throughout the Mediterranean and Near East, sharing the ownership of their discoveries with the host country. Penn Museum followed this practice in acquiring the vast majority of its collections, and, as a result, most of the Museum's objects have a known archaeological context, increasing their value for archaeological and anthropological research and presentation.
Today the Museum's three floors of gallery space feature materials from the ancient Mediterranean World, the Near East, East Asia, Mesoamerica, as well as artifacts from the indigenous peoples of Africa and Native America. Since 1958, the Penn Museum has published Expedition magazine; the excavations and collections of the Museum provide resources for student research and the Museum hosts the Graduate Group in the Art and Archaeology of the Mediterranean World. On 19 November 2008, University of Pennsylvania Museum Administration announced its decision to terminate 18 Research Specialist positions in archaeological and anthropological research in the Mediterranean world, the Middle East, the Americas, effective May 31, 2009; the scientific research center MASCA was closed, although the MASCA scientists were moved to other Sections within the museum. The decision received local and world-wide criticisms and reactions among archaeologists and concerned communities, who felt that it represented a decided departure from the original mission of the Penn Museum as a research institution since its foundation in 1887.
Museum administrators announced that this was a measure taken due to the current financial crisis and the deep budget cuts at the University of Pennsylvania. On June 1, then-Director Dr. Richard Hodges announced that newly defined positions as "Associate Curator" or "Research Project Manager" have been offered to 11 of the 18 individuals affected; the Museum has stated that its commitment to research remains firm, as indicated by more than 50 research projects spanning five continents that engage nearly 200 Museum-affiliated scholars—more than can be found at any other archaeological and anthropological institute/museum in North America. The Museum is housed in an Arts and Crafts and Eclectic style building, one of the landmarks of the University of Pennsylvania campus; the existing original building is only one-third of an ambitious design that would have created one of the largest museum buildings in the United States. Features of the extant building include a dramatic rotunda, multiple courtyards and gardens, a fountain, reflecting pool, glass mosaics, iron gates, stone statuary.
The Penn Museum was designed by a team of Philadelphia architects, all of whom taught on the faculty of the University: Wilson Eyre, Cope & Stewardson and Frank Miles Day. The first phase was completed in 1899 and housed the discoveries from an expedition sponsored by the University to the ancient site of Nippur. In 1915, the rotunda, which houses the Harrison Auditorium in the basement was completed. Charles Klauder designed the Coxe Memorial Wing, which opened in 1926 to house the Museum's Egyptian collection; the Sharpe Wing was completed in 1929. The Coxe Memorial Egyptian Wing was added to the museum in 1924 through a bequest by former museum board president Eckley Coxe; the administrative wing was added in 1929. The Academic Wing, which provided laboratories for the Anthropology department and classrooms was opened in 1971; the most recent major addition was made with the addition of the Mainwaring Wing. The Museum Library was established in 1900 when the personal library of University of Pennsylvania professor of American archaeology and linguistics Daniel Garrison Brinton was acquired.
This library contained an estimated 4,098 volumes of which the ethnology and linguistics of the American Indigenous peoples were the primary disciplines. This library consists of a manuscript collection of nearly two hundred volumes relevant to the study of autochthonous Central American languages; the original location of the library holdings was the Furness Building until they were transferred to the Museum building in 1898. They were relocated to the Elkins Library up until 1971 upon when they were moved to their final home in the University extension of the museum. Prior to its move in 1971 the collection was built upon the support of museum curators contributing their personal monographs, negotiations with affiliate institutions here and abroad as well as endowments by philanthropic individuals; the library collection was maintained by a staff of a single part-time librarian until 1942 when Cynthia Griffin became the first full-time librarian. It was under Cynthia that the library witnessed many developments.
Prior to her arrival use of the library had been limited to employees of the
Mesoamerica is a historical region and cultural area in North America. It extends from central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras and northern Costa Rica, within this region pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas. In the 16th century, European diseases like smallpox and measles caused the deaths of upwards of 90% of the indigenous people, it is one of five areas in the world where ancient civilization arose independently, the second in the Americas along with Norte Chico in present-day Peru, in the northern coastal region. As a cultural area, Mesoamerica is defined by a mosaic of cultural traits developed and shared by its indigenous cultures. Beginning as early as 7000 BCE, the domestication of cacao, beans, avocado, vanilla and chili, as well as the turkey and dog, caused a transition from paleo-Indian hunter-gatherer tribal grouping to the organization of sedentary agricultural villages. In the subsequent Formative period and cultural traits such as a complex mythological and religious tradition, a vigesimal numeric system, a complex calendric system, a tradition of ball playing, a distinct architectural style, were diffused through the area.
In this period, villages began to become stratified and develop into chiefdoms with the development of large ceremonial centers, interconnected by a network of trade routes for the exchange of luxury goods, such as obsidian, cacao, Spondylus shells and ceramics. While Mesoamerican civilization did know of the wheel and basic metallurgy, neither of these technologies became culturally important. Among the earliest complex civilizations was the Olmec culture, which inhabited the Gulf Coast of Mexico and extended inland and southwards across the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Frequent contact and cultural interchange between the early Olmec and other cultures in Chiapas and Oaxaca laid the basis for the Mesoamerican cultural area. All this was facilitated by considerable regional communications in ancient Mesoamerica along the Pacific coast; this formative period saw the spread of distinct religious and symbolic traditions, as well as artistic and architectural complexes. In the subsequent Preclassic period, complex urban polities began to develop among the Maya, with the rise of centers such as El Mirador and Tikal, the Zapotec at Monte Albán.
During this period, the first true Mesoamerican writing systems were developed in the Epi-Olmec and the Zapotec cultures, the Mesoamerican writing tradition reached its height in the Classic Maya hieroglyphic script. Mesoamerica is one of only three regions of the world where writing is known to have independently developed. In Central Mexico, the height of the Classic period saw the ascendancy of the city of Teotihuacan, which formed a military and commercial empire whose political influence stretched south into the Maya area and northward. Upon the collapse of Teotihuacán around 600 AD, competition between several important political centers in central Mexico, such as Xochicalco and Cholula, ensued. At this time during the Epi-Classic period, the Nahua peoples began moving south into Mesoamerica from the North, became politically and culturally dominant in central Mexico, as they displaced speakers of Oto-Manguean languages. During the early post-Classic period, Central Mexico was dominated by the Toltec culture, Oaxaca by the Mixtec, the lowland Maya area had important centers at Chichén Itzá and Mayapán.
Towards the end of the post-Classic period, the Aztecs of Central Mexico built a tributary empire covering most of central Mesoamerica. The distinct Mesoamerican cultural tradition ended with the Spanish conquest in the 16th century. Over the next centuries, Mesoamerican indigenous cultures were subjected to Spanish colonial rule. Aspects of the Mesoamerican cultural heritage still survive among the indigenous peoples who inhabit Mesoamerica, many of whom continue to speak their ancestral languages, maintain many practices harking back to their Mesoamerican roots; the term Mesoamerica means "middle America" in Greek. Middle America refers to a larger area in the Americas, but it has previously been used more narrowly to refer to Mesoamerica. An example is the title of the 16 volumes of The Handbook of Middle American Indians. "Mesoamerica" is broadly defined as the area, home to the Mesoamerican civilization, which comprises a group of peoples with close cultural and historical ties. The exact geographic extent of Mesoamerica has varied through time, as the civilization extended North and South from its heartland in southern Mexico.
The term was first used by the German ethnologist Paul Kirchhoff, who noted that similarities existed among the various pre-Columbian cultures within the region that included southern Mexico, Belize, El Salvador, western Honduras, the Pacific lowlands of Nicaragua and northwestern Costa Rica. In the tradition of cultural history, the prevalent archaeological theory of the early to middle 20th century, Kirchhoff defined this zone as a cultural area based on a suite of interrelated cultural similarities brought about by millennia of inter- and intra-regional interaction. Mesoamerica is recognized as a near-prototypical cultural area, the term is now integrated in the standard terminology of pre-Columbian anthropological studies. Conversely, the sister terms Aridoamerica and Oasisamerica, which refer to northern Mexico and the western United States have not entered into widespread usage; some of the significant cultural traits defining the Mesoamerican cultural tradition are: sedentism based on maize agricultu
Peru the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America. It is bordered in the north by Ecuador and Colombia, in the east by Brazil, in the southeast by Bolivia, in the south by Chile, in the west by the Pacific Ocean. Peru is a megadiverse country with habitats ranging from the arid plains of the Pacific coastal region in the west to the peaks of the Andes mountains vertically extending from the north to the southeast of the country to the tropical Amazon Basin rainforest in the east with the Amazon river. Peruvian territory was home to several ancient cultures. Ranging from the Norte Chico civilization in the 32nd century BC, the oldest civilization in the Americas and one of the five cradles of civilization, to the Inca Empire, the largest state in pre-Columbian America, the territory now including Peru has one of the longest histories of civilization of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 4th millennia BCE; the Spanish Empire conquered the region in the 16th century and established a viceroyalty that encompassed most of its South American colonies, with its capital in Lima.
Peru formally proclaimed independence in 1821, following the military campaigns of José de San Martín and Simón Bolívar, the decisive battle of Ayacucho, Peru secured independence in 1824. In the ensuing years, the country enjoyed relative economic and political stability, which ended shortly before the War of the Pacific with Chile. Throughout the 20th century, Peru endured armed territorial disputes, social unrest, internal conflicts, as well as periods of stability and economic upswing. Alberto Fujimori was elected to the presidency in 1990. Fujimori left the presidency in 2000 and was charged with human rights violations and imprisoned until his pardon by President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski in 2017. After the president's regime, Fujimori's followers, called Fujimoristas, have caused political turmoil for any opposing faction in power causing Pedro Pablo Kuczynski to resign in March 2018; the sovereign state of Peru is a representative democratic republic divided into 25 regions. It is classified as an emerging market with a high level of human development and an upper middle income level with a poverty rate around 19 percent.
It is one of the region's most prosperous economies with an average growth rate of 5.9% and it has one of the world's fastest industrial growth rates at an average of 9.6%. Its main economic activities include mining, manufacturing and fishing; the country forms part of The Pacific Pumas, a political and economic grouping of countries along Latin America's Pacific coast that share common trends of positive growth, stable macroeconomic foundations, improved governance and an openness to global integration. Peru ranks high in social freedom. Peru has a population of 32 million, which includes Amerindians, Europeans and Asians; the main spoken language is Spanish, although a significant number of Peruvians speak Quechua or other native languages. This mixture of cultural traditions has resulted in a wide diversity of expressions in fields such as art, cuisine and music; the name of the country may be derived from Birú, the name of a local ruler who lived near the Bay of San Miguel, Panama City, in the early 16th century.
When his possessions were visited by Spanish explorers in 1522, they were the southernmost part of the New World yet known to Europeans. Thus, when Francisco Pizarro explored the regions farther south, they came to be designated Birú or Perú. An alternative history is provided by the contemporary writer Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, son of an Inca princess and a conquistador, he said the name Birú was that of a common Indian happened upon by the crew of a ship on an exploratory mission for governor Pedro Arias de Ávila, went on to relate more instances of misunderstandings due to the lack of a common language. The Spanish Crown gave the name legal status with the 1529 Capitulación de Toledo, which designated the newly encountered Inca Empire as the province of Peru. Under Spanish rule, the country adopted the denomination Viceroyalty of Peru, which became Republic of Peru after independence; the earliest evidences of human presence in Peruvian territory have been dated to 9,000 BC. Andean societies were based on agriculture, terracing.
Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money. The oldest known complex society in Peru, the Norte Chico civilization, flourished along the coast of the Pacific Ocean between 3,000 and 1,800 BC; these early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru. The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture; the Chavín culture that developed from 1500 to 300 BC was more of a religious than a political phenomenon, with their religious centre in Chavín de Huantar. After the decline of the Chavin culture around the beginning of the 1st century AD, a series of localized and specialized cultures rose and fell
3rd millennium BC
The 3rd millennium BC spanned the years 3000 through 2001 BC. This period of time corresponds to the Early to Middle Bronze Age, characterized by the early empires in the Ancient Near East. In Ancient Egypt, the Early Dynastic Period is followed by the Old Kingdom. In Mesopotamia, the Early Dynastic Period is followed by the Akkadian Empire. World population growth relaxes after the burst due to the Neolithic Revolution. World population is stable, at 60 million, with a slow overall growth rate at 0.03% p.a. The Bronze Age occurred between 3000 BC and 2500 BC; the previous millennium had seen the emergence of advanced, urbanized civilizations, new bronze metallurgy extending the productivity of agricultural work, developed ways of communication in the form of writing. In the 3rd millennium BC, the growth of these riches, both intellectually and physically, became a source of contention on a political stage, rulers sought the accumulation of more wealth and more power. Along with this came the first appearances of mega architecture, organized absolutism and internal revolution.
The civilizations of Sumer and Akkad in Mesopotamia became a collection of volatile city-states in which warfare was common. Uninterrupted conflicts drained all available resources and populations. In this millennium, larger empires succeeded the last, conquerors grew in stature until the great Sargon of Akkad pushed his empire to the whole of Mesopotamia and beyond, it would not be surpassed in size until Assyrian times 1,500 years later. In the Old Kingdom of Egypt, the Egyptian pyramids were constructed and would remain the tallest and largest human constructions for thousands of years. In Egypt, pharaohs began to posture themselves as living gods made of an essence different from that of other human beings. In Europe, still neolithic during the same period, the builders of megaliths were constructing giant monuments of their own. In the Near East and the Occident during the 3rd millennium BC, limits were being pushed by architects and rulers. Towards the close of the millennium, Egypt became the stage of the first popular revolution recorded in history.
After lengthy wars, the Sumerians recognized the benefits of unification into a stable form of national government and became a peaceful, well-organized, complex technocratic state called the 3rd dynasty of Ur. This dynasty was to become involved with a wave of nomadic invaders known as the Amorites, who were to play a major role in the region during the following centuries. Near East c. 2900–2350 BC: Early Dynastic Period c. 2334–2154 BC: Akkadian Empire 3100–2686 BC: Early Dynastic Period c. 2700 BC–1600 BC: Old Elamite period. 2686–2181 BC Old Kingdom of Egypt 2181–2055 BC First Intermediate Period of Egypt c. 3000 BC: Nubian A-Group Culture comes to an end. C. 2300 BC: Nubian C-Group culture. Europe c. 3200 BC: Cycladic culture in Aegean islands of Greece. C. 3200 BC–3100 BC: Helladic culture in mainland Greece. C. 3200 BC–2800 BC: Ozieri culture. Corded Ware culture. Late Maikop culture. Late Vinca culture. Globular Amphora culture. Early Beaker culture. Yamnaya culture, Catacomb culture loci of Indo-European Satemization.
The Sintashta-Petrovka-Arkaim culture emerges from the Catacomb culture from about 2200 BC locus of Proto-Indo-Iranian. Butmir culture. Late Funnelbeaker culture. Baden culture. Gaudo culture. South Asia2800 BC–2600 BC: Harappan 2. 2600 BC–1900 BC: Harappan 3. East and Southeast AsiaLongshan culture Baodun culture Shijiahe culture Liangzhu culture Majiayao culture Lower Xiajiadian culture c. 2500 BC: Austronesian peoples from Formosa colonize Luzon in northern Philippines. AmericasMesoamerican Archaic period Old Copper Complex Norte Chico civilization. Sub-Saharan AfricaSavanna Pastoral Neolithic Elmenteitan Certain 4th millennium BC events were precursors to the 3rd millennium BC: c. 3700 BC: Lothal: Indus Valley trade-port city in India. C. 3650 BC–3000 BC: Minoan culture appeared on Crete. C. 3200 BC/3100 BC: Helladic culture and Cycladic culture both emerge in Greece. The 3rd millennium BC included the following key events: c. 3000 BC: Unification of Upper and Lower Egypt. C. 3000 BC: First evidence of gold being used in the Middle East.
C. 3000 BC: Nubian A-Group, Ta-Seeti "kingdom" came to an end due to raids by Egypt. C. 3000 BC–2000 BC: Vessels from Denmark are made. C. 2890 BC: Second Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Hotepsekhemwy. Syria: Foundation of the city of Mari. Semitic tribes occupy Assyria in northern part of the plain of Akkad. Phoenicians settle with centers at Tyre and Sidon. Beginning of the period of the mythical Sage Kings in China known as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors. C. 2879 BC: Rise of the mythical Văn Lang Kingdom and the Hồng Bàng Dynasty in northern Viet Nam. C. 2800 BC–2700 BC: Harp Player, from Keros, was made. It is now at the Metropolitan Museum of New York. Iran: Creation of the Kingdom of Elam. Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree "Methuselah" about 2700 BC, one of the oldest known trees still living now. C. 2686 BC: Third Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Sanakhte. C. 2613 BC: Fourth Dynasty of Egypt, reign of Sneferu. C. 2600 BC: Founding of the Chalcolithic Iberian civilizations of Los Millares and Zambujal.
2600 BC: Unified Indus Valley Civilisation. C. 2500 BC: The state of Assyria is established. C. 2500 BC: Excavation and development of the Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieni at Paola, Malta, a subterranean temple complex subsequently used as a necropolis. C. 2500 BC–2200 BC: Incised panel "Frying pan", from Syros, Cyclades is made.
Maize known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago. The leafy stalk of the plant produces pollen inflorescences and separate ovuliferous inflorescences called ears that yield kernels or seeds, which are fruits. Maize has become a staple food in many parts of the world, with the total production of maize surpassing that of wheat or rice. However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup; the six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, flour corn, sweet corn. Maize is the most grown grain crop throughout the Americas, with 361 million metric tons grown in the United States in 2014. 40% of the crop—130 million tons—is used for corn ethanol. Genetically modified maize made up 85% of the maize planted in the United States in 2009. Sugar-rich varieties called sweet corn are grown for human consumption as kernels, while field corn varieties are used for animal feed, various corn-based human food uses, as chemical feedstocks.
Maize is used in making ethanol and other biofuels. Most historians believe. Recent research in the early 21st century has modified this view somewhat. An influential 2002 study by Matsuoka et al. has demonstrated that, rather than the multiple independent domestications model, all maize arose from a single domestication in southern Mexico about 9,000 years ago. The study demonstrated that the oldest surviving maize types are those of the Mexican highlands. Maize spread from this region over the Americas along two major paths; this is consistent with a model based on the archaeological record suggesting that maize diversified in the highlands of Mexico before spreading to the lowlands. Archaeologist Dolores Piperno has said: A large corpus of data indicates that it was dispersed into lower Central America by 7600 BP and had moved into the inter-Andean valleys of Colombia between 7000 and 6000 BP. Since even earlier dates have been published. According to a genetic study by Embrapa, corn cultivation was introduced in South America from Mexico, in two great waves: the first, more than 6000 years ago, spread through the Andes.
Evidence of cultivation in Peru has been found dating to about 6700 years ago. The second wave, about 2000 years ago, through the lowlands of South America. Before domestication, maize plants grew only small, 25 millimetres long corn cobs, only one per plant. In Spielvogel's view, many centuries of artificial selection by the indigenous people of the Americas resulted in the development of maize plants capable of growing several cobs per plant, which were several centimetres/inches long each; the Olmec and Maya cultivated maize in numerous varieties throughout Mesoamerica. It was believed. Research of the 21st century has established earlier dates; the region developed a trade network based on surplus and varieties of maize crops. Mapuches of south-central Chile cultivated maize along with quinoa and potatoes in Pre-Hispanic times, however potato was the staple food of most Mapuches, "specially in the southern and coastal territories where maize did not reach maturity". Before the expansion of the Inca Empire maize was traded and transported as far south as 40°19' S in Melinquina, Lácar Department.
In that location maize remains were found inside pottery dated to 730 ±80 BP and 920 ±60 BP. This maize was brought across the Andes from Chile; the presence of maize in Guaitecas Archipelago, which constitute southernmost outspost of Pre-Hispanic agriculture, is reported by early Spanish explorers. However the Spanish may have misidentified the plant. After the arrival of Europeans in 1492, Spanish settlers consumed maize and explorers and traders carried it back to Europe and introduced it to other countries. Spanish settlers far preferred wheat bread to cassava, or potatoes. Maize flour could not be substituted for wheat for communion bread, since in Christian belief only wheat could undergo transubstantiation and be transformed into the body of Christ; some Spaniards worried that by eating indigenous foods, which they did not consider nutritious, they would weaken and risk turning into Indians. "In the view of Europeans, it was the food they ate more than the environment in which they lived, that gave Amerindians and Spaniards both their distinctive physical characteristics and their characteristic personalities."
Despite these worries, Spaniards did consume maize. Archeological evidence from Florida sites indicate. Maize spread to the rest of the world because of its ability to grow in diverse climates, it was cultivated in Spain just a few decades after Columbus's voyages and spread to Italy, West Africa and elsewhere. The word maize derives from the Spanish form of the indigenous Taíno word for mahiz, it is known by other names around the world. The word "corn" outside North America and New Zealand refers to any cereal crop, its meaning understood to vary geographically to refer to the local staple. In the United Stat