Community radio is a radio service offering a third model of radio broadcasting in addition to commercial and public broadcasting. Community stations serve geographic communities of interest, they broadcast content, popular and relevant to a local, specific audience but is overlooked by commercial or mass-media broadcasters. Community radio stations are operated and influenced by the communities they serve, they are nonprofit and provide a mechanism for enabling individuals and communities to tell their own stories, to share experiences and, in a media-rich world, to become creators and contributors of media. In many parts of the world, community radio acts as a vehicle for the community and voluntary sector, civil society, agencies, NGOs and citizens to work in partnership to further community development aims, in addition to broadcasting. There is defined community radio in many countries, such as France, South Africa and Ireland. Much of the legislation has included phrases such as "social benefit", "social objectives" and "social gain" as part of the definition.
Community radio has developed differently in different countries, the term has somewhat different meanings in the United Kingdom, the United States and Australia, where freedom of speech laws and de facto realities differ. Modern community radio stations serve their listeners by offering a variety of content, not provided by the larger commercial radio stations. Community radio outlets may carry information programming geared toward the local area. Specialized musical shows are often a feature of many community radio stations. Community and pirate stations can be valuable assets for a region. Community radio stations avoid content found on commercial outlets such as Top 40 music, sports and "drive-time" personalities. A meme used by members of the movement is that community radio should be 10 percent radio and 90 percent community; this means that community radio stations should focus on getting the community talking and not on radio. There is a distinction drawn in contrast to mainstream stations, which are viewed as pandering to commercial concerns or the personalities of presenters.
Communities are complex entities, what constitutes the "community" in community radio is subject to debate which varies by country. "Community" may be replaced by terms such as "radical" or "citizen" radio. In sociology, a "community" has been defined as a group of interacting people living in a common location. Community radio has been built around the ideals of participation. Stations have been run by locals to serve a local audience. However, the internet's availability and popularity has encouraged many stations to podcast and/or stream and audio and make it available globally. Two philosophical approaches to community radio exist, although the models are not mutually exclusive. One emphasizes service and community-mindedness, focusing on what the station can do for the community; the other stresses participation by the listener. In the service model locality is valued. Sometimes, providing syndicated content not available within the station's service area is viewed as public service. Within the United States, for example, many stations syndicate content from groups such as Pacifica Radio on the basis that it provides content not otherwise available.
In the access model, the participation of community members in producing content is viewed as a good in itself. While this model does not exclude a service approach, there is some disagreement between the two. Community broadcasting is Australia’s third media sector, formally represented by the Community Broadcasting Association of Australia. In January 2012, there were 359 licensed community radio stations. A 2002 report found that 20,000 Australians were involved as volunteers in the community radio sector on a regular basis, volunteers account for more than $145 million in unpaid work each year. Nationally, more than 7 million Australians listen to community radio each month; the role of community broadcasting in Australia, according to CBAA, is to provide a diverse range of services meeting community needs in ways unmet by other sectors. Community broadcasting is sustained by the principles of access and participation, diversity and locality. Community radio stations may be specialized music stations, represent local music and arts or broadcast talks and current-affairs programs representing alternative, indigenous Australian, feminist or gay and lesbian interests.
53 percent of community radio stations serve an array of communities of interest, including indigenous and ethnic groups, people with a print disability, young people, older people, the arts/fine music and the gay and lesbian communities. The remaining stations provide a service which may be described as generalist: addressing the interests of communities in particular areas, but addressing a range of sp
Australia the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area; the neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea and East Timor to the north. The population of 25 million is urbanised and concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, its largest city is Sydney; the country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane and Adelaide. Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians for about 60,000 years before the first British settlement in the late 18th century, it is documented. After the European exploration of the continent by Dutch explorers in 1606, who named it New Holland, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day; the population grew in subsequent decades, by the 1850s most of the continent had been explored and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories. Being the oldest and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils, Australia has a landmass of 7,617,930 square kilometres. A megadiverse country, its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east and mountain ranges in the south-east. A gold rush began in Australia in the early 1850s, its population density, 2.8 inhabitants per square kilometre, remains among the lowest in the world. Australia generates its income from various sources including mining-related exports, telecommunications and manufacturing. Indigenous Australian rock art is the oldest and richest in the world, dating as far back as 60,000 years and spread across hundreds of thousands of sites. Australia is a developed country, with the world's 14th-largest economy.
It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. It is a regional power, has the world's 13th-highest military expenditure. Australia has the world's ninth-largest immigrant population, with immigrants accounting for 26% of the population. Having the third-highest human development index and the eighth-highest ranked democracy globally, the country ranks in quality of life, education, economic freedom, civil liberties and political rights, with all its major cities faring well in global comparative livability surveys. Australia is a member of the United Nations, G20, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Trade Organization, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Pacific Islands Forum and the ASEAN Plus Six mechanism; the name Australia is derived from the Latin Terra Australis, a name used for a hypothetical continent in the Southern Hemisphere since ancient times. When Europeans first began visiting and mapping Australia in the 17th century, the name Terra Australis was applied to the new territories.
Until the early 19th century, Australia was best known as "New Holland", a name first applied by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1644 and subsequently anglicised. Terra Australis still saw occasional usage, such as in scientific texts; the name Australia was popularised by the explorer Matthew Flinders, who said it was "more agreeable to the ear, an assimilation to the names of the other great portions of the earth". The first time that Australia appears to have been used was in April 1817, when Governor Lachlan Macquarie acknowledged the receipt of Flinders' charts of Australia from Lord Bathurst. In December 1817, Macquarie recommended to the Colonial Office. In 1824, the Admiralty agreed that the continent should be known by that name; the first official published use of the new name came with the publication in 1830 of The Australia Directory by the Hydrographic Office. Colloquial names for Australia include "Oz" and "the Land Down Under". Other epithets include "the Great Southern Land", "the Lucky Country", "the Sunburnt Country", "the Wide Brown Land".
The latter two both derive from Dorothea Mackellar's 1908 poem "My Country". Human habitation of the Australian continent is estimated to have begun around 65,000 to 70,000 years ago, with the migration of people by land bridges and short sea-crossings from what is now Southeast Asia; these first inhabitants were the ancestors of modern Indigenous Australians. Aboriginal Australian culture is one of the oldest continual civilisations on earth. At the time of first European contact, most Indigenous Australians were hunter-gatherers with complex economies and societies. Recent archaeological finds suggest. Indigenous Australians have an oral culture with spiritual values based on reverence for the land and a belief in the Dreamtime; the Torres Strait Islanders, ethnically Melanesian, obtained their livelihood from seasonal horticulture and the resources of their reefs and seas. The northern coasts and waters of Australia were visited s
Radio broadcasting is transmission by radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both; the signal types can be digital audio. The earliest radio stations did not carry audio. For audio broadcasts to be possible, electronic detection and amplification devices had to be incorporated; the thermionic valve was invented in 1904 by the English physicist John Ambrose Fleming. He developed a device he called an "oscillation valve"; the heated filament, or cathode, was capable of thermionic emission of electrons that would flow to the plate when it was at a higher voltage. Electrons, could not pass in the reverse direction because the plate was not heated and thus not capable of thermionic emission of electrons. Known as the Fleming valve, it could be used as a rectifier of alternating current and as a radio wave detector; this improved the crystal set which rectified the radio signal using an early solid-state diode based on a crystal and a so-called cat's whisker.
However, what was still required was an amplifier. The triode was patented on March 4, 1906, by the Austrian Robert von Lieben independent from that, on October 25, 1906, Lee De Forest patented his three-element Audion, it wasn't put to practical use until 1912 when its amplifying ability became recognized by researchers. By about 1920, valve technology had matured to the point where radio broadcasting was becoming viable. However, an early audio transmission that could be termed a broadcast may have occurred on Christmas Eve in 1906 by Reginald Fessenden, although this is disputed. While many early experimenters attempted to create systems similar to radiotelephone devices by which only two parties were meant to communicate, there were others who intended to transmit to larger audiences. Charles Herrold started broadcasting in California in 1909 and was carrying audio by the next year.. In The Hague, the Netherlands, PCGG started broadcasting on November 6, 1919, making it, arguably the first commercial broadcasting station.
In 1916, Frank Conrad, an electrical engineer employed at the Westinghouse Electric Corporation, began broadcasting from his Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania garage with the call letters 8XK. The station was moved to the top of the Westinghouse factory building in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Westinghouse relaunched the station as KDKA on November 2, 1920, as the first commercially licensed radio station in America; the commercial broadcasting designation came from the type of broadcast license. The first licensed broadcast in the United States came from KDKA itself: the results of the Harding/Cox Presidential Election; the Montreal station that became CFCF began broadcast programming on May 20, 1920, the Detroit station that became WWJ began program broadcasts beginning on August 20, 1920, although neither held a license at the time. In 1920, wireless broadcasts for entertainment began in the UK from the Marconi Research Centre 2MT at Writtle near Chelmsford, England. A famous broadcast from Marconi's New Street Works factory in Chelmsford was made by the famous soprano Dame Nellie Melba on 15 June 1920, where she sang two arias and her famous trill.
She was the first artist of international renown to participate in direct radio broadcasts. The 2MT station began to broadcast regular entertainment in 1922; the BBC was amalgamated in 1922 and received a Royal Charter in 1926, making it the first national broadcaster in the world, followed by Czech Radio and other European broadcasters in 1923. Radio Argentina began scheduled transmissions from the Teatro Coliseo in Buenos Aires on August 27, 1920, making its own priority claim; the station got its license on November 19, 1923. The delay was due to the lack of official Argentine licensing procedures before that date; this station continued regular broadcasting of entertainment and cultural fare for several decades. Radio in education soon followed and colleges across the U. S. began adding radio broadcasting courses to their curricula. Curry College in Milton, Massachusetts introduced one of the first broadcasting majors in 1932 when the college teamed up with WLOE in Boston to have students broadcast programs.
Broadcasting service is – according to Article 1.38 of the International Telecommunication Union´s Radio Regulations – defined as «A radiocommunication service in which the transmission are intended for direct reception by the general public. This service may include sound transmissions, television transmissions or other types of transmission.» Definitions identical to those contained in the Annexes to the Constitution and Convention of the International Telecommunication Union are marked "" or "" respectively. A radio broadcasting station is associated with wireless transmission, though in practice broadcasting transmission take place using both wires and radio waves; the point of this is that anyone with the appropriate receiving technology can receive the broadcast. In line to ITU Radio Regulations each broadcasting station shall be classified by the service in which it operates permanently or temporarily. Broadcasting by radio takes several forms; these include FM stations. There are several subtypes, namely commercial broadcasting, non-commercial educational public broadcasting and non-profit varieties as well as community radio, student-run campus radio stations, and
Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit of time. It is referred to as temporal frequency, which emphasizes the contrast to spatial frequency and angular frequency; the period is the duration of time of one cycle in a repeating event, so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. For example: if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute, its period—the time interval between beats—is half a second. Frequency is an important parameter used in science and engineering to specify the rate of oscillatory and vibratory phenomena, such as mechanical vibrations, audio signals, radio waves, light. For cyclical processes, such as rotation, oscillations, or waves, frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. In physics and engineering disciplines, such as optics and radio, frequency is denoted by a Latin letter f or by the Greek letter ν or ν; the relation between the frequency and the period T of a repeating event or oscillation is given by f = 1 T.
The SI derived unit of frequency is the hertz, named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz. One hertz means. If a TV has a refresh rate of 1 hertz the TV's screen will change its picture once a second. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second; the SI unit for period is the second. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute, abbreviated r/min or rpm. 60 rpm equals one hertz. As a matter of convenience and slower waves, such as ocean surface waves, tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Short and fast waves, like audio and radio, are described by their frequency instead of period; these used conversions are listed below: Angular frequency denoted by the Greek letter ω, is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement, θ, or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform, or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: y = sin = sin = sin d θ d t = ω = 2 π f Angular frequency is measured in radians per second but, for discrete-time signals, can be expressed as radians per sampling interval, a dimensionless quantity.
Angular frequency is larger than regular frequency by a factor of 2π. Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency, but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. E.g.: y = sin = sin d θ d x = k Wavenumber, k, is the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency and is measured in radians per meter. In the case of more than one spatial dimension, wavenumber is a vector quantity. For periodic waves in nondispersive media, frequency has an inverse relationship to the wavelength, λ. In dispersive media, the frequency f of a sinusoidal wave is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: f = v λ. In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum v = c, where c is the speed of light in a vacuum, this expression becomes: f = c λ; when waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another, their frequency remains the same—only their wavelength and speed change. Measurement of frequency can done in the following ways, Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period dividing the count by the length of the time period.
For example, if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: f = 71 15 s ≈ 4.73 Hz If the number of counts is not large, it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences, rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count, so on average half a count; this is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δ f = 1 2 T
Taree is a town on the Mid North Coast, New South Wales, Australia. Taree and nearby Cundletown were settled in 1831 by William Wynter. Since Taree has grown to a population of 26,000, is the centre of a significant agricultural district, it is 16 km from the Tasman Sea coast, 317 km north of Sydney. Taree can be reached by train via the North Coast Railway, by the Pacific Highway. Taree is within the local government area of Mid-Coast Council, the state electorate of Myall Lakes and the Federal electorate of Lyne; the name Taree is derived from "tareebit" the local native Biripi word meaning tree by the river, or more the Sandpaper Fig. Taree was laid out as a private town in 1854 by Henry Flett, the son-in-law of William Wynter who had settled the area in 1831. 100 acres had been set aside for the private township and 40 lots were sold. Taree was declared a municipality on 26 March 1885 and the first municipal council was elected by the residents. In the early 1800s the road from Newcastle to Port Macquarie came via Gloucester and forded the river near Wingham.
Boats could not go further upstream than this due to narrowing of rapids. Hence a town formed about a day's ride from Gloucester. Timber getting cedar, ensured goods were brought to Wingham and shipped to Newcastle and beyond by boat. Coopernook formed a local shipping hub. In 1844, the government of New South Wales had established Wingham as its administrative centre; when the North Coast railway line came through in 1913, it ended at Taree. Before the rest of the line was completed it became apparent that it was safer to send goods by rail to Newcastle and Sydney rather than hazarding the bar at the outlet to the river at Harrington where many ships had been lost. Although connected to the railway, sea transport continued to dominate along the North Coast until the 1930s; this changed when the Martin Bridge replaced the ferry across the Manning River in 1940. River traffic reduced after this, ensuring Taree's place as the centre of business; the oldest surviving building in Taree is the old St Paul's Presbyterian Church, built in 1869 in the Victorian Gothic Revival style, next door to the current building, in Albert Street.
Taree has a number of heritage-listed sites, including: North Coast railway: Taree railway station Taree experiences a humid subtropical climate. Taree gets around 102.5 sunny days annually. Of the 17,820 people resident in Taree; the unemployment rate is double the national average. The most common industries of employment is retail and aged care; the median weekly household income is $719. This compares with a national average of $1,234. A plurality of children live in families with no one in employment. 41.3% of households have a gross weekly income of less than $600. The median age in Taree is 44. 8.0% of the population is Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander, with the average age amongst this group being 19. Taree has a higher proportion of people aged 65+; this compares with a national average of 14%. 4.2% of residents are aged 85+, more than double the national average of 1.9%. 86.9% of residents report being born in Australia. Other than Australia the most common countries of birth are England, New Zealand and the Netherlands.
82.9% report both parents being born in Australia, notably higher than the national average of 53.7%. The top religious groups in Taree are Anglican 32.7%, Catholic 19.1%, No Religion 16.2%, Uniting Church 7.3% and Presbyterian and Reformed 4.2%. There are several public schools in the Taree area including Taree Public School, Taree High School, Taree West Public School, Manning Gardens Public School, Chatham Public School, Chatham High School, Cundletown Public School. Private schools in and around Taree include Manning District Adventist School, Manning Valley Anglican College, Taree Christian College, Kolodong, St Joseph's Primary School, St Clare's High School. Several post-secondary education and training facilities have a presence in Taree: the North Coast Institute of TAFE, Taree Community College, the Australian Technical College - Manning Valley Campus; the Manning River Times is based in Taree. All major digital-only television channels are available in Taree; the networks and the channels they broadcast are listed as follows: Prime7/Channel Seven, 7Two and 7Mate.
NBN, GO! and GEM. WIN Television, ONE and ELEVEN. ABC1, ABC2/ABC4Kids, ABC3 and ABC News 24, part of the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. SBS ONE, SBS2 and NITV, part of the Special Broadcasting Service. NBN Television and Channel Seven broadcast local news bulletins at 6.00pm. Prime Television, NBN Television and WIN Television all maintain offices in the city. There are four local radio stations, commercial stations 2RE and Max FM and community stations 2BOB and 2TLP; the ABC broadcasts ABC Classic FM, Radio National and ABC Mid North Coast into Taree. Rhema FM Manning Great Lakes broadcasts from studios in nearby Wingham and Racing Radio is broadcast to Taree. Nearby towns include historic Wingham and the beachside town of Old Bar. A local tourist attraction is a building called "The World's Largest Oyster" called "The Big Oyster". Big Things are a common form of tourist attraction in Australia. Like the Big Merino and Big Banana, the'Oys
Volunteering is considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial or social gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is renowned for skill development and is intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served, it is intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster; the verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s; the word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted.
Such volunteers are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People realized the cause for movement against slavery. Younger people started helping the needy in their communities. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889; the Salvation Army is one of the largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception. Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need. In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, Lions Clubs International.
The Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, caring for the injured. After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960; when President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades; the process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web. According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion.
This calculates at 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar. In 1960, after the so called revolutionary war in Cuba ended, Ernesto Che Guevara created the concept of volunteering work, it was created with the intention that workers across the country volunteer a few hours of work on their work centers. Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr."...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to'serve society.'" When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways....service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, commitment and skills to address human and community needs."
Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience. While not recognized by everyone as a legitimate approach, research on the efficacy of service learning has grown. Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles conducted a national study of American college students to ascertain the significance of service learning programs, According to Eyler and Giles,"These surveys, conducted before and after a semester of community service, examine the impact of service-learning on students." They describe their experience with students involved in service-learning in this way: "Students like service-learning. When we sit down with a group of students to discuss service-learning experiences, their enthusiasm is unmistakable....it is clear that believe that what they
Mid North Coast
The Mid North Coast is a country region in the north-east of the state of New South Wales, Australia. The region covers the mid to north coast of the state, beginning at Seal Rocks, 275 km north of Sydney, extending as far north as Woolgoolga, 562 km north of Sydney, a distance of 400 km. From south to north, the region's main towns include the twin towns of Forster and Tuncurry, Port Macquarie, South West Rocks, Nambucca Heads and Coffs Harbour. Of these Taree, Port Macquarie and Coffs Harbour are the major commercial centres, all with large shopping centres, public facilities and attractions. Kempsey and Forster-Tuncurry are considered semi-major commercial centres. Smaller towns that are popular tourist spots are North Haven, South West Rocks and Pacific Palms; the region is known for its beaches. Major industries are farming and tourism; the following local government areas are contained within the region: The Coffs Coast extends from the village of Broom's Head in the north and as far south as the small seaside town of Scotts Head.
It includes the Sandon, Bellinger and Nambucca River catchments/drainage basins. The Coffs Coast services a regional catchment of over 200,000 people, with about 68,000 living in the City of Coffs Harbour, 13,000 in the Bellingen Shire, 19,000 in the Nambucca Shire; the area has younger population, with the average age being 33 years of age. The area is becoming known for Internet Start ups - with companies like Google and Design Crowd opening up small offices in the area. Three bus services run throughout the region. Sawtell Coaches run various services throughout Coffs Harbour city and to the suburbs of Boambee and Sawtell. Busways run services throughout Coffs Harbour city down south as far as Scotts Head and west into Bellingen. Ryans Bus services run North to Woolgoolga on a regular basis. Busways operate services in the Port Macquarie region. There are several railway stations on the Coffs Coast serviced by 3 trains; each run south once a day. Stations include Coffs Harbour, Urunga, Nambucca Heads, Macksville.
Further south are Kempsey, Wauchope and Taree. There is no station for Forster-Tuncurry. Rail is the fastest and cheapest way to get to either Sydney, the Gold Coast and Brisbane. Regions of New South Wales Local Government Directory