Insufflation is the act of blowing something into a body cavity. Insufflation has many medical uses, most notably as a route of administration for various drugs. Nasal inhalation of recreational drugs is considered an example of insufflation, though the etymology and scientific understanding of the term does not include inhalation of any kind, as blowing requires the application of positive pressure to push the substance into the nose, whereas inhaling refers to drawing or sucking in, which requires the generation of negative pressure in the thorax. Gases are insufflated into a body cavity to inflate the cavity for more workroom, e.g. during laparoscopic surgery. The most common gas used in this manner is carbon dioxide, because it is non-flammable and dissolves in blood, it is, not an inert gas. Gases can be insufflated into parts of the body to enhance radiological imaging or to gain access to areas for visual inspection. Oxygen can be insufflated into the nose by nasal cannulae to assist in respiration.
Mechanical insufflation-exsufflation assists airway mucus clearance. It is used with patients with neuromuscular disease and muscle weakness due to central nervous system injury. Glossopharyngeal insufflation is a breathing technique that consists of gulping boluses of air into the lungs, it is used by breath-hold divers to increase their lung volumes. Positive airway pressure is a mode of artificial ventilation based on insufflation. Pump inhalers for asthmatics deliver aerosolized drugs into the lungs via the mouth. However, the insufflation by the pump is not adequate for delivery to the lungs, necessitating an active inhalation by the patient. Insufflated gases and vapors are used to ventilate and oxygenate patients, to induce, assist in or maintain general anaesthesia. Positive airway pressure is a mode of artificial ventilation based on insufflation. Nasal insufflation is the most common method of nasal administration. Other methods are nasal instillation. Drugs administered in this way can have a systemic effect.
The time of onset for systemic drugs delivered via nasal administration is only marginally slower than if given intravenously. The bioavailability of drugs administered nasally is significantly higher than drugs taken orally. Steroids and anti-asthma medication Hormone replacement Decongestants Nicotine replacement Migraine medication Vaccines ADHD medications such as methylphenidateNasal administration can be used for treatment of children or patients who are otherwise alarmed or frightened by needles, or where intravenous access is unavailable. In the 18th century, the tobacco smoke enema, an insufflation of tobacco smoke into the rectum, was a common method of reviving drowning victims
WISH-TV, virtual channel 8, is a CW-affiliated television station licensed to Indianapolis, United States. The station is owned by Nexstar Media Group, as part of a duopoly with Marion-licensed MyNetworkTV affiliate WNDY-TV; the two stations share studios on North Meridian Street on the near north side of Indianapolis and transmitter facilities on Walnut Drive in the Augusta section of the city's northwest side. On cable, WISH-TV is available on Charter Spectrum channel 3, Comcast Xfinity channel 7 and AT&T U-verse channel 8; the station first signed on the air at 6:00 p.m. on July 1, 1954. Founded by C. Bruce McConnell—owner of WISH radio —it was the third television station to sign on in the Indianapolis market, after WFBM-TV, which signed on in May 1949 and Bloomington-licensed WTTV, which signed on six months in November 1949. WISH-TV operated as a primary ABC affiliate with a secondary affiliation with the DuMont Television Network; the station carried several CBS and NBC programs that WFBM-TV and WTTV declined to carry.
WISH-TV transmitted its signal from a tower it shared with WISH radio. In 1956, McConnell sold the station to the Indiana Broadcasting Company, the broadcasting subsidiary of J. H. Whitney & Company and owners of WANE-TV in Fort Wayne; the new owners persuaded CBS to move its programming to channel 8, taking that affiliation from WFBM. Conversely that same year, WISH-TV lost the ABC affiliation to WTTV. In 1956, WISH became one of the first television stations in the United States to install a videotape machine. Indiana Broadcasting became the Corinthian Broadcasting Corporation in 1957, with WISH-TV serving as the company's flagship station. From 1958 to 1959, it was an affiliate of the NTA Film Network. Corinthian merged with Dun & Bradstreet in 1971. Dun & Bradstreet sold its entire broadcasting unit to the Belo Corporation in February 1984. However, the merger put Belo two stations over the television ownership limits that the Federal Communications Commission had in effect at the time; as a result, the company sold WISH-TV and WANE to LIN Broadcasting the following month in March 1984.
LIN was headquartered in Indianapolis for many years, with WISH-TV serving as that company's flagship television property. In 1995, the station relocated its transmitter to a new tower built in the Augusta section of Indianapolis. In 2002, WISH-TV began handling the master control operations of WANE-TV and fellow sister station WLFI-TV in Lafayette; the hub expanded to include the Buffalo duopoly of WIVB-TV and WNLO in October, with other LIN-owned stations being added to the WISH hub by the summer of 2003. LIN acquired low-power independent station W11BV in 1992. On February 10, 2005, the Paramount Stations Group subsidiary of Viacom sold UPN affiliate WNDY-TV as well as its Columbus, Ohio sister station WWHO to LIN TV for $85 million, creating a duopoly with WISH-TV when the sale was finalized that spring. On May 18, 2007, the LIN TV Corporation announced that it was exploring strategic alternatives that could have resulted in the sale of the company. On September 15, 2008, LIN and Time Warner Cable entered into an impasse during negotiations to renew retransmission consent deals for some of the group's television stations.
Bright House Networks, one of two major cable providers serving Indianapolis, negotiates retransmission consent contracts through Time Warner Cable. LIN TV requested compensation for carriage of its stations in a manner similar to the deals that cable networks have with pay television providers, as other broadcast station owners began to seek compensation from cable and satellite providers for their programming; the carriage agreement with Bright House expired on October 2. By 12:35 a.m. on October 3, LIN's television stations were replaced on Time Warner Cable systems in markets where the group owns stations and where either provider operates systems with programming from other cable channels. LIN's stations were restored 26 days on October 29 through a new carriage agreement reached between Time Warner Cable and LIN TV. On March 21, 2014, Media General announced that it would buy LIN Media in a $1.6 billion deal, described as a "merger." The merger was completed on December 19. On August 11, 2014, Tribune Broadcasting announced that CW affiliate WTTV would become the market's CBS affiliate on January 1, 2015, as part of an agreement that renewed the CBS affiliations on Tribune-owned stations in five other markets.
The deal, which resulted in the end of WISH-TV's 58-year relationship with CBS, was struck as a result of WISH station management balking at the network's demands for sharing of retransmission consent revenue from its affiliates. This marked the second time in Indianapolis television history that WTTV took an affiliation from WISH, the first being AB
Medical Products Agency (Sweden)
The Medical Products Agency is the government agency in Sweden responsible for regulation and surveillance of the development and sale of medicinal drugs, medical devices and cosmetics. Its task is to ensure that both individual patients and healthcare professionals have access to safe and effective medicinal products and that these are used in a rational and cost-effective manner; the Swedish Medical Products Agency is one of the leading regulatory authorities in the EU. During the last five years, the Swedish MPA has been among the top three agencies in Europe, counting the number of approvals processes managed for central approvals of medicines; the Swedish MPA has strong representation in more than 110 working groups and committees in the scope of the Heads of Medicines Agencies and European Medicines Agency for regulation of medical products in Europe. The Medical Products Agency is a government body under the aegis of the Swedish Ministry of Health and Social Affairs, its operations are financed through fees.
750 people work at the agency. European Medicines Agency The Swedish Medical Products Agency, MPA The Innovation Office at the MPA
2C is a general name for the family of psychedelic phenethylamines containing methoxy groups on the 2 and 5 positions of a benzene ring. Most of these compounds carry lipophilic substituents at the 4 position resulting in more potent and more metabolically stable and longer acting compounds. Most of the known 2C compounds were first synthesized by Alexander Shulgin in the 1970s and 1980s and published in his book PiHKAL. Shulgin coined the term 2C, being an acronym for the 2 carbon atoms between the benzene ring and the amino group; as of October 12, 2016, the 2C-x family of substituted phenethylamines is a controlled substances in Canada. Substituted phenethylamines Substituted amphetamines Substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines DOx, 3Cs, 25-NB Substituted tryptamines
Drug Enforcement Administration
The Drug Enforcement Administration is a United States federal law enforcement agency under the United States Department of Justice, tasked with combating drug smuggling and distribution within the United States. The DEA is the lead agency for domestic enforcement of the Controlled Substances Act, sharing concurrent jurisdiction with the Federal Bureau of Investigation and Customs Enforcement, U. S. Customs and Border Protection, the Department of Homeland Security, it has sole responsibility for coordinating and pursuing US drug investigations both domestic and abroad. The Drug Enforcement Administration was established on July 1, 1973, by Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973, signed by President Richard Nixon on July 28. It proposed the creation of a single federal agency to enforce the federal drug laws as well as consolidate and coordinate the government's drug control activities. Congress accepted the proposal; as a result, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs, the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement.
From the early 1970s, DEA headquarters was located at 1405 I Street NW in downtown Washington, D. C. With the overall growth of the agency in the 1980s and a concurrent growth in the headquarters staff, DEA began to search for a new headquarters location. However, then-Attorney General Edwin Meese determined that the headquarters had to be located in close proximity to the Attorney General's office. Thus, in 1989, the headquarters relocated to 600–700 Army-Navy Drive in the Pentagon City area of Arlington, near the Metro station with the same name. On April 19, 1995, Timothy McVeigh attacked the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City because it housed regional offices for the FBI, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Explosives, DEA, all of which had carried out raids that he viewed as unjustified intrusions on the rights of the people. Subsequently, the DEA headquarters complex was classified as a Level IV installation under United States federal building security standards, meaning it was to be considered a high-risk law enforcement target for terrorists.
Security measures include hydraulic steel roadplates to enforce standoff distance from the building, metal detectors, guard stations. In February 2003, the DEA established a Digital Evidence Laboratory within its Office of Forensic Sciences; the DEA is headed by an Administrator of Drug Enforcement appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the U. S. Senate; the Administrator reports to the Attorney General through the Deputy Attorney General. The Administrator is assisted by a Deputy Administrator, the Chief of Operations, the Chief Inspector, three Assistant Administrators. Other senior staff include the Chief Counsel; the Administrator and Deputy Administrator are the only presidentially-appointed personnel in the DEA. DEA's headquarters is located in Virginia across from the Pentagon, it maintains its own DEA Academy located on the Marine Corps Base Quantico at Quantico, Virginia along with the FBI Academy. It maintains 21 domestic field divisions with 221 field offices and 92 foreign offices in 70 countries.
With a budget exceeding $2 billion, DEA employs over 10,800 people, including over 4,600 Special Agents and 800 Intelligence Analysts. Becoming a Special Agent or Intelligence Analyst with the DEA is a competitive process. Administrator Deputy Administrator Human Resource Division Career Board Board of Professional Conduct Office of Training Operations Division Aviation Division Office of Operations Management Special Operations Division Office of Diversion Control Office of Global Enforcement Office of Financial Operations Intelligence Division Office of National Security Intelligence Office of Strategic Intelligence Office of Special Intelligence El Paso Intelligence Center OCDETF Fusion Center Financial Management Division Office of Acquisition and Relocation Management Office of Finance Office of Resource Management Operational Support Division Office of Administration Office of Information System Office of Forensic Science Office of Investigative Technology Inspection Division Office of Inspections Office of Professional Responsibility Office of Security Programs Field Divisions and Offices As of 2017 there were 4,650 special agents employed by the Drug Enforcement Administration.
DEA agents' starting salary is $49,746–$55,483. After four years working as an agent, the salary jumps to above $92,592. After receiving a conditional offer of employment, recruits must complete a 18-week rigorous training which includes lessons in firearms proficiency, weapons safety, tactical shooting, deadly-force decision training. In order to graduate, students must maintain an academic average of 80 percent on academic examinations, pass the firearms-qualification test demonstrate leadership and sound decision-making in practical scenarios, pass rigorous physical-task tests. Upon graduation, recruits earn the title of DEA Special Agent; the DEA excludes from consideration job applicants who have a history of any use of narcotics or illicit drugs. Investigation incl
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Controlled Substances Act
The Controlled Substances Act is the statute establishing federal U. S. drug policy under which the manufacture, possession and distribution of certain substances is regulated. It was passed by the 91st United States Congress as Title II of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 and signed into law by President Richard Nixon; the Act served as the national implementing legislation for the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. The legislation created five schedules, with varying qualifications for a substance to be included in each. Two federal agencies, the Drug Enforcement Administration and the Food and Drug Administration, determine which substances are added to or removed from the various schedules, although the statute passed by Congress created the initial listing. Congress has sometimes scheduled other substances through legislation such as the Hillory J. Farias and Samantha Reid Date-Rape Prevention Act of 2000, which placed gamma hydroxybutyrate in Schedule I and sodium oxybate in Schedule III.
Classification decisions are required to be made on criteria including potential for abuse accepted medical use in treatment in the United States, international treaties. The nation first outlawed addictive drugs in the early 1900s and the International Opium Convention helped lead international agreements regulating trade; the Food and Drugs Act of 1906 was the beginning of over 200 laws concerning public health and consumer protections. Others were the Federal Food and Cosmetic Act, the Kefauver Harris Amendment of 1962. In 1969, President Richard Nixon announced that the Attorney General, John N. Mitchell, was preparing a comprehensive new measure to more meet the narcotic and dangerous drug problems at the federal level by combining all existing federal laws into a single new statute. With the help of White House Counsel head, John Dean; the CSA not only combined existing federal drug laws and expanded their scope, but it changed the nature of federal drug law policies and expanded Federal law enforcement pertaining to controlled substances.
Title II, Part F of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970 established the National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse—known as the Shafer Commission after its chairman, Raymond P. Shafer—to study cannabis abuse in the United States. During his presentation of the commission's First Report to Congress and Shafer recommended the decriminalization of marijuana in small amounts, with Shafer stating, he criminal law is too harsh a tool to apply to personal possession in the effort to discourage use, it implies. The actual and potential harm of use of the drug is not great enough to justify intrusion by the criminal law into private behavior, a step which our society takes only with the greatest reluctance. Rufus King notes that this stratagem was similar to that used by Harry Anslinger when he consolidated the previous anti-drug treaties into the Single Convention and took the opportunity to add new provisions that otherwise might have been unpalatable to the international community.
According to David T. Courtwright, "the Act was part of an omnibus reform package designed to rationalize, in some respects to liberalize, American drug policy." It provided support for drug treatment and research. King notes that the rehabilitation clauses were added as a compromise to Senator Jim Hughes, who favored a moderate approach; the bill, as introduced by Senator Everett Dirksen, ran to 91 pages. While it was being drafted, the Uniform Controlled Substances Act, to be passed by state legislatures, was being drafted by the Department of Justice. Since its enactment in 1970, the Act has been amended numerous times: The 1976 Medical Device Regulation Act; the Psychotropic Substances Act of 1978 added provisions implementing the Convention on Psychotropic Substances. The Controlled Substances Penalties Amendments Act of 1984; the 1986 Federal Analog Act for chemicals "substantially similar" in Schedule I and II to be listed The 1988 Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act added provisions implementing the United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances that went into force on November 11, 1990.
1990 The Anabolic Steroids Act, passed as part of the Crime Control Act of 1990, which placed anabolic steroids into Schedule III The 1993 Domestic Chemical Diversion and Control Act in response to methamphetamine trafficking. The 2008 Ryan Haight Online Pharmacy Consumer Protection Act The 2010 Electronic Prescriptions for Controlled Substances; the 2010 Secure and Responsible Drug Disposal Act, to allow pharmacies to operate take-back programs for controlled subtance medications in response to the US opioid epidemic. The Controlled Substances Act consists of 2 subchapters. Subchapter I defines Schedules I-V, lists chemicals used in the manufacture of controlled substances, differentiates lawful and unlawful manufacturing and possession of controlled substances, including possession of Schedule I drugs for personal use.