1.
Two-dimensional space
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In physics and mathematics, two-dimensional space is a geometric model of the planar projection of the physical universe. The two dimensions are commonly called length and width, both directions lie in the same plane. A sequence of n numbers can be understood as a location in n-dimensional space. When n =2, the set of all locations is called two-dimensional space or bi-dimensional space. Each reference line is called an axis or just axis of the system. The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the projections of the point onto the two axes, expressed as signed distances from the origin. The idea of system was developed in 1637 in writings by Descartes and independently by Pierre de Fermat. Both authors used a single axis in their treatments and have a length measured in reference to this axis. The concept of using a pair of axes was introduced later, after Descartes La Géométrie was translated into Latin in 1649 by Frans van Schooten and these commentators introduced several concepts while trying to clarify the ideas contained in Descartes work. Later, the plane was thought of as a field, where any two points could be multiplied and, except for 0, divided and this was known as the complex plane. The complex plane is called the Argand plane because it is used in Argand diagrams. These are named after Jean-Robert Argand, although they were first described by Norwegian-Danish land surveyor, Argand diagrams are frequently used to plot the positions of the poles and zeroes of a function in the complex plane. In mathematics, analytic geometry describes every point in space by means of two coordinates. Two perpendicular coordinate axes are given which cross each other at the origin and they are usually labeled x and y. Another widely used system is the polar coordinate system, which specifies a point in terms of its distance from the origin. In two dimensions, there are infinitely many polytopes, the polygons, the first few regular ones are shown below, The Schläfli symbol represents a regular p-gon. The regular henagon and regular digon can be considered degenerate regular polygons and they can exist nondegenerately in non-Euclidean spaces like on a 2-sphere or a 2-torus. There exist infinitely many non-convex regular polytopes in two dimensions, whose Schläfli symbols consist of rational numbers and they are called star polygons and share the same vertex arrangements of the convex regular polygons

2.
Cartesian plane
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Each reference line is called a coordinate axis or just axis of the system, and the point where they meet is its origin, usually at ordered pair. The coordinates can also be defined as the positions of the projections of the point onto the two axis, expressed as signed distances from the origin. One can use the principle to specify the position of any point in three-dimensional space by three Cartesian coordinates, its signed distances to three mutually perpendicular planes. In general, n Cartesian coordinates specify the point in an n-dimensional Euclidean space for any dimension n and these coordinates are equal, up to sign, to distances from the point to n mutually perpendicular hyperplanes. The invention of Cartesian coordinates in the 17th century by René Descartes revolutionized mathematics by providing the first systematic link between Euclidean geometry and algebra. Using the Cartesian coordinate system, geometric shapes can be described by Cartesian equations, algebraic equations involving the coordinates of the points lying on the shape. For example, a circle of radius 2, centered at the origin of the plane, a familiar example is the concept of the graph of a function. Cartesian coordinates are also tools for most applied disciplines that deal with geometry, including astronomy, physics, engineering. They are the most common system used in computer graphics, computer-aided geometric design. Nicole Oresme, a French cleric and friend of the Dauphin of the 14th Century, used similar to Cartesian coordinates well before the time of Descartes. The adjective Cartesian refers to the French mathematician and philosopher René Descartes who published this idea in 1637 and it was independently discovered by Pierre de Fermat, who also worked in three dimensions, although Fermat did not publish the discovery. Both authors used a single axis in their treatments and have a length measured in reference to this axis. The concept of using a pair of axes was introduced later, after Descartes La Géométrie was translated into Latin in 1649 by Frans van Schooten and these commentators introduced several concepts while trying to clarify the ideas contained in Descartes work. Many other coordinate systems have developed since Descartes, such as the polar coordinates for the plane. The development of the Cartesian coordinate system would play a role in the development of the Calculus by Isaac Newton. The two-coordinate description of the plane was later generalized into the concept of vector spaces. Choosing a Cartesian coordinate system for a one-dimensional space – that is, for a straight line—involves choosing a point O of the line, a unit of length, and an orientation for the line. An orientation chooses which of the two half-lines determined by O is the positive, and which is negative, we say that the line is oriented from the negative half towards the positive half

3.
Sheet metal
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Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat pieces. It is one of the forms used in metalworking and it can be cut. Countless everyday objects are fabricated from sheet metal, thicknesses can vary significantly, extremely thin thicknesses are considered foil or leaf, and pieces thicker than 6 mm are considered plate. Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or coiled strips, the coils are formed by running a continuous sheet of metal through a roll slitter. The thickness of metal is in the USA commonly specified by a traditional. The larger the number, the thinner the metal. Commonly used steel sheet metal ranges from 30 gauge to about 7 gauge, in the rest of the world, the sheet metal thickness is given in millimeters. There are many different metals that can be made into metal, such as aluminium, brass, copper, steel, tin, nickel. Sheet metal of iron and other materials with high permeability, also known as laminated steel cores, has applications in transformers. Historically, an important use of metal was in plate armor worn by cavalry. Sheet metal workers are known as tin bashers, a name derived from the hammering of panel seams when installing tin roofs. Grade 304 is the most common of the three grades and it offers good corrosion resistance while maintaining formability and weldability. Available finishes are #2B, #3, and #4, grade 303 is not available in sheet form. Grade 316 possesses more corrosion resistance and strength at elevated temperatures than 304 and it is commonly used for pumps, valves, chemical equipment, and marine applications. Available finishes are #2B, #3, and #4, grade 410 is a heat treatable stainless steel, but it has a lower corrosion resistance than the other grades. It is commonly used in cutlery, the only available finish is dull. Grade 430 is popular grade, low cost alternative to series 300s grades, used when high corrosion resistance is not a primary criteria. Common grade for appliance products, often with a brushed finish, aluminum is also a popular metal used in sheet metal due to its flexibility, wide range of options, cost effectiveness, and other properties

4.
Image
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Images may be two-dimensional, such as a photograph or screen display, or three-dimensional, such as a statue or hologram. They may be captured by optical devices – such as cameras, mirrors, lenses, telescopes, microscopes, etc. and natural objects and phenomena, such as the human eye or water. The word image is used in the broader sense of any two-dimensional figure such as a map, a graph. A volatile image is one that only for a short period of time. This may be a reflection of an object by a mirror, a fixed image, also called a hard copy, is one that has been recorded on a material object, such as paper or textile by photography or any other digital process. A mental image exists in a mind, as something one remembers or imagines. The subject of an image need not be real, it may be a concept, such as a graph, function. For example, Sigmund Freud claimed to have dreamed purely in aural-images of dialogs, a still image is a single static image, as distinguished from a kinetic image. This phrase is used in photography, visual media and the industry to emphasize that one is not talking about movies. A film still is a taken on the set of a movie or television program during production. In literature, imagery is a picture which appeals to the senses. It can both be figurative and literal, a moving image is typically a movie or video, including digital video. It could also be an animated display such as a zoetrope, library of Congress – Format Descriptions for Still Images Image Processing – Online Open Research Group Legal Issues Regarding Images Image Copyright Case

5.
Diagram
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A diagram is a symbolic representation of information according to some visualization technique. Diagrams have been used since ancient times, but became prevalent during the Enlightenment. Sometimes, the uses a three-dimensional visualization which is then projected onto a two-dimensional surface. The word graph is used as a synonym for diagram. Specific kind of display, This is the genre that shows qualitative data with shapes that are connected by lines, arrows. In science the term is used in both ways, on the other hand, Lowe defined diagrams as specifically abstract graphic portrayals of the subject matter they represent. Or in Halls words diagrams are simplified figures, caricatures in a way and these simplified figures are often based on a set of rules. The basic shape according to White can be characterized in terms of elegance, clarity, ease, pattern, simplicity, elegance is basically determined by whether or not the diagram is the simplest and most fitting solution to a problem. g. Many of these types of diagrams are generated using diagramming software such as Visio. Chart Diagrammatic reasoning Diagrammatology List of graphical methods Mathematical diagram Plot commons, michael Anderson, Peter Cheng, Volker Haarslev. Theory and Application of Diagrams, First International Conference, Diagrams 2000, edinburgh, Scotland, UK, September 1–3,2000. Garcia, M The Diagrams of Architecture

6.
Logo
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A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol commonly used by commercial enterprises, organizations, and even individuals to aid and promote instant public recognition. There are purely graphic emblems, symbols, icons and logos, in the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type. By extension, the term was used for a uniquely set. At the level of communication and in common usage, a companys logo is today often synonymous with its trademark or brand. The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands, consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were growing and organizing, by 1890, the US had 700 lithographic printing firms employing more than 8,000 people. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the company, as opposed to the individual artists who usually performed less important jobs. Playful children’s books, authoritative newspapers, and conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, as printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, and visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts led to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality also provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks. By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States. Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, the current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. As of 2014, many corporations, products, brands, services, agencies, as a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms in circulation are recognizable without a name. Ideograms and symbols may be effective than written names, especially for logos translated into many alphabets in increasingly globalized markets. For instance, a written in Arabic script might have little resonance in most European markets. By contrast, ideograms keep the general nature of a product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross exemplifies a well-known emblem that does not need an accompanying name, the red cross and red crescent are among the best-recognized symbols in the world. National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and their Federation as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross include these symbols in their logos, branding can aim to facilitate cross-language marketing. Consumers and potential consumers can identify the Coca-Cola name written in different alphabets because of the standard color, the text was written in Spencerian Script, which was a popular writing style when the Coca Cola Logo was being designed. Since a logo is the visual entity signifying an organization, logo design is an important area of graphic design, a logo is the central element of a complex identification system that must be functionally extended to all communications of an organization

7.
Glyph
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In typography, a glyph /ˈɡlɪf/ is an elemental symbol within an agreed set of symbols, intended to represent a readable character for the purposes of writing. In Turkish, however, it is not a glyph because that language has two versions of the letter i, with and without a dot. In Japanese syllabaries, a number of the characters are made up of more than one separate mark, however, in some cases, additional marks fulfill the role of diacritics, to differentiate distinct characters. In general, a diacritic is a glyph, even if it is contiguous with the rest of the character, two or more glyphs which have the same significance, whether used interchangeably or chosen depending on context, are called allographs of each other. The term has been used in English since 1727, borrowed from glyphe, from the Greek γλυφή, glyphē, carving, and the verb γλύφειν, glýphein, to hollow out, engrave, carve. The word glyph first came to widespread European attention with the engravings, in archaeology, a glyph is a carved or inscribed symbol. It may be a pictogram or ideogram, or part of a system such as a syllable. In 1897 Dana Evans discovered glyphs written on rocks in the Colorado Desert and these ancient characters have been called the most enlightening discovery in Native American History in the 19th Century. In typography, a glyph has a different definition, it is the specific shape, design. The same is true in computing, in computing as well as typography, the term character refers to a grapheme or grapheme-like unit of text, as found in natural language writing systems. The range of glyphs required increases correspondingly, in summary, in typography and computing, a glyph is a graphical unit. In graphonomics, the glyph is used for a noncharacter. Most typographic glyphs originate from the characters of a typeface, in the mobile text input technologies, Glyph is a family of text input methods based on the decomposition of letters into basic shapes. In role-playing games, the glyph is sometimes used alongside the word rune in describing magical drawings or etchings. Runes often refer to placing the image on an object or person to empower it, whereas the magic in a glyph lies dormant and is only triggered when the glyph is read or approached

8.
Typeface
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In metal typesetting, a font is a particular size, weight and style of a typeface. Each font was a set of type, one piece for each glyph. In modern usage, with the advent of digital typography, font is frequently synonymous with typeface, in particular, the use of vector or outline fonts means that different sizes of a typeface can be dynamically generated from one design. The word font derives from Middle French fonte melted, a casting, the term refers to the process of casting metal type at a type foundry. In a manual printing house the word font would refer to a set of metal type that would be used to typeset an entire page. Unlike a digital typeface it would not include a definition of each character. A font when bought new would often be sold as 12pt 14A 34a, meaning that it would be a size 12-point font containing 14 uppercase As, given the name upper and lowercase because of which case the metal type was located in, otherwise known as majuscule and minuscule. The rest of the characters would be provided in quantities appropriate for the distribution of letters in that language. Some metal type characters required in typesetting, such as dashes, spaces and line-height spacers, were not part of a specific font, line spacing is still often called leading, because the strips used for line spacing were made of lead. In the 1880s–90s, hot lead typesetting was invented, in which type was cast as it was set, either piece by piece or in entire lines of type at one time. In European alphabetic scripts, i. e. Latin, Cyrillic and Greek, the main properties are the stroke width, called weight, the style or angle. The regular or standard font is sometimes labeled roman, both to distinguish it from bold or thin and from italic or oblique. The keyword for the default, regular case is often omitted for variants and never repeated, otherwise it would be Bulmer regular italic, Bulmer bold regular, Roman can also refer to the language coverage of a font, acting as a shorthand for Western European. Different fonts of the same typeface may be used in the work for various degrees of readability and emphasis. The weight of a font is the thickness of the character outlines relative to their height. A typeface may come in fonts of many weights, from ultra-light to extra-bold or black, four to six weights are not unusual, many typefaces for office, web and non-professional use come with just a normal and a bold weight which are linked together. If no bold weight is provided, many renderers support faking a bolder font by rendering the outline a second time at an offset, the base weight differs among typefaces, that means one normal font may appear bolder than some other normal font. For example, fonts intended to be used in posters are often quite bold by default while fonts for long runs of text are rather light, therefore, weight designations in font names may differ in regard to the actual absolute stroke weight or density of glyphs in the font

9.
2D computer graphics
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2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models and by techniques specific to them. The word may stand for the branch of science that comprises such techniques. This representation is more flexible since it can be rendered at different resolutions to suit different output devices. For these reasons, documents and illustrations are often stored or transmitted as 2D graphic files, 2D computer graphics started in the 1950s, based on vector graphics devices. These were largely supplanted by raster-based devices in the following decades, the PostScript language and the X Window System protocol were landmark developments in the field. 2D graphics models may combine geometric models, digital images, text to be typeset, mathematical functions and equations and these components can be modified and manipulated by two-dimensional geometric transformations such as translation, rotation, scaling. In object-oriented graphics, the image is described indirectly by an object endowed with a self-rendering method—a procedure which assigns colors to the pixels by an arbitrary algorithm. Complex models can be built by combining simpler objects, in the paradigms of object-oriented programming, in Euclidean geometry, a translation moves every point a constant distance in a specified direction. A translation can be described as a motion, other rigid motions include rotations and reflections. A translation can also be interpreted as the addition of a constant vector to every point, a translation operator is an operator T δ such that T δ f = f. If v is a vector, then the translation Tv will work as Tv = p + v. If T is a translation, then the image of a subset A under the function T is the translate of A by T, the translate of A by Tv is often written A + v. In a Euclidean space, any translation is an isometry, the set of all translations forms the translation group T, which is isomorphic to the space itself, and a normal subgroup of Euclidean group E. The quotient group of E by T is isomorphic to the orthogonal group O, E / T ≅ O, thus we write the 3-dimensional vector w = using 4 homogeneous coordinates as w =. Similarly, the product of matrices is given by adding the vectors. Because addition of vectors is commutative, multiplication of matrices is therefore also commutative. In linear algebra, a matrix is a matrix that is used to perform a rotation in Euclidean space. R = rotates points in the xy-Cartesian plane counterclockwise through an angle θ about the origin of the Cartesian coordinate system