New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
The Countess (film)
The Countess is a 2009 French-German drama historical film written and directed by Julie Delpy, who composed its score. It stars Daniel Brühl and William Hurt, it is based on the life of the notorious Hungarian countess Elizabeth Báthory. The film is the third directorial effort by Delpy, who has said of the project that "it sounds like a gothic but it's more a drama. It's more focusing on the psychology of human beings when they're given power." In 1560, Erzsébet Báthory is born into the Hungarian noble Báthory family, the daughter of general George Báthory of Ecsed. From an early age, Erzsébet's parents raise her to accept hardness and cruelty; as a teenager, Erzsébet is impregnated by a young peasant lover and is forced to watch as he is brutally tortured and executed before her eyes. Erzsébet is married to Count Ferenc Nádasdy, with whom she has three children. After Nádasdy's return from the Ottoman-Hungarian Wars, he succumbs to a disease he contracted abroad and dies. Erzsébet, now the sole heir of her husband's vast estate, seeks recognition from the Hungarian Habsburg King Matthias II.
Matthias consents reluctantly due to his considerable debt to the Countess. At a ball, she meets Count György Thurzó's 21-year-old son, István, falls in love with him. After a night together, István is forced by his father to end the relationship and marry the daughter of a wealthy merchant in Denmark. Erzsébet, 39, believes. After an incident in which she is splashed with blood after striking a female servant, Erzsébet starts to believe that bathing in the blood of virgin girls can help her to reach eternal youth and beauty, a belief reinforced by her sycophantic servants who insist her skin is much smoother. To this end, her staff brutally kill peasant girls to obtain their blood, it is only when Erzsébet starts to kidnap aristocratic girls that the authorities begin an investigation. Count Thurzó is asked to investigate the incidents and he thus sends István, now a count himself, to visit Erzsébet. István reluctantly goes to visit her, they spend a passionate night together. István, despite his affections for the countess, still suspects the countess and when he and one of his companions discover evidence of her crime, they arrest her.
During the trial, Erzsébet is found guilty and, due to her noble origin, she is sentenced to spend the rest of her life walled into her room in Čachtice Castle in total isolation. Erzsébet's staff are found guilty, but unlike her they are put to death. All of her estate is awarded to the Count Thurzó with the exception of Čachtice, given to her children. Driven by desperation after being walled in, Erzsébet Báthory commits suicide, she is buried without a coffin in a humble grave, with no funeral ceremony. The film casts doubt on the sentence, suggesting that much of the happenings have been manipulated by Count Thurzó. Julie Delpy as Countess Erzsébet Báthory William Hurt as Count György Thurzó Daniel Brühl as István Thurzó Adriana Altaras as Aunt Klara Báthory Charly Hübner as Count Ferenc Nádasdy Anamaria Marinca as the witch Anna Darvulia Sebastian Blomberg as Dominic Vizakna Andy Gatjen as Miklos Rolf Kanies as Count Krajevo Jesse Inman as King Matthias Jeanette Hain as Anna Báthory Frederick Lau as Janos Henriette Confurius as Kayla Nikolai Kinski as The Teacher The film premiered on February 9, 2009 at the 59th Berlin International Film Festival and was shown at the Cannes Film Festival 2010.
The Countess received negative reviews. Boyd van Hoeij wrote in Variety, "Though some individual moments work, Delpy's screenplay lacks psychological connective tissue, it never becomes clear why a powerful and intelligent woman was brought to her knees by a cute kid, only to turn murderous and insane when deprived of her object of affection."In his review for the Associated Press, Kirk Honeycutt wrote that fans of Delpy and arthouse films would be disappointed: "The film is beautifully and lovingly produced with cool burnished cinematography inside the palace and out. Costumes and Delpy's music all support the high tone taken toward this bloody tale. One appreciates The Countess, but it neither terrifies nor illuminates." Elizabeth Báthory in popular culture The Countess on IMDb The Countess at Rotten Tomatoes
A soundtrack written sound track, can be recorded music accompanying and synchronized to the images of a motion picture, television program, or video game. In movie industry terminology usage, a sound track is an audio recording created or used in film production or post-production; the dialogue, sound effects, music in a film each has its own separate track, these are mixed together to make what is called the composite track, heard in the film. A dubbing track is later created when films are dubbed into another language; this is known as a M & E track containing all sound elements minus dialogue, supplied by the foreign distributor in the native language of its territory. The contraction soundtrack came into public consciousness with the advent of so-called "soundtrack albums" in the late 1940s. First conceived by movie companies as a promotional gimmick for new films, these commercially available recordings were labeled and advertised as "music from the original motion picture soundtrack", or "music from and inspired by the motion picture."
These phrases were soon shortened to just "original motion picture soundtrack." More such recordings are made from a film's music track, because they consist of the isolated music from a film, not the composite track with dialogue and sound effects. The abbreviation OST is used to describe the musical soundtrack on a recorded medium, such as CD, it stands for Original Soundtrack. Types of soundtrack recordings include: Musical film soundtracks are for the film versions of musical theatre; the soundtrack to the 1937 Walt Disney animated film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was the first commercially issued film soundtrack. It was released by RCA Victor Records on multiple 78 RPM discs in January 1938 as Songs from Walt Disney's Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs and has since seen numerous expansions and reissues; the first live-action musical film to have a commercially issued soundtrack album was MGM’s 1946 film biography of Show Boat composer Jerome Kern, Till the Clouds Roll By. The album was issued as a set of four 10-inch 78-rpm records.
Only eight selections from the film were included in this first edition of the album. In order to fit the songs onto the record sides the musical material needed editing and manipulation; this was before tape existed, so the record producer needed to copy segments from the playback discs used on set copy and re-copy them from one disc to another adding transitions and cross-fades until the final master was created. Needless to say, it was several generations removed from the original and the sound quality suffered for it; the playback recordings were purposely recorded "dry". This made these albums boxy. MGM Records called these "original cast albums" in the style of Decca Broadway show cast albums because the material on the discs would not lock to picture, thereby creating the largest distinction between `Original Motion Picture Soundtrack' which, in its strictest sense would contain music that would lock to picture if the home user would play one alongside the other and `Original Cast Soundtrack' which in its strictest sense would refer to studio recordings of film music by the original film cast, but, edited or rearranged for time and content and would not lock to picture.
In reality, soundtrack producers remain ambiguous about this distinction, titles in which the music on the album does lock to picture may be labeled as OCS and music from an album that does not lock to picture may be referred to as OMPS. The phrase "recorded directly from the soundtrack" was used for a while in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s to differentiate material that would lock to picture from that which would not, but again, in part because many'film takes' consisted of several different attempts at the song and edited together to form the master, that term as well became nebulous and vague over time when, in cases where the master take used in the film could not be found in its isolated form, the aforementioned alternate masters and alternate vocal and solo performances which could be located were included in their place; as a result of all this nebulo
Julie Delpy is a French-American actress, film director and singer-songwriter. She studied filmmaking at New York University's Tisch School of the Arts and has directed, written, or acted in more than 30 films, including Europa Europa, Three Colors: White, the Before trilogy, An American Werewolf in Paris, 2 Days in Paris, she has been nominated for three César Awards, two Online Film Critics Society Awards, two Academy Awards. After moving to the United States in 1990, she became an American citizen in 2001. Julie Delpy was born in Paris, the only child of Albert Delpy, a French actor and theater director, Marie Pillet, a French actress in feature films and the avant-garde theater, her mother was known for having signed the 1971 Manifesto of the 343 Bitches, signed by women advocating for reproductive rights and admitting to having had an abortion when abortions were illegal in France. In Delpy's 2007 film 2 Days in Paris, her character's mother was played by her real mother and acknowledges signing the manifesto, mirroring her action in real life.
Pillet died in 2009. At an early age, Julie was exposed to the arts by her parents, she said: I couldn't hope for better parents. They raised me with a love of art, bringing me to museums and seeing things that a child wouldn't see at that age. I would see Ingmar Bergman movies when I was 9 and go for it, and they would bring me to see Francis Bacon's paintings, which I loved: so dark and at the same time it's so wonderful. In 1984, at the age of fourteen, Delpy was discovered by film director Jean-Luc Godard, who cast her in Détective. Two years Delpy starred in the title role in Bertrand Tavernier's La Passion Béatrice. For her performance, Delpy was nominated for a César Award for Most Promising Actress, she used the money. Delpy became an international celebrity after starring in the 1990 film Europa Europa directed by Agnieszka Holland. In the film, she plays a young pro-Nazi who falls in love with the hero, Solomon Perel, not knowing that he is Jewish, she did not speak German so she performed her role in English and was dubbed over.
Following the success of Europa Europa, Delpy appeared in several Hollywood and European films, including Voyager and The Three Musketeers. In 1993, she was cast by director Krzysztof Kieślowski to play the female lead in Three Colors: White, the second film of Kieślowski's The Three Colors Trilogy. Delpy appeared in the other two films in the same role; that same year, she appeared opposite Brendan Fraser in the Percy Adlon feature Younger and Younger starring Donald Sutherland. In 1994, she starred opposite Eric Stoltz in Roger Avary's directorial debut Killing Zoe, a cult heist film capturing the Generation X zeitgeist. Delpy is best known for her co-starring role with Ethan Hawke in director Richard Linklater's 1995 film Before Sunrise, for which she wrote much of her own dialogue; the film received glowing reviews and was considered one of the most significant films of the 1990s' independent film movement. Its success led to the casting of Delpy in the 1997 American film An American Werewolf in Paris.
In late 2001, she appeared alongside comedian Martin Short in the 30-minute film CinéMagique, a theatre-show attraction presented several times daily at Walt Disney Studios Park in Disneyland Paris. Delpy attended the March 2002 opening of the park and the inauguration of the film-based attraction which sees her star as Marguerite—a female actress with whom Short's character, falls in love as he stumbles through countless classic movies. CinéMagique won the 2002 Themed Entertainment Association award for "outstanding" themed attraction. Delpy reprised her Before Sunrise character, Céline, with a brief animated appearance in Waking Life, again in a 2004 sequel, Before Sunset; the film was well received and earned Delpy, who co-wrote the script, her first Academy Award nomination for Writing Adapted Screenplay. In addition, she has been nominated for César Awards three times. Delpy has had an interest in a career as a film director since her childhood, enrolled in a summer directing course at New York University.
She wrote and directed the short film Blah Blah Blah in 1995 which screened at the Sundance Film Festival. In 2004 Delpy co-wrote Before Sunset, a sequel to the 1995 movie Before Sunrise, with director Richard Linklater and co-star Ethan Hawke. Describing the experience Delpy said, "I'm not a feminist wearing overalls and hating the male gender, but I'm a definite feminist. I don't want to make Before Sunset into a little male fantasy, ever." She received an Academy Award nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay for her work. She made her feature length directorial debut in 2002, with a film entitled "Looking for Jimmy" which she wrote and produced. In 2007, Delpy directed, edited, co-produced the original score for 2 Days in Paris co-starring Adam Goldberg; the film features Delpy's real-life parents, Marie Pillet and Albert Delpy, as her character's parents. In one scene, Pillet's character acknowledges having been one of the "343 bitches". In 2009, Delpy starred in The Countess her third film as a director in which she played the title role of Elizabeth Báthory.
The film starred Daniel Brühl, William Hurt. In 2011 Delpy directed Le Skylab; the film received a theatrical release in France, but failed to find distribution in the U. S. In 2012 she released 2 Days in a sequel to her 2007 film 2 Days in Paris; the film starred actor Chris Rock. Delpy stated
Before Sunrise is a 1995 American romantic drama film directed by Richard Linklater and written by Linklater and Kim Krizan. The film follows Jesse, a young American man, Céline, a young French woman, who meet on a train and disembark in Vienna, where they spend the night walking around the city and getting to know each other; the plot is considered minimalistic, as not much happens aside from talking. The two characters' ideas and perspectives on life and love are detailed. Jesse is a romantic disguised as a cynic, Céline is a romantic, albeit with some doubts. Taking place over the course of one night, their limited time together is always on their minds, leads to their revealing more about themselves than they would, since both believe they will never see one another again. Before Sunrise opened to a positive reception from critics. Jesse and Céline make an appearance in Linklater's 2001 film Waking Life. A 2004 sequel, Before Sunset, picks up the story nine years after the events of the first film, a 2013 sequel, Before Midnight, picks up the story eighteen years on.
The film starts on June 16, 1994 with Jesse meeting Céline on a train from Budapest and striking up a conversation with her. Jesse is going to Vienna to catch a flight back to the United States, whereas Céline is returning to university in Paris after visiting her grandmother; when they reach Vienna, Jesse convinces Céline to disembark with him, saying that 10 or 20 years down the road, she might not be happy with her marriage and might wonder how her life would have been different if she had picked another guy, this is a chance to realize that he himself is not that different from the rest. Jesse has to catch a flight early in the morning and does not have enough money to rent a room for the night, so they decide to roam around in Vienna. After visiting a few landmarks in Vienna, they share a kiss at the top of the Wiener Riesenrad at sunset and start to feel a romantic connection; as they continue to roam around the city, they begin to talk more with each other, with conversations ranging from topics about love, life and their observations of the city.
Céline tells Jesse that her last boyfriend broke up with her six months ago, claiming that she "loved him too much". When questioned, Jesse reveals he had come to Europe to spend time with his girlfriend, studying in Madrid, but they had broken up when she was avoiding him while he was there, he decided to take a cheap flight home, via Vienna, but it did not leave for two weeks so he bought a Eurail pass and traveled around Europe. When they are walking alongside the Donaukanal they are approached by a man who, instead of begging, offers to write them a poem with a word of their choice in it. Jesse and Céline decide on the word "milkshake", are soon presented with the poem Delusion Angel. In a traditional Viennese café, Jesse and Céline stage fake phone conversations with each other, playing each other's friends they pretend to call. Céline reveals. Jesse reveals that after he broke up with his girlfriend, he bought a flight, not much cheaper, all he wanted was an escape from his life, they admit their attraction to each other and how the night has made them feel, though they understand that they will not see each other again when they leave.
They decide to make the best of what time they have left, ending the night with the implication of a sexual encounter between them. At that point, Jesse explains that if given the choice, he would marry her instead of never seeing her again; the film ends the next day at the train station, just as Céline's train is about to leave, the couple decides not to exchange any contact information but instead to meet at the same place in six months. Before Sunrise was inspired by a woman whom writer/director Richard Linklater met in a toy shop in Philadelphia in 1989, they walked around the city together. In the screenplay, who the two people were and the city they spend time in was vague. Linklater realized that because the film is so much a dialogue between a man and a woman, it was important to have a strong woman co-writer, he chose Kim Krizan, who had small roles in Dazed and Confused. According to Linklater, he "loved the way her mind worked – a constant stream of confident and intelligent ideas".
Linklater and Krizan talked about the concept of the characters for a long time. He wanted to explore the "relationship side of life and discover two people who had complete anonymity and try to find out who they were", he decided to put Jesse and Céline in a foreign country because "when you're traveling, you're much more open to experiences outside your usual realm". He and Krizan worked on an outline, they wrote the actual screenplay in 11 days. Linklater spent nine months casting the film because he saw so many people but had trouble finding the right actors for the roles of Jesse and Céline; when Linklater first considered casting Hawke, he thought. Linklater reconsidered after talking to the actor. For Céline, Linklater liked her personality. After they did a final reading, Linklater knew that Hawke were right for the roles. Once Delpy and Hawke agreed to do the film, they went to Austin and talked with Linklater and Krizan for a few days. In 2016, Delpy told Creative Screenwriting, "Ethan and I re-wrote all of it.
There was an original screenplay, but
Adán Jodorowsky or Adanowsky is a French-Mexican musician and actor. Born in France October 29, 1979. Jodorowsky is the son of the Chilean Alejandro Jodorowsky and Mexican Valerie Trumblay, brother to Brontis Jodorowsky and Axel Jodorowsky and the uncle of Alma Jodorowsky, he has appeared in seven films to this day. As an actor, he won the Saturn Award for Best Performance by a Younger Actor in 1989 for his role in Santa Sangre as young Fénix, one of his father's more renowned films. Jodorowsky started playing piano at the age of six. At age 7, he met James Brown at the backstage at a concert and Brown taught Adán how to dance like him. Jodorowsky's first guitar lessons were given to him by The Beatles guitarist George Harrison. On this occasion, Harrison told him that "he was far". Adán did not know from being a good guitarist; when he was sixteen he joined the punk band The Hellboys. He wanted to try another music genre and met Yarol Poupaud and Adrienne Pauly. Following these encounters he started playing bass.
On October 30, 2006, he released his first solo album, Étoile Éternelle, as "Adanowsky", his first single, "L'idole", released in Spanish as "El Ídolo". In 2007 he featured as an actor in the Julie Delpy's movie 2 Days In Paris. In 2008, he had a big success in many countries. In 2011 he released his third solo album Amador and won the UFI award for "Best International Artist Of The Year" and "Best Live Show", he met Devendra Banhart, together, they recorded the song "You are the one" and "Dime Cuándo". He helped on Alizée's new album, writing a song for her called "La Cándida", he has composed works such as Echek and Teou, "The Dance of Reality" as well as directing Echek, Un Sol Con Corazón and El Ídolo, Dancing To The Radio, the movie The Voice Thief starring himself and Cristóbal Jodorowsky as well as Asia Argento as the lead actress. In 2012 he produced the first solo album of León Larregui. In 2013 Adán composed its soundtrack. In 2014 he released the Album Ada, he won 5 prizes for his movie The Voice Thief as Best Best Movie.
In 2014 Diane Pernet selected this movie to compete at the ASVOFF festival, the first annual festival in the world about fashion films. In 2015 Adán Jodorowsky directed a video for his song "Would You Be Mine" with the porn actress Stoya, he is now acting the main character in his father's movie Poesía sin fin, the second part of La Danza De La Realidad. L'idole Estoy Mal No Me Siento Solo Dancing to the Radio Would you be mine Official website Adan Jodorowsky on IMDb Super 45's interview with Adanowsky in Spanish Adanowsky Fans Club Vídeo for the song Estoy Mal
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent