17th Reserve Division (German Empire)
The 17th Reserve Division was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed on the mobilization of the German Army in August 1914; the division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I. At the beginning of the war, it formed the IX Reserve Corps with the 18th Reserve Division; the division was composed of troops from the Free and Hanseatic Cities and from Schleswig-Holstein. The division included one regular infantry brigade, the 81st, raised in Schleswig-Holstein and Lübeck, one reserve infantry brigade, the 33rd, raised in Hamburg and Bremen. Besides these regions, other troops of the division came from parts of the Province of Hanover adjoining Bremen and Hamburg; the 17th Reserve Division fought on the Western Front. It fought across Belgium in August 1914 and occupied the line on the Aisne until September 1915, it went to Flanders and the Artois, where it remained engaged in positional warfare until June 1916. From mid-July to late October 1916, it fought in the Battle of the Somme with only one interlude away from the front.
The division remained in the trenchlines along the Yser until May 1917. In May, it fought in the Battle of Arras, it remained in the Flanders region for the rest of the year and into 1918 and fought in the Battle of Passchendaele. In 1918, it occupied various parts of the line and fought against several Allied offensives, including in the second Battle of Cambrai. In 1918, Allied intelligence rated the division as first class; the order of battle of the 17th Reserve Division on mobilization was as follows: 81. Infanterie-Brigade Infanterie-Regiment Lübeck Nr. 162 Schleswig-Holsteinisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 163 33. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 75 Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 76 Reserve-Husaren-Regiment Nr. 6 Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 17 4. Kompanie/Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 9 The 17th Reserve Division was triangularized in October 1916. Over the course of the war, other changes took place, including the formation of artillery and signals commands and a pioneer battalion.
The order of battle on March 28, 1918, was as follows: 81. Infanterie-Brigade Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 76 Infanterie-Regiment Lübeck Nr. 162 Schleswig-Holsteinisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 163 1. Eskadron/Reserve-Husaren-Regiment Nr. 6 Artillerie-Kommandeur 110 Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 17 Stab Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 317 4. Kompanie/Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 9 Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 340 Minenwerfer-Kompanie Nr. 217 Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 417 17. Reserve-Division - Der erste Weltkrieg Hermann Cron et al. Ruhmeshalle unserer alten Armee Hermann Cron, Geschichte des deutschen Heeres im Weltkriege 1914-1918 Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1815-1939. Bd. 1 Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919 Dr. Phil Harboe Kardel Errinerungs Blätter Deutscher Regimenter. D. Holger Ritter Historien om Schleswig-Holsteinischen Infanterie Rgiment 163, Leuchtfeuer Velag https://denstorekrig1914-1918.dk/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/IR163_samlet.pdf
18th Reserve Division (German Empire)
The 18th Reserve Division was a unit of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed on mobilization of the German Army in August 1914; the division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I. At the beginning of the war, it formed the IX Reserve Corps with the 17th Reserve Division; the division was composed of troops from Schleswig-Holstein, the Hanseatic Cities, the Mecklenburg grand duchies. The 31st Reserve Infantry Regiment was a Hanseatic regiment recruited in Hamburg and Bremen; the 84th and 86th Reserve Infantry Regiments were raised in Schleswig, with one battalion of the 84th Reserve Infantry Regiment raised in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. The 90th Reserve Infantry Regiment was raised in the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin; the 9th Reserve Jäger Battalion was raised in Lauenburg, a former duchy on the Baltic coast which had passed from Denmark to Prussia in 1864. The 18th Reserve Division fought on the Western Front alongside its sister division, the 17th Reserve Division.
It fought across Belgium in August 1914 and occupied the line on the Aisne until September 1915. It went to Flanders and the Artois, where it remained engaged in positional warfare until June 1916. From mid-July to late October 1916, it fought in the Battle of the Somme with only one interlude away from the front; the division remained in the trenchlines along the Yser until May 1917. In May it fought in the Battle of Arras, it remained in the Flanders region for the rest of the year and into 1918 and fought in the Battle of Passchendaele. In 1918, it occupied various parts of the line and fought against several Allied offensives, including in the second Battle of Cambrai. In 1918, Allied intelligence rated the division as second class; the order of battle of the 18th Reserve Division on mobilization was as follows: 34. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 31 Großherzoglich Mecklenburgisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 90 35. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade Schleswigsches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 84 Schleswigsches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 86 Reserve Jäger-Bataillon Nr. 9 Reserve-Husaren-Regiment Nr. 7 Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 18 1.
Reserve-Kompanie/Schleswig-Holsteinisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 9 2. Reserve-Kompanie/Schleswig-Holsteinisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 9 The 18th Reserve Division was triangularized in March 1915. Over the course of the war, other changes took place, including the formation of artillery and signals commands and a pioneer battalion; the order of battle on March 8, 1918, was as follows: 35. Reserve-Infanterie-Brigade: Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 31 Schleswigsches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 84 Schleswigsches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 86 3. Eskadron/Husaren-Regiment Graf Goetzen Nr. 6 Reserve-Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 18 Stab II. Bataillon/Pionier-Regiment Nr. 9 1. Reserve-Kompanie/Schleswig-Holsteinisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 9 2. Reserve-Kompanie/Schleswig-Holsteinisches Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 9 Reserve-Scheinwerferzug 9 Minenwerfer-Kompanie Nr. 218 18. Reserve-Division - Der erste Weltkrieg Hermann Cron et al. Ruhmeshalle unserer alten Armee Hermann Cron, Geschichte des deutschen Heeres im Weltkriege 1914-1918 Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1815-1939.
Bd. 1 Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919
An army or land force is a fighting force that fights on land. In the broadest sense, it is the land-based military branch, service branch or armed service of a nation or state, it may include aviation assets by possessing an army aviation component. In certain states, the term army refers to the entire armed forces. Within a national military force, the word army may mean a field army. In several countries, the army is called the Land Army to differentiate it from an air force called the Air Army, notably France. In such countries, the word "army" on its own retains its connotation of a land force in common usage; the current largest army in the world, by number of active troops, is the People's Liberation Army Ground Force of China with 1,600,000 active troops and 510,000 reserve personnel followed by the Indian Army with 1,129,000 active troops and 960,000 reserve personnel. By convention, irregular military is understood in contrast to regular armies which grew from personal bodyguards or elite militia.
Regular in this case refers to standardized doctrines, organizations, etc. Regular military can refer to full-time status, versus reserve or part-time personnel. Other distinctions may separate statutory forces, from de facto "non-statutory" forces such as some guerrilla and revolutionary armies. Armies may be expeditionary or fencible India's armies were among the first in the world; the first recorded battle, the Battle of the Ten Kings, happened when an Hindu Aryan king named Sudas defeated an alliance of ten kings and their supportive chieftains. During the Iron Age, the Maurya and Nanda Empires had the largest armies in the world, the peak being over 600,000 Infantry, 30,000 Cavalry, 8,000 War-Chariots and 9,000 War Elephants not including tributary state allies. In the Gupta age, large armies of longbowmen were recruited to fight off invading horse archer armies. Elephants and cavalry were other featured troops. In Rajput times, the main piece of equipment was iron or chain-mail armour, a round shield, either a curved blade or a straight-sword, a chakra disc and a katar dagger.
The states of China raised armies for at least 1000 years before the Autumn Annals. By the Warring States period, the crossbow had been perfected enough to become a military secret, with bronze bolts which could pierce any armor, thus any political power of a state rested on their organization. China underwent political consolidation of the states of Han, Chu, Zhao and Qi, until by 221 BCE, Qin Shi Huang, the first emperor of the Qin dynasty, attained absolute power; this first emperor of China could command the creation of a Terracotta Army to guard his tomb in the city of Xi'an, as well as a realignment of the Great Wall of China to strengthen his empire against insurrection and incursion. Sun Tzu's The Art of War remains one of China's Seven Military Classics though it is two thousand years old. Since no political figure could exist without an army, measures were taken to ensure only the most capable leaders could control the armies. Civil bureaucracies arose to control the productive power of the states, their military power.
The Spartan Army was one of the earliest known professional armies. Boys were sent to a barracks at the age of eight to train for becoming a soldier. At the age of thirty they were allowed to marry and have a family. After that, men devoted their lives to war until their retirement at the age of 60. Unlike other civilizations, whose armies had to disband during the planting and harvest seasons, the Spartan serfs or helots, did the manual labor; this allowed the Spartans to field a full-time army with a campaign season. The Spartan Army was composed of hoplites, equipped with arms and armor nearly identical to each other; each hoplite bore a scarlet uniform. The main pieces of this armor were a spear and a helmet; the Roman Army had its origins in the citizen army of the Republic, staffed by citizens serving mandatory duty for Rome. Reforms turned the army into a professional organization, still filled by citizens, but these citizens served continuously for 25 years before being discharged; the Romans were noted for making use of auxiliary troops, non-Romans who served with the legions and filled roles that the traditional Roman military could not fill such as light skirmish troops and heavy cavalry.
After their service in the army they were made citizens of Rome and their children were citizens also. They were given land and money to settle in Rome. In the Late Roman Empire, these auxiliary troops, along with foreign mercenaries, became the core of the Roman Army. In the earliest Middle Ages it was the obligation of every aristocrat to respond to the call to battle with his own equipment and infantry; this decentralized system was necessary due to the social order of the time, but could lead to motley forces with variable training and abilities. The more resources the noble had access to, the better his troops would be; the words "knight" and "noble" were used interchangeably as there was not a distinction between them. While the nobility did fight upon horseback, they were supported by lower class citizens –
General of the Infantry (Germany)
General of the Infantry is a former rank of German Ground forces. Present it is an appointment or position to an OF-6 rank officer, responsible for particular affairs of training and equipment of the Bundeswehr infantry. General of the Infantry was a former rank of General of the branch OF8 in the German land forces and in the Prussian Army and the Austro-Hungarian Army, it was the third-highest General officer rank, subordinate only to Colonel General and Field Marshal. It is equivalent to a three-star rank today; the same rank was adopted by the Finnish Army between the world wars. German cavalry officers of equivalent rank were called General der Kavallerie and those in the artillery corps were General der Artillerie. In 1935 the Wehrmacht added the ranks of General der Panzertruppe, General der Gebirgstruppen, General der Fallschirmtruppen, General der Nachrichtentruppen. In the Luftwaffe, the equivalent rank was General der Flieger; the rank was referred to only in the form of General, without specifying the specific forces the bearer commanded.
In the modern German armed forces, the Bundeswehr, the rank of Generalleutnant corresponds to the traditional rank of General der Infanterie. There was no equivalent rank in the army of East Germany, where it was merged into that of Generaloberst. In the Bundeswehr, the position of an infantry officer responsible for certain questions of troop training and equipment with the rank of Brigadier Generals; the position of general of the infantry is connected with that of commander of the infantry school. Corresponding service positions exist for other branches of the army. Since in this usage it refers to a position not a rank, an Oberst is sometimes "General of" his respective type of troops; the form of address is Herr General and/or Herr Oberst. Note that a number of these officers may have gone on to higher ranks during their careers. General Comparative officer ranks of World War II
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, commerce, fashion and the arts; the City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €681 billion in 2016, accounting for 31 percent of the GDP of France, was the 5th largest region by GDP in the world. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong-Kong, in 2018; the city is a major rail and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly.
Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015. Paris is known for its museums and architectural landmarks: the Louvre was the most visited art museum in the world in 2018, with 10.2 million visitors. The Musée d'Orsay and Musée de l'Orangerie are noted for their collections of French Impressionist art, the Pompidou Centre Musée National d'Art Moderne has the largest collection of modern and contemporary art in Europe; the historical district along the Seine in the city centre is classified as a UNESCO Heritage Site. Popular landmarks in the centre of the city include the Cathedral of Notre Dame de Paris and the Gothic royal chapel of Sainte-Chapelle, both on the Île de la Cité. Paris received 23 million visitors in 2017, measured by hotel stays, with the largest numbers of foreign visitors coming from the United States, the UK, Germany and China.
It was ranked as the third most visited travel destination in the world in 2017, after Bangkok and London. The football club Paris Saint-Germain and the rugby union club Stade Français are based in Paris; the 80,000-seat Stade de France, built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, is located just north of Paris in the neighbouring commune of Saint-Denis. Paris hosts the annual French Open Grand Slam tennis tournament on the red clay of Roland Garros. Paris will host the 2024 Summer Olympics; the 1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups, the 2007 Rugby World Cup, the 1960, 1984, 2016 UEFA European Championships were held in the city and, every July, the Tour de France bicycle race finishes there. The name "Paris" is derived from the Celtic Parisii tribe; the city's name is not related to the Paris of Greek mythology. Paris is referred to as the City of Light, both because of its leading role during the Age of Enlightenment and more because Paris was one of the first large European cities to use gas street lighting on a grand scale on its boulevards and monuments.
Gas lights were installed on the Place du Carousel, Rue de Rivoli and Place Vendome in 1829. By 1857, the Grand boulevards were lit. By the 1860s, the boulevards and streets of Paris were illuminated by 56,000 gas lamps. Since the late 19th century, Paris has been known as Panam in French slang. Inhabitants are known in French as Parisiens, they are pejoratively called Parigots. The Parisii, a sub-tribe of the Celtic Senones, inhabited the Paris area from around the middle of the 3rd century BC. One of the area's major north–south trade routes crossed the Seine on the île de la Cité; the Parisii minted their own coins for that purpose. The Romans began their settlement on Paris' Left Bank; the Roman town was called Lutetia. It became a prosperous city with a forum, temples, an amphitheatre. By the end of the Western Roman Empire, the town was known as Parisius, a Latin name that would become Paris in French. Christianity was introduced in the middle of the 3rd century AD by Saint Denis, the first Bishop of Paris: according to legend, when he refused to renounce his faith before the Roman occupiers, he was beheaded on the hill which became known as Mons Martyrum "Montmartre", from where he walked headless to the north of the city.
Clovis the Frank, the first king of the Merovingian dynasty, made the city his capital from 508. As the Frankish domination of Gaul began, there was a gradual immigration by the Franks to Paris and the Parisian Francien dialects were born. Fortification of the Île-de-la-Citie failed to avert sacking by Vikings in 845, but Paris' strategic importance—with its bridges prevent
The French Army the Ground Army to distinguish it from the French Air Force, Armée de l'Air or Air Army, is the land-based and largest component of the French Armed Forces. It is responsible to the Government of France, along with the other four components of the Armed Forces; the current Chief of Staff of the French Army is General Jean-Pierre Bosser, a direct subordinate of the Chief of the Defence Staff. General Bosser is responsible, in part, to the Ministry of the Armed Forces for organization, use of forces, as well as planning and programming and Army future acquisitions. For active service, Army units are placed under the authority of the Chief of the Defence Staff, responsible to the President of France for planning for, use, of forces. All soldiers are considered professionals following the suspension of conscription, voted in parliament in 1997 and made effective in 2001; as of 2017, the French Army employed 117,000 personnel. In addition, the reserve element of the French Army consisted of 15,453 personnel of the Operational Reserve.
In 1999, the Army issued the Code of the French Soldier, which includes the injunctions: The first permanent army, paid with regular wages, instead of feudal levies, was established under Charles VII in the 1420–30s. The Kings of France needed reliable troops after the Hundred Years' War; these units of troops were raised by issuing ordonnances to govern their length of service and payment. These Compagnies d'ordonnance formed the core of the Gendarme Cavalry into the sixteenth century. Stationed throughout France and summoned into larger armies as needed. There was provision made for "Francs-archers" units of bowmen and foot soldiers raised from the non-noble classes but these units were disbanded once war ended; the bulk of the infantry for warfare was still provided by urban or provincial militias, raised from an area or city to fight locally and named for their recruiting grounds. These units became more permanent, in 1480s Swiss instructors were recruited and some of the'Bandes' were combined to form temporary'Legions' of up to 9000 men.
These men would receive training. Henry II further regularised the French army by forming standing Infantry regiments to replace the Militia structure; the first of these—the Régiments de Picardie, Piémont and Champagne—were called Les Vieux Corps. It was normal policy to disband regiments after a war was over as a cost saving measure with the Vieux Corps and the King's own Household Troops the Maison du Roi being the only survivors. Regiments could be raised directly by the King and so called after the region in which they were raised, or by the nobility and so called after the noble or his appointed colonel; when Louis XIII came to the throne he disbanded most of the regiments in existence leaving only the Vieux and a handful of others which became known as the Petite Vieux and gained the privilege of not being disbanded after a war. In 1684 there was a major reorganisation of the French infantry and again in 1701 to fit in with Louis XIV's plans and the War of the Spanish Succession; this reshuffle created many of the modern regiments of the French Army and standardised their equipment and tactics.
The army of the Sun King tended to wear grey-white coats with coloured linings. There were exceptions and the foreign troops, recruited from outside France, wore red or blue while the French Guards wore blue. In addition to these regiments of the line the Maison du Roi provided several elite units, the Swiss Guards, French Guards and the Regiments of Musketeers being the most famous; the white/grey coated French Infantry of the line Les Blancs with their Charleville muskets were a feared foe on the battlefields of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, fighting in the Nine Years' War, the Wars of Spanish and Austrian Succession, the Seven Years' War and the American Revolution. The revolution split the army with the main mass losing most of its officers to aristocratic flight or guillotine and becoming demoralised and ineffective; the French Guard joined the revolt and the Swiss Guards were massacred during the storming of the Tuileries palace. The remnants of the royal army were joined to the revolutionary militias known as sans-culottes, the "National Guard" a more middle class militia and police force, to form the French Revolutionary Army.
From 1792, the French Revolutionary Army fought against various combinations of European powers reliant on large numbers and basic tactics, it was defeated bloodily but survived and drove its opponents first from French soil and overran several countries creating client states. Under Napoleon I, the French Army conquered most of Europe during the Napoleonic Wars. Professionalising again from the Revolutionary forces and using columns of attack with heavy artillery support and swarms of pursuit cavalry the French army under Napoleon and his marshals was able to outmanoeuvre and destroy the allied armies until 1812. Napoleon introduced the concept of all arms Corps, each one a traditional army'in miniature', permitting the field force to be split across several lines of march and rejoin or to operate independently; the Grande Armée operated by seeking a decisive battle with each enemy army and destroying them in detail before occupying territory and forcing a peace. In 1812 Napoleon marched on Moscow seeking to remove Russian influence from eastern Europe and secure the frontiers of his empire and client states.
The campaign went well but the vast distances of the R
113th Infantry Division (German Empire)
The 113th Infantry Division was a formation of the Imperial German Army in World War I. The division was formed on March 25, 1915, organized over the next several weeks, it was part of a wave of new infantry divisions formed in the spring of 1915. The division was disbanded in 1919 during the demobilization of the German Army after World War I; the division was formed from the excess infantry regiments of regular infantry divisions which were being triangularized. The division's 225th Infantry Brigade staff was the staff of the 44th Reserve Infantry Brigade of the 22nd Reserve Division, which came to the new division along with the 32nd Reserve Infantry Regiment; the 36th Füsilier Regiment was part of the 8th Infantry Division. The 48th Infantry Regiment came from the 5th Infantry Division; the 32nd Reserve Infantry Regiment was raised in the Thuringian states the Reuss principalities. The 36th Füsiliers was a "Magdeburg" regiment, raised in the Prussian Province of Saxony; the 48th Infantry was a Brandenburg regiment.
The 48th Infantry was replaced by the 66th Infantry, another Magdeburg regiment, making the division Prussian Saxon and Thuringian in character. Cavalry support came in the form of cuirassiers from the Rhineland; the artillery and combat engineer units were newly formed. The 113th Infantry Division fought on the Western Front in World War I, entering the line between the Meuse and Moselle in April 1915. In 1915, it saw action in the Second Battle of Champagne. In 1916, the division fought in the Battle of the Somme. After a period in the trenchlines in the Woëvre region and in Upper Alsace, the division fought in the Second Battle of the Aisne known as the Third Battle of Champagne, it went into the line on the Chemin des Dames and north of the Ailette River, where it remained until preparing for the 1918 German Spring Offensive. It fought in the First Battle of the Somme and the Second Battle of the Marne, faced various Allied offensives collectively known as the Hundred Days Offensive. Allied intelligence rated the division as second class.
The 113th Infantry Division was formed as a triangular division. The order of battle of the division on March 25, 1915, was as follows: 225. Infanterie-Brigade Thüringisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 32 Füsilier-Regiment General-Feldmarschall Graf Blumenthal Nr. 36 Infanterie-Regiment von Stülpnagel Nr. 48 3. Eskadron/Kürassier-Regiment Graf Geßler Nr. 8 4. Eskadron/Kürassier-Regiment Graf Geßler Nr. 8 Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 225 Fußartillerie-Batterie Nr. 113 Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 225 The division underwent few organizational changes over the course of the war. In March 1917, the 48th Infantry Regiment was sent to the 228th Infantry Division and the division received the 66th Infantry Regiment from the 52nd Infantry Division. Cavalry was reduced and signals commands were formed, combat engineer support was expanded to a full pioneer battalion; the order of battle on March 12, 1918, was as follows: 225. Infanterie-Brigade Thüringisches Reserve-Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 32 Füsilier-Regiment General-Feldmarschall Graf Blumenthal Nr. 36 3.
Magdeburgisches Infanterie-Regiment Nr. 66 Maschinengewehr-Scharfschützen-Abteilung Nr. 34 3. Eskadron/Kürassier-Regiment Graf Geßler Nr. 8 Artillerie-Kommandeur 113 Feldartillerie-Regiment Nr. 225 Fußartillerie-Bataillon Nr. 407 Pionier-Bataillon Nr. 113 Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 225 Pionier-Kompanie Nr. 251 Minenwerfer-Kompanie Nr. 113 Divisions-Nachrichten-Kommandeur 113 113. Infanterie-Division - Der erste Weltkrieg Hermann Cron et al. Ruhmeshalle unserer alten Armee Hermann Cron, Geschichte des deutschen Heeres im Weltkriege 1914-1918 Günter Wegner, Stellenbesetzung der deutschen Heere 1825-1939. Bd. 1 Histories of Two Hundred and Fifty-One Divisions of the German Army which Participated in the War, compiled from records of Intelligence section of the General Staff, American Expeditionary Forces, at General Headquarters, France 1919