Secretary to the Government of India
Secretary to the Government of India abbreviated as secretary, GoI, or as secretary, is a post and a rank under the Central Staffing Scheme of the Government of India. The authority for the creation of this post rests with the Union Council of Ministers; the position holder is a career civil servant from the Indian Administrative Service, a government official of high seniority. The post of the secretary, however, is an ex-cadre post, anyone can occupy it, but the office-bearers are either from All India Services or Central Civil Services. All promotions and appointments to this rank and post are directly made by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet. In the structure of the Indian government, a secretary is the administrative head of a ministry or department, is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and Vice Chief of the Army Staff, officers of the rank of full four-star general and their equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces, are listed as such on the Indian order of precedence, ranking twenty-third.
In mid-1930s, the Central Secretariat contained only twenty-nine secretaries, who were all members of the Indian Civil Service. The salary for a member of this rank and post was fixed at Rs. 48,000 per annum in the 1930s. As per warrant or precedence of 1905, secretaries to the Government of India was listed together with joint secretaries to the Government of India and were ranked above the rank of chief secretaries of provincial governments. N. Gopalaswami Ayyangar had once suggested "A secretary should not be immersed in files and burdened with routine, it is essential that he should have time to grasp the overall picture, size up the problems facing the government in the field allotted to his charge, think and plan ahead. All these must be efficiently performed. Failure to make adequate provision in this respect cannot be compensated by a mere increase in the establishment under his control."The Administrative Reforms Commission visualised the role of secretary as one of "coordinator, policy guide and evaluator."
A secretary to the Government of India is the administrative head of a ministry or department and is the principal adviser to the minister-in charge on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry or department. The role of a secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the ministry or department; the responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the ministry or department before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the prime minister-led Appointments Committee of the Cabinet is the final authority on posting and transfer of officers of secretary level. Secretaries report to the prime minister. In the Indian government, secretaries head departments or ministries of the government and hold positions such as Finance Secretary, Defence Secretary, Foreign Secretary, Home Secretary, Defence Production Secretary, emissaries in the foreign missions/embassies, members of the Railway Board and members of the Telecom Commission.
According to the report of the Seventh Central Pay Commission of India, seventy-three out of ninety-one secretaries to the Government of India are from the Indian Administrative Service. All secretaries to the Government of India are eligible for a diplomatic passport. Secretaries are allotted either type-VII or type-VIII bungalows in areas like New Moti Bagh and Lutyens' across Delhi by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs' Directorate of Estates; the salary and emolument in this rank is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and to Vice Chief of the Army Staff and officers in the rank of full general, its equivalents, in the Indian Armed Forces. Out of the secretaries to the Government of India, most are IAS officers, twelve are either from scientific or from legal background, four are Indian Foreign Service officers, two are Indian Police Service officers and one officer belongs to the Indian Postal Service while two secretary-level positions are vacant. Additionally, the chairman of Railway Board is ex-officio Principal Secretary to the Government of India, while the members of the Railway Board are ex-officio secretaries to the Government of India.
In addition, the members of the Telecom Commission are ex-officio secretaries to the Government of India. Media articles and others have argued in favour of lateral entrants being recruited to this rank/post to infuse fresh energy and thinking into an insular and archaic bureaucracy. Non-IAS civil services have complained to the Government of India because of lack of empanelment in the rank/post of secretary on numerous occasions. Federal Secretary
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India. Membership of Rajya Sabha is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of 250 members and current laws have provision for 245 members. Most of the members of the House are indirectly elected by the members of States and union territories of India state and territorial legislatures using single transferable votes through Open Ballot, while the President can appoint 12 members for their contributions to art, literature and social services. Members sit for staggered terms lasting six years, with a third of the members up for election every two years; the Rajya Sabha meets in continuous sessions, unlike the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament, is not subject to dissolution. However, the Rajya Sabha, like the Lok Sabha can be prorogued by the President; the Rajya Sabha has equal footing in all areas of legislation with the Lok Sabha, except in the area of supply, where the Lok Sabha has overriding powers. In the case of conflicting legislation, a joint sitting of the two houses can be held.
However, since the Lok Sabha has twice as many members as the Rajya Sabha, the former would hold the greater power. Joint sittings of the Houses of Parliament of India are rare, in the history of the Republic, only three such joint-sessions have been held; the Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha, who presides over its sessions. The Deputy Chairman, elected from amongst the house's members, takes care of the day-to-day matters of the house in the absence of the Chairman; the Rajya Sabha held its first sitting on 13 May 1952. The salary and other benefits for a member of Rajya Sabha are same as for a member of Lok Sabha. Rajya Sabha members are elected by state legislatures rather than directly through the electorate by single transferable vote method. From 18 July 2018, Rajya Sabha MPs can speak in 22 Indian languages in House as the Upper House has facility for simultaneous interpretation in all the 22 official languages of India. Article 84 of the Constitution lays down the qualifications for membership of Parliament.
A member of the Rajya Sabha must: Be a citizen of India. Make and subscribe before some person authorized in that behalf by the Election Commission an oath or affirmation according to the form set out for the purpose in the Third Schedule to the Constitution. Be at least 30 years old. Be elected by the Legislative Assembly of States and Union territories by means of Single transferable vote through Proportional representation. Not be a proclaimed criminal. Not be a subject of insolvent, i.e. he/she should not be in debt that he/she is not capable of repaying in a current manner and should have the ability to meet his/her financial expenses. Not hold any other office of profit under the Government of India. Not be of unsound mind. Possess such other qualifications as may be prescribed in that behalf by or under any law made by Parliament. In addition, twelve members are nominated by the President of India having special knowledge in various areas like arts and science. However, they are not entitled to vote in Presidential elections as per Article 55 of the Constitution.
The Constitution of India places some restrictions on the Rajya Sabha which makes the Lok Sabha more powerful in certain areas. The definition of a money bill is given in article 110 of constitution of India. A money bill can be introduced only in the Lok Sabha by a minister and only on recommendation of President of India; when the Lok Sabha passes a money bill the Lok Sabha sends money bill to the Rajya Sabha for 14 days during which it can make recommendations. If Rajya Sabha fails to return the money bill in 14 days to the Lok Sabha, that bill is deemed to have passed by both the Houses. If the Lok Sabha rejects any of the amendments proposed by the Rajya Sabha, the bill is deemed to have been passed by both Houses of Parliament of India in the form the Lok Sabha passes it; this is because the Lok Sabha has largest number of representatives of peoples of India and so the Lok Sabha, the lower house is more powerful in comparison with Rajya Sabha, the upper house. Hence, Rajya Sabha can only give recommendations for a money bill but Rajya Sabha cannot amend a money bill this is to ensure that Rajya Sabha must not add any non money matters in money bill.
Lok Sabha can reject all the recommendations of Rajya Sabha or can accept some or all of the recommendations. Decisions of the speaker of the Lok Sabha are final. There is no joint sitting of both the houses with respect to money bills, because all final decisions are taken by the Lok Sabha. Article 108 provides for a joint sitting of the two Houses of Parliament in certain cases. A joint sitting can be convened by the President of India when one house has either rejected a bill passed by the other house, has not taken any action on a bill transmitted to it by the other house for six months, or has disagreed to the amendments proposed by the Lok Sabha on a bill passed by it. Considering that the numerical strength of Lok Sabha is more than twice that of Rajya Sabha, Lok Sabha tends to have a greater influence in a joint sitting of Parliament. A joint session is chaired by the Speaker of Lok Sabha; because the joint session is convened by the President on advice of the government, which has a majority in Lok Sabha, the joint session is convened to get bills passed through a Rajya Sabha in which the government has a minority.
Joint sessions of Parliament are a rarity, have been convened three times in last 71 years, for the purpose of passage of a specific legislative act, the latest time being in 2002: 1961: Dowry Prohibition Act, 1958 1978: Banking Services Commissio
Defence Secretary (India)
The Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence. This post is held by a senior Indian Administrative Service of the rank of secretary to the Government of India; the current Defence Secretary is Sanjay Mitra. As a secretary to the Government of India, the Defence Secretary ranks 23rd on Indian order of precedence. Defence Secretary is the administrative head of the Ministry of Defence, is the principal adviser to the Minister of Defence on all matters of policy and administration within the Ministry of Defence; the role of Defence Secretary is as follows: To act as the administrative head of the Department of Defence. The responsibility in this regard is undivided. To act as the chief adviser to the Defence Minister on all aspects of policy and administrative affairs. To represent the Ministry of Defence before the Public Accounts Committee of the Parliament of India; the Defence Secretary is responsible for coordinating the activities of the other departments in the Ministry of Defence.
To act as the first among equals among the secretaries in the Ministry of Defence. The Defence Secretary is eligible for a diplomatic passport; the official earmarked residence of the Defence Secretary is 9, New Moti Bagh, New Delhi, a Type-VIII bungalow. The salary and emolument in this rank is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and to Vice Chief of the Army Staff/commanders and officers in the rank of full general and its equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces. Cabinet Secretary of India Home Secretary Foreign Secretary Chief Secretary
Indian Forest Service
Indian Forest Service is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India. The other two All India Services being the Indian Administrative Service and the Indian Police Service, it was constituted in the year 1966 under the All India Services Act, 1951 by the Government of India. The main mandate of the service is the implementation of the National Forest Policy in order to ensure the ecological stability of the country through the protection and participatory sustainable management of natural resources. An IFS officer is wholly independent of the district administration and exercises administrative and financial powers in his own domain. Positions in state forest department, such as Divisional Forest Officer, Conservator of Forests and Principal Chief Conservator of Forests etc. are held only by IFS officers. The highest ranking IFS official in each state is the Head of Forest Forces. Earlier, the British Government in India, had constituted the Imperial Forest Service in 1867 which functioned under the Federal Government until ‘Forestry’ was transferred to the Provincial List by the Government of India Act, 1935, subsequent recruitment to the Imperial Forest Service was discontinued.
Ministry of Environment and Climate Change, under the Government of India, is the Cadre Controlling Authority of the Indian Forest Service. In 1864, the British Raj established the Imperial Forest Department; the Imperial Forestry Service was organised subordinate to the Imperial Forest Department in 1867 when five candidates were selected to undergo training in France & Germany. This continued up to 1885 except for a short break on account of war between Russia. Officers appointed from 1867 to 1885 were trained in Germany and France, from 1885 to 1905 at Cooper's Hill, London known as Royal Indian Engineering College where 173 officers were trained. From 1905 to 1926, the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University of Edinburgh had undertaken the task of training Imperial Forestry Service officers. In 1920, the Government of India took the decision that the IFS Probationers may be trained at one centre and consequent to the establishment of Forest Research Institute at Dehradun, the training started in India in 1926.
The Government of India Act 1935, which transferred forestry to Provisional list, resulted in abolition of the IFS training. Indian Forest College was established in 1938; the Superior Forest Service officers, recruited from different states, were trained in the Indian Forest College. The stated mandate of the service was scientific management of the forests to exploit it on a sustained basis for timber products, it was during this time that large tracts of the forest were brought under state control through the process of reservation under the Indian Forest Act, 1927. The management of the forest went into the hands of the provincial government in 1935 and today the Forest Departments are managing the forest of the country under the respective State governments. Since the subject of forestry was shifted to the concurrent list in the year 1977, the central government plays an important role at the policy level in the management of the forest; the main thrust of managing forests for production of timber products as in the British period continued after the reconstitution of IFoS in 1966.
The recommendations of National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 was a landmark shift in forest management. It was for the first time that people's perception was taken care of in addressing biomass needs and extension activities through social forestry were introduced; the concept of sustained yield was addressed in tandem with biomass needs of the people living in and around forest areas. Equal thrust was given to habitat management in protected area and conserving the biodiversity of the land. Today there are over 2700 IFS officers serving in the country, serving in both the 31 Forest Departments in the States and Union Territories and working in various Ministries and institutions both in the State and Central Government; the modern Indian Forest Service was established in 1966, after independence, under the All India Services Act 1951. The first Inspector General of Forests, Hari Singh, was instrumental in the development of the IFS. India has an area of 635,400 km2 designated as about 19.32 % of the country.
India's forest policy was created in 1894 and revised in 1952 and again in 1988. Officers are recruited via an open competitive examination conducted by the UPSC and trained for about two years by the Central Government at Indira Gandhi National Forest Academy, their services are placed under various State cadres and joint cadres, being an All India Service they have the mandate to serve both under the State and Central Governments. They are eligible for State and Central deputations as their counterpart IAS and IPS officers. Deputation of IFS officers to the Central Government includes appointments in Central Ministries at the position of Deputy Secretary, Joint Secretary and Additional Secretary etc.. Deputation of IFS officers is permissible to foreign governments, United Nations bodies, international organisations, NGOs, voluntary organisations apart from private sector as per the Indian Forest Service Rules, 1966; as per Rule 6 of the Indian Forest Service Rules, 1966 deputation of IFS officers broadly falls into two categories: Central Deputation State Deputa
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
India known as the Republic of India, is a country in South Asia. It is the seventh largest country by area and with more than 1.3 billion people, it is the second most populous country as well as the most populous democracy in the world. Bounded by the Indian Ocean on the south, the Arabian Sea on the southwest, the Bay of Bengal on the southeast, it shares land borders with Pakistan to the west. In the Indian Ocean, India is in the vicinity of Sri Lanka and the Maldives, while its Andaman and Nicobar Islands share a maritime border with Thailand and Indonesia; the Indian subcontinent was home to the urban Indus Valley Civilisation of the 3rd millennium BCE. In the following millennium, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism began to be composed. Social stratification, based on caste, emerged in the first millennium BCE, Buddhism and Jainism arose. Early political consolidations took place under the Gupta empires. In the medieval era, Zoroastrianism and Islam arrived, Sikhism emerged, all adding to the region's diverse culture.
Much of the north fell to the Delhi Sultanate. The economy expanded in the 17th century in the Mughal Empire. In the mid-18th century, the subcontinent came under British East India Company rule, in the mid-19th under British Crown rule. A nationalist movement emerged in the late 19th century, which under Mahatma Gandhi, was noted for nonviolent resistance and led to India's independence in 1947. In 2017, the Indian economy was the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and third largest by purchasing power parity. Following market-based economic reforms in 1991, India became one of the fastest-growing major economies and is considered a newly industrialised country. However, it continues to face the challenges of poverty, corruption and inadequate public healthcare. A nuclear weapons state and regional power, it has the second largest standing army in the world and ranks fifth in military expenditure among nations. India is a federal republic governed under a parliamentary system and consists of 29 states and 7 union territories.
A pluralistic and multi-ethnic society, it is home to a diversity of wildlife in a variety of protected habitats. The name India is derived from Indus, which originates from the Old Persian word Hindush, equivalent to the Sanskrit word Sindhu, the historical local appellation for the Indus River; the ancient Greeks referred to the Indians as Indoi, which translates as "The people of the Indus". The geographical term Bharat, recognised by the Constitution of India as an official name for the country, is used by many Indian languages in its variations, it is a modernisation of the historical name Bharatavarsha, which traditionally referred to the Indian subcontinent and gained increasing currency from the mid-19th century as a native name for India. Hindustan is a Middle Persian name for India, it was introduced into India by the Mughals and used since then. Its meaning varied, referring to a region that encompassed northern India and Pakistan or India in its entirety; the name may refer to either the northern part of India or the entire country.
The earliest known human remains in South Asia date to about 30,000 years ago. Nearly contemporaneous human rock art sites have been found in many parts of the Indian subcontinent, including at the Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh. After 6500 BCE, evidence for domestication of food crops and animals, construction of permanent structures, storage of agricultural surplus, appeared in Mehrgarh and other sites in what is now Balochistan; these developed into the Indus Valley Civilisation, the first urban culture in South Asia, which flourished during 2500–1900 BCE in what is now Pakistan and western India. Centred around cities such as Mohenjo-daro, Harappa and Kalibangan, relying on varied forms of subsistence, the civilization engaged robustly in crafts production and wide-ranging trade. During the period 2000–500 BCE, many regions of the subcontinent transitioned from the Chalcolithic cultures to the Iron Age ones; the Vedas, the oldest scriptures associated with Hinduism, were composed during this period, historians have analysed these to posit a Vedic culture in the Punjab region and the upper Gangetic Plain.
Most historians consider this period to have encompassed several waves of Indo-Aryan migration into the subcontinent from the north-west. The caste system, which created a hierarchy of priests and free peasants, but which excluded indigenous peoples by labeling their occupations impure, arose during this period. On the Deccan Plateau, archaeological evidence from this period suggests the existence of a chiefdom stage of political organisation. In South India, a progression to sedentary life is indicated by the large number of megalithic monuments dating from this period, as well as by nearby traces of agriculture, irrigation tanks, craft traditions. In the late Vedic period, around the 6th century BCE, the small states and chiefdoms of the Ganges Plain and the north-western regions had consolidated into 16 major oligarchies and monarchies that were known as the mahajanapadas; the emerging urbanisation gave rise to non-Vedic religious movements, two of which became independent religions. Jainism came into prominence during the life of Mahavira.
Buddhism, based on the teachings of Gautama Buddha, attracted followers from all social classes excepting the middle
Indian Administrative Service
The Indian Administrative Service abbreviated to I. A. S. or IAS, is the administrative arm of the All India Services. Considered the premier civil service of India, the IAS is one of the three arms of the All India Services along with the Indian Police Service and the Indian Forest Service. Members of these three services serve the Government of India as well as the individual states. IAS officers may be deployed to various public sector undertakings; as with other countries following the Westminster parliamentary system of government, the IAS is a part of the permanent bureaucracy of the nation, is an inseparable part of the executive of the Government of India. As such, the bureaucracy remains politically neutral and guarantees administrative continuity to the ruling party or coalition. Upon confirmation of service, an IAS officer serves a probationary period as a sub-divisional magistrate. Completion of this probation is followed by an executive administrative role in a district as a district magistrate and collector which lasts several years, as long as sixteen years in some states.
After this tenure, an officer may be promoted to head a whole state division, as a divisional commissioner. On attaining the higher scales of the pay matrix, IAS officers may lead government departments or ministries. In these roles, IAS officers represent the country at the international level in bilateral and multilateral negotiations. If serving on a deputation, they may be employed in intergovernmental organisations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, or the United Nations, or its agencies. IAS officers are involved in the conduct of elections in India as mandated by the Election Commission of India. During the occupation of India by the East India Company, the civil services were classified into three – covenanted and special civil services; the covenanted civil service, or the East India Company's Civil Service, as it was called comprised British civil servants occupying the senior posts in the government.
The uncovenanted civil service was introduced to facilitate the entry of Indians onto the lower rung of the administration. The special service comprised specialised departments, such as the Indian Forest Service, the Imperial Police and the Indian Political Service, whose ranks were drawn from either the covenanted civil service or the British Indian Army; the Imperial Police included many British Indian Army officers among its members, although after 1893 an annual exam was used to select its officers. In 1858 the HEICCS was replaced by the Indian Civil Service, which became the highest civil service in the British Raj between 1858 and 1947; the last British appointments to the ICS were made in 1942. With the passing of the Government of India Act 1919 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, the Indian civil services—under the general oversight of the Secretary of State for India—were split into two arms, the All India Services and the Central Services; the Indian Civil Service was one of the ten All India Services.
In 1946 at the Premier's Conference, the Central Cabinet decided to form the Indian Administrative Service, based on the Indian Civil Service. There is no alternative to this administrative system... The Union will go, you will not have a united India if you do not have good All-India Service which has the independence to speak out its mind, which has sense of security that you will standby your work... If you do not adopt this course do not follow the present Constitution. Substitute something else... these people are the instrument. Remove them and I see nothing but a picture of chaos all over the country; when India was partitioned following the departure of the British in 1947, the Indian Civil Service was divided between the new dominions of India and Pakistan. The Indian remnant of the ICS was named the Indian Administrative Service, while the Pakistani remnant was named the Pakistan Administrative Service; the modern Indian Administrative Service was created under Article 312 in part XIV of the Constitution of India, the All India Services Act, 1951.
There are three modes of recruitment into the Indian Administrative Service. IAS officers may enter the IAS by passing the Civil Services Examination, conducted by the Union Public Service Commission. Officers recruited; some IAS officers are recruited from the state civil services, and, in rare cases, selected from non-state civil service. The ratio between direct recruits and promotees is fixed at 2:1. All IAS officers, regardless of the mode of entry, are appointed by the President of India. Only about 180 candidates out of over 1 million applicants, who apply through the Civil Services Examination, are successful, a success rate of less than 0.01 per cent. As a result, the members of the service are referred as "heaven-born". Unlike candidates appointed to other civil services, a successful IAS candidate is rendered ineligible to re-enter the Civil Services Examination. From 1951 to 1979, an IAS candidate was required to submit two additional papers, as well as three optional papers to be eligible for the Indian Administrative Service or the Indian Foreign Service.
The two additional papers were postgraduate level submissions, compared to the graduate level of the optional papers, it was this distinction that resulted in a higher status for the IAS and IFS. The two postgraduate level submissions were removed, but this has not changed the perceived higher status of the IAS and IFS. After the selection process, the su