The 2nd century BC started the first day of 200 BC and ended the last day of 101 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, although depending on the region being studied and it also considered to be the end of the Axial Age. In the context of the Eastern Mediterranean, it is referred to as the Hellenistic period. The end of the century witnessed the reform of the Roman Army from an army into a voluntary professional force, under the guidance of the noted general. In South Asia, the Mauryan Empire in India collapsed when Brihadnatha, the last emperor, was killed by Pushyamitra Shunga, a Mauryan general, in East Asia, China reached a high point under the Han Dynasty. The Han Empire extended its boundaries from Korea in the east to Vietnam in the South to the borders of modern-day Kazakhstan in the west. 198 BC, Battle of Panium, Antiochus III of the Seleucid empire defeats Ptolemy V of Egypt and takes control of Coele Syria,197 BC, Flamininus defeats Philip V of Macedon at the Battle of Cynoscephalae. 196 BC, Antiochus III conquers western Asia Minor and Thrace,196 BC, Empress Lüs execution of Han Xin leads to the Ying Bu rebellion. 195 BC, The War against Nabis marks the end of Spartan power in Greece,195 BC, Emperor Gaozu of Han dies and is succeeded by his son Hui. True power falls to Empress Lü.194 BC, Wiman establishes Wiman Joseon in Korea,192 BC, Antiochus III invades Greece, beginning the Roman-Syrian War. 192 BC, The Yue Kingdom of Eastern Ou established in Zhejiang with Chinese support,191 BC, Battle of Thermopylae, Glabrio drives Antiochus III out of Greece. 190 BC, Battle of Magnesia, Rome and Pergamon drive Antiochus III out of Asia Minor,189 BC, Galatian War, Vulso and Pergamon defeat Galatia. 188 BC, Emperor Hui of Han dies,185 BC, Ptolemy V defeats Ankhmakis and regains control of Upper Egypt. C.185 BC, Pushyamitra Shunga assassinates the last Maurya emperor,183 BC, Zhao Tuo of Nanyue declares himself Emperor and attacks China. 180 BC, Lü Clan Disturbance, with the death of Empress Lü, C.180 BC, Demetrius I of Bactria invades India, leading to the establishment of the Indo-Greek Kingdom. 179 BC, Tiberius Gracchus ends the First Celtiberian War,179 BC, Zhao Tuo of Nanyue makes peace with China. 176 BC, The Yuezhi attack the Xiongnu,175 BC, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, took possession of the Syrian throne, at the murder of his brother Seleucus IV Philopator, which rightly belonged to his nephew Demetrius I Soter. 174 BC, The Xiongnu defeat the Yuezhi, who emigrate to Ili valley,168 BC, Roman victory in the Battle of Pydna leads to the dissolution of the Antigonid Kingdom of Macedon
Eastern hemisphere at the beginning of the 2nd century BC.
Eastern hemisphere at the end of the 2nd century BC.
Bust of Antiochus IV at the Altes Museum in Berlin.