Year 309 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Constantius; the denomination 309 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. The Spanish provinces revolt from the control of Maxentius, acknowledging Constantine the Great as their Emperor. A plague that may be related to anthrax spreads across the Roman Empire, causing a drastic decline in the population. King Hormizd II, Shah of the Persian Empire, dies after a 7-year reign and a power struggle for the succession ensues, he is succeeded by his son Shapur II. The limber pine called. Pope Marcellus I is banished from Rome by the Emperor Maxentius. April 18 – Pope Eusebius succeeds Marcellus as the 31st pope, but is himself banished on August 17 to Sicily. Saint Alban Saint Elias and companions Hormizd II, king of the Persian Empire Pope Marcellus I
Narcotics in Bolivia, South America, is a subject that involves the coca crop, used in the production of the drug, cocaine. Trafficking and corruption have been two of the most prominent negative side-effects of the illicit narcotics trade in Bolivia and the country's government has engaged in negotiations with the United States as result of the industry's ramifications. Bolivia's most lucrative crop and economic activity in the 1980s was coca, whose leaves were processed clandestinely into cocaine; the country was the second largest grower of coca in the world, supplying fifteen percent of the US cocaine market in the late 1980s. Analysts believed that exports of coca paste and cocaine generated between US$600 million to US$1 billion annually in the 1980s. Based on these estimates, coca-related exports surpassed the country's legal exports. Coca has been grown in Bolivia for centuries; the coca plant, a tea-like shrub, was cultivated by small farmers in the Chapare and Yungas regions. About 65 percent of all Bolivian coca was grown in the Chapare region of Cochabamba Department.
Soaring unemployment contributed to the boom. In addition, farmers turned to coca for its quick economic return, its light weight, its yield of four crops a year, the abundance of United States dollars available in the trade, a valuable resource in a hyperinflated economy; the Bolivian government estimated that coca production had expanded from 1.63 million kilograms of leaves covering 4,100 hectares in 1977 to a minimum of 45 million kilograms over an area of at least 48,000 hectares in 1987. The number of growers expanded from 7,600 to at least 40,000 over the same period. Besides growers, the coca networks employed numerous Bolivians, including carriers, manufacturers of coca paste and cocaine, security personnel, a large variety of other positions; the unparalleled revenues made the risk worthwhile for many. Government efforts to eradicate the expansion of coca cultivation in Bolivia began in 1983, when Bolivia committed itself to a five-year program to reduce coca production and created the Coca Eradication Directorate under the Ministry of Agriculture, Campesino Affairs, Livestock Affairs.
Bolivia's National Directorate for the Control of Dangerous Substances was able to eradicate several thousand hectares of coca. These efforts put only a small dent in the coca industry and were controversial among thousands of peasants. Under the joint agreement signed by the United States and Bolivia in 1987, which created the DNCSP, Bolivia allocated US$72.2 million for the 1988 to 1991 period to eradication programs, including a wide-ranging rural development program for the Chapare region. The program was aided by an 88 percent drop in the local price of coca caused by the fall in cocaine prices in the United States; the economics of eradication were frustrating. As more coca was destroyed, the local price increased. Bolivia, was seeking additional funds from the United States and Western Europe to proceed with an eradication plan, supposed to provide peasants US$2,000 per hectare eradicated. With the 1988 passage of Law 1008, coca growing became technically illegal outside a specially mandated 12,000- hectare area in the Yungas.
A four-year government eradication campaign begun in 1989 sought to convert 55 percent of coca areas into legal crops. Coffee and citrus fruits were offered as alternative crops to coca despite the fact that their return was a fraction of that of coca; these crops were harder to sell and transport. Coca has a much longer shelf-life than that of fruit crops; the cocaine industry had a deleterious effect on the Bolivian economy. The cocaine trade accelerated the predominance of the United States dollar in the economy and the large black market for currency, thereby helping to fuel inflation in the 1980s; the escalation of coca cultivation damaged the output of fruits and coffee, which were destined for local consumption. Coca's high prices, besides being inflationary distorted other sectors labor markets. Manufacturers in the Cochabamba area during the 1980s found it impossible to match the wages workers could gain in coca, making their supply of labor unreliable and thus hurting the formal economy.
By the late 1980s, Bolivians had become aware of the serious threat to their society posed by drug traffickers. One Bolivian editorial identified several dimensions of that threat: the existence of hundreds of clandestine airstrips in eastern Bolivia. An unwanted by-product of Bolivia's cocaine industry was the importation of Colombian-style drug violence. In the late 1980s, Colombia's Medellín Cartel wielded considerable power in Bolivia, setting prices for coca paste and cocaine and terrorizing the drug underworld with hired assassins. Furthermore, drug barons, organized into families, had established th
Eduard August von Regel, Russian: Эдуард Август Фон Регель. He ended his career serving as the Director of the Russian Imperial Botanical Garden of St. Petersburg; as a result of naturalists and explorers sending back biological collections, Regel was able to describe and name many unknown species from frontiers around the world. Regel was the son of garrison-preacher Ludwig A. Regel; as a child he liked growing fruits and learnt to prune apple trees from a gardener of his grandfather Döring and cultivated the garden of his parents. He visited the Gymnasium at Gotha but left without Abitur Regel earned a degree from the University of Bonn. At 15, Regel began his career as an apprentice at the Royal Garden Limonaia in Gotha in 1830-1833 and in spring 1833 went as an adjunct to the botanical garden in Göttingen, he worked in the botanical gardens in Bonn and Berlin. In 1842 he moved to Switzerland to become the head of Zürich. During this time he worked as a lecturer of science. In 1852 he founded the magazine Gartenflora.
In 1855 Regel moved to St. Petersburg, where he worked as a research director and as senior botanist at the Imperial Botanical Garden. From 1875 until his death he served as the director of the Imperial Botanical Garden. While there, he oversaw the creation of some of the facility laboratory, he was a founder and vice-president of the Russian Gardening Society and a number of academic journals. In 1875, he became an associate member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. Volume 111 of Curtis's Botanical Magazine is dedicated to him. Regel was buried at the Smolenskoe Lutheran Cemetery. Regel named over 3000 plant species. Many of the plants he named were from the Russian Far East and Asia as Russian Geographical Society expeditions where active in this area during his tenure at the Imperial Botanical Gardens in St. Petersburg. In 1843, J. C. Schauer named the genus Regelia in honor of Regel, it is a group of flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae which are endemic to the southwest Australia.
In 1854, Planchon named the species Cestrum regeli after him, Robert Lynch in 1904 a subsection of Iris Regel was an prolific scientist and author. In addition to writing a number of major reference works in botany, he published 3101 articles in academic journals. Richard Maack Russian botanist, co-author and Siberian explorer. Johann Albert von Regel Swiss born Russian Physician, traveler. Constantin Andreas von Regel Russian and Lithuanian horticulturalist and botanist. Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie
The 1983–84 Iowa Hawkeyes men's basketball team represented the University of Iowa as members of the Big Ten Conference. The team was led by first-year head coach George Raveling and played their home games at Carver-Hawkeye Arena, they finished the season 13 -- 6 -- 12 in Big Ten play, tied for eighth place. The Hawkeyes finished the 1982–83 season at 21–10 overall, fifth in the Big Ten at 10–8. Iowa received an at-large bid to the NCAA Tournament as the seventh seed in the Midwest regional. After wins over Utah State and second seed Missouri, they lost to third-seeded Villanova in the Sweet Sixteen. Following the season, ninth-year head coach Lute Olson left for Arizona, was succeeded in April 1983 by Raveling, who had led Washington State for eleven years
SM U-135 was a German Type U 127 U-boat of the Imperial German Navy during World War I. Built at the Kaiserliche Werft Danzig, the U-boat was laid down on 4 November 1916, launched on 8 September 1917 and commissioned 20 June 1918. In November 1918, U-135 was ordered to help put down the German Navy mutiny at Wilhelmshaven. Along with the 4th Torpedo Boat Half-Flotilla, U-135 ended the mutiny aboard two German battleships SMS Thüringen and SMS Helgoland by threatening to torpedo the ships. U-135 was seen by submarine designers as an excellent design, she was an inspiration for V-boats USS USS Cuttlefish. Prior to U-135 being scuttled by the Royal Navy in the early 1920s, her engines and various other items of equipment were stripped by a team of 25 students led by Technical Officer Richard Finney under the auspices of J. F. Driver from the Loughborough College; this equipment was reassembled in a wooden hut in Packe Street, in a purpose built generating station opened in 1937. They were taken out of use, replaced, in 1949.
Gröner, Erich. U-boats and Mine Warfare Vessels. German Warships 1815–1945. 2. Translated by Thomas, Keith. London: Conway Maritime Press. ISBN 0-85177-593-4
USS Breaker was a schooner captured by the Union Navy during the American Civil War. She was used by the Union Navy as a gunboat in support of the Union Navy blockade of Confederate waterways. Early in the Civil War the Confederate Government acquired the small schooner Breaker and used her as a pilot boat at Pass Cavallo and as a general utility vessel in the inland waters along the Texas coast; the vessel was active at least as early as July 11, 1862, for on that day she carried a Confederate officer, observing the operations of Union warships in Corpus Christi Bay. A month Act. Vol. Lt. John W. Kittredge, who commanded the bark Arthur as well as the other Union forces afloat in the area, left his ship and entered Aransas Bay in the tender Corypheus accompanied by the gunboat Sachem and the schooner Reindeer. There they encountered Breaker, returning from a reconnaissance mission with a detachment of Confederate soldiers embarked; the Union ships forced Breaker ashore. Her crew set her afire before abandoning ship, but a Federal boarding party put out the flames.
Kittredge added her to his flotilla as another tender to Arthur. In mid-September, Breaker accompanied Corypheus on an expedition to Corpus Christi, Texas, to secure the release of the family of Judge Edmund J. Davis, a prominent political leader who had remained loyal to the Union after his state seceded and had escaped into exile to serve the Union cause. Kittredge went ashore under a flag of truce at Corpus Christi where the Confederate commanding officer refused to permit Mrs. Davis to leave Texas, but promised to refer the matter to higher authority. While waiting a decision from San Antonio, Kittredge took his two ships to Flour Bluff, where Belle Italia joined them; the next morning, they fired upon several small vessels which escaped into the Laguna Madre, the shallow waters of which forbade the Union ships to follow. Kittredge took three prisoners before returning to Corypheus; the following morning, Kittredge again went ashore where he and his party of seven men were captured by a large group of Southern soldiers.
Fear of harming Kittredge and his men prevented Breaker and her consorts from firing on the enemy ashore. Breaker was used to store and issue provisions and ammunition to the small ships of the Union flotilla that operated along the Texas coast between Cavallo and Corpus Christi Passes; the last reference to her in the records is dated November 9, 1862. Her service may have ended shortly afterward; this article incorporates text from the public domain Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. The entry can be found here