30 St Mary Axe, informally known as The Gherkin, is a commercial skyscraper in London's primary financial district, the City of London. It was completed in December 2003 and opened in April 2004. With 41 floors, it is 180 metres tall and stands on the former sites of the Baltic Exchange and Chamber of Shipping, which were extensively damaged in 1992 in the Baltic Exchange bombing by a device placed by the Provisional IRA in St Mary Axe, a narrow street leading north from Leadenhall Street. After plans to build the 92-storey Millennium Tower were dropped, 30 St Mary Axe was designed by Norman Foster and Arup Group, it was erected by Skanska. The building has become a recognisable landmark of London, it is one of the city's most recognised examples of contemporary architecture; the building stands on the former site of the Baltic Exchange, the headquarters of a global marketplace for shipping freight contracts and soft commodities, the Chamber of Shipping. On 10 April 1992, the Provisional IRA detonated a bomb close to the Exchange, causing extensive damage to the historic building and neighbouring structures.
The United Kingdom government's statutory adviser on the historic environment, English Heritage, the City of London's governing body, the City of London Corporation, were keen that any redevelopment must restore the Baltic Exchange's old façade onto St Mary Axe. The Exchange Hall was a celebrated fixture of the shipping market. English Heritage discovered that the damage was far more severe than thought, they stopped insisting on full restoration, albeit over the objections of architectural conservationists; the Baltic Exchange and the Chamber of Shipping sold the land to Trafalgar House in 1995. Most of the remaining structures on the Baltic Exchange site were carefully dismantled, the interior of Exchange Hall and the façade were preserved, hoping for a reconstruction of the building in the future; the salvaged material was sold for £800,000 and moved to Tallinn, where it awaits reconstruction as the centrepiece of the city's commercial sector. In 1996, Trafalgar House submitted plans for the London Millennium Tower, a 386-metre building with more than 140,000 m2 of office space, shops and gardens.
This plan was dropped after objections that it was out-of-scale in the City of London, anticipated disruption to flight paths for both London City and London Heathrow airports. The tower's topmost panoramic dome, known as the "lens", recalls the iconic glass dome that covered part of the ground floor of the Baltic Exchange and much of, now displayed at the National Maritime Museum; the Gherkin nickname was applied to the current building at least as long ago as 1999, referring to that plan's unorthodox layout and appearance. On 23 August 2000, Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott granted planning permission to construct a building much larger than the old Exchange on the site; the site was special because it needed development, it was not on any of the "sight lines", it had housed the Baltic Exchange. The plan for the site was to reconstruct the Baltic Exchange. GMW Architects proposed a new rectangular building surrounding a restored exchange: it would have the type of large floor plan that banks liked.
The planners realised that the exchange was not recoverable, forcing them to relax their building constraints. This gave the architect a free hand in the design; the new building's low-level plan satisfied the planning authority's desire to maintain London's traditional streetscape, with its narrow streets. The mass of the tower was not too imposing. Like Barclays' former city headquarters in Lombard Street, the idea was that the passer-by in neighbouring streets would be nearly oblivious to the tower's existence until directly underneath it; the building was constructed by Skanska, completed in December 2003 and opened on 28 April 2004. The primary occupant of the building is Swiss Re, a global reinsurance company, which had the building commissioned as the head office for its UK operation; the tower is thus sometimes known as the Swiss Re Building, although this name has never been official and has more fallen out of favour, since the company's main headquarters is in Zurich and the Gherkin name has become more popular.
The building uses energy-saving methods which allow it to use only half the power that a similar tower would consume. Gaps in each floor create six shafts that serve as a natural ventilation system for the entire building though required firebreaks on every sixth floor interrupt the "chimney"; the shafts create a giant double glazing effect. Architects promote double glazing in residential houses, which avoids the inefficient convection of heat across the narrow gap between the panes, but the tower exploits this effect; the shafts pull warm air out of the building during the summer and warm the building in the winter using passive solar heating. The shafts allow sunlight to pass through the building, making the work environment more pleasing, keeping the lighting costs down; the primary me
Marjorie Johnson Fowler was an American film editor. She was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Film Editing in 1968 for Doctor Dolittle, she was the daughter of sister of the novelist Nora Johnson. Her husband, the film editor and director Gene Fowler Jr. died in 1998. The Woman in the Window Mr. Peabody and the Mermaid Man in the Attic Crime of Passion Stopover Tokyo Separate Tables The Man Who Understood Women Elmer Gantry The Outsider Mr. Hobbs Takes a Vacation Take Her, She's Mine What a Way to Go! Dear Brigitte Doctor Dolittle Once You Kiss a Stranger The Blue Knight It's My Turn The Marva Collins Story Family Secrets Marjorie Fowler on IMDb Marjorie Fowler at AllMovie
This is a list of township-level divisions of the province of Jiangxi, People's Republic of China. After province and county-level divisions, township-level divisions constitute the formal fourth-level administrative divisions of the PRC; this list is divided first into the prefecture-level the county-level divisions. Subdistricts: Gongyuan Subdistrict, Tengwangge Subdistrict, Bayiqiao Subdistrict, Baihuazhou Subdistrict, Dunzitang Subdistrict, Dayuan Subdistrict, Yuzhang Subdistrict, Dongjiayao Subdistrict, Pengjiaqiao Subdistrict, Shajing Subdistrict Subdistricts: Qingshan Road Subdistrict, Shanghai Road Subdistrict, Nangang Subdistrict Towns: Jingdong, Hufang, Yangzizhou, Jiaoqiao Subdistricts: Hongdu Subdistrict, Jingshan Subdistrict, Sanjiadian Subdistrict, Daishan Subdistrict, Xujiafang Subdistrict The only town is Qingyunpu Town Subdistricts: Zhanqian Subdistrict, Xingfu Subdistrict Towns: Zhaoxian, Luoting, Taiping Subdistricts: Nanpu Subdistrict, Chaoyangzhou Subdistrict, Guangrunmen Subdistrict, Xihu Subdistrict, Ximazhuang Subdistrict, Shengjinta Subdistrict, Dinggong Road Subdistrict, Nanzhan Subdistrict, Taoyuan Subdistrict, Shizi Avenue Subdistrict The only town is Taohua Towns: Longjin, Shibi, Changbu, Huangzhou Townships: Qiaole Township, Changjun Township, Xinmin Township Towns: Minhe, Wenzhen, Meizhuang, Luoxi, Qianfang Townships: Sanli Township, Ertang Township, Zhongling Township, Chixi Township, Nantai Township, Sanyangji Township, Qili Township, Xiabuji Township, Yaqian Township, Baixu Township, Changshanyan Township, Quanling Township Towns: Liantang, Sanjiang, Youlan, Wuyang, Guangfu, Maqiu Townships: Jingkou Township, Nanxin Township, Tacheng Township, Huangma Township, Fushan Township, Dongxin Township, Bayi Township Towns: Changpo, Shengmi, Shigang, Qiaohe, Xixia, Shibu, Lianwei Townships: Liuhu Township, Houtian Township, Jinqiao Township, Tiehe Township, Datangping Township, Changyi Township, Nanji Township Subdistricts: Qingyun Subdistrict, Xidajie Subdistrict, Jinggong Road Subdistrict, Liushuiqiao Subdistrict, Wenchang Subdistrict, Chengxi Subdistrict, Zhongling Subdistrict Towns: Shangdundu, Gaoping, Rongshan, Dagang, Changkai, Luohu, Dongguan, Qingni, Fubei, Chonggang Townships: Zhanping Township, Liancheng Township, Tongyuan Township, Hunan Township, Pengtian Township, Maopai Township, Hebu Township Towns: Bashan, Hangbu, Heshang, Libei, Ma'an Townships: Shizhuang Township, Liujiaqiao Township, Bailu Township, Sanshan Township, Baibei Township, Taoyuan Township, Xufang Township, Guowei Township Towns: Xiaogang, Weishangqiao, Zhanxu, Yangqiaodian, Wangqiao Townships: Pogan Township, Dengjia Township, Pogan Township, Huwei Township, Yaowei Township Towns: Wangjiang, Chishui, Ganzhu Townships: Qianshan Township, Shuinanwei Township, Changqiao Township, Yangxi Township, Jianfeng Township, Tangfang Township Towns: Xiugu, Shuangtang, Heshi, Zuofang Townships: Huangtong Township, Duiqiao Township, Lufang Township, Chenfangji Township, Boli Township, Shimen Township Towns: Aoxi, Shandang, Daifang, Wanchong, Zhaoxie Townships: Huxi Township, Luobei Township, Huping Township, Nancun Township, Gugang Township, Jinzhu She Ethnic Township Towns: Rifeng, Xunkou, Long'an, Desheng Townships: Tanxi Township, Hufang Township, Heyuan Township, Houcun Township, Sheping Township, Zhangxi Township, Xicheng Township, Zhongtian Township Towns: Jianchang, Shangtang, Hongmen, Longhu, Wanfang Townships: Xujia Township, Tianjingyuan Township, Xunxi Township Towns: Qincheng, Baishe, Qiawan, Zixiao Townships: Sanxi Township, Dongping Township, Laixi Township, Taiyuan Township, Fufang Township Towns: Fenggang, Huangpi, Lixi, Zhonggang Townships: Xinfeng Township, Shengang Township, Zhenkou Township, Nanyuan Township, Taobei Township Towns: Hecheng, Gaobu, Songsh