C-type asteroids are the most common variety, forming around 75% of known asteroids. They are distinguished by a low albedo because their composition includes a large amount of carbon, in addition to rocks and minerals, they occur most at the outer edge of the asteroid belt, 3.5 astronomical units from the Sun, where 80% of the asteroids are of this type, whereas only 40% of asteroids at 2 AU from the Sun are C-type. The proportion of C-types may be greater than this, because C-types are much darker than most other asteroid types except for D-types and others that are at the extreme outer edge of the asteroid belt. Asteroids of this class have spectra similar to those of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites; the latter are close in chemical composition to the Sun and the primitive solar nebula, except for the absence of hydrogen and other volatiles. Hydrated minerals are present. C-type asteroids are dark, with albedos in the 0.03 to 0.10 range. Whereas a number of S-type asteroids can be viewed with binoculars at opposition the largest C-type asteroids require a small telescope.
The brightest C-type asteroid is 324 Bamberga, but that object's high eccentricity means it reaches its maximum magnitude. Their spectra contain moderately strong ultraviolet absorption at wavelengths below about 0.4 μm to 0.5 μm, while at longer wavelengths they are featureless but reddish. The so-called "water" absorption feature of around 3 μm, which can be an indication of water content in minerals, is present; the largest unequivocally C-type asteroid is 10 Hygiea, although the SMASS classification places the largest asteroid, 1 Ceres, here as well, because that scheme lacks a G-type. In the Tholen classification, the C-type is grouped along with three less numerous types into a wider C-group of carbonaceous asteroids which contains: B-type C-type F-type G-type In the SMASS classification, the wider C-group contains the types: B-type corresponding to the Tholen B and F-types a core C-type for asteroids having the most "typical" spectra in the group Cg and Cgh types corresponding to the Tholen G-type Ch type with an absorption feature around 0.7μm Cb type corresponding to transition objects between the SMASS C and B types Asteroid spectral types
Hebe is a large main-belt asteroid, containing around half a percent of the mass of the belt. However, due to its high bulk density, Hebe does not rank among the top twenty asteroids by volume; this high bulk density suggests an solid body that has not been impacted by collisions, not typical of asteroids of its size – they tend to be loosely-bound rubble piles. In brightness, Hebe is the fifth-brightest object in the asteroid belt after Vesta, Ceres and Pallas, it has a mean opposition magnitude of +8.3, about equal to the mean brightness of Titan, can reach +7.5 at an opposition near perihelion. Hebe is the parent body of the H chondrite meteorites, which account for about 40% of all meteorites striking Earth. Hebe was discovered on 1 July 1847 by Karl Ludwig Hencke, the sixth asteroid discovered, it was the second and final asteroid discovery after 5 Astraea. The name Hebe, goddess of youth, was proposed by Carl Friedrich Gauss. On March 5, 1977 Hebe occulted a moderately bright 3rd-magnitude star.
No other observed occultations by Hebe have been reported. Hebe is the probable parent body of the H chondrite meteorites and the IIE iron meteorites; this would imply. Evidence for this connection includes the following: The spectrum of Hebe matches a mix of 60% H chondrite and 40% IIE iron meteorite material; the IIE type are unusual among the iron meteorites, formed from impact melt, rather than being fragments of the core of a differentiated asteroid. The IIE irons and H chondrites come from the same parent body, due to similar trace mineral and oxygen isotope ratios. Asteroids with spectra similar to the ordinary chondrite meteorites are rare. 6 Hebe is well placed to send impact debris to Earth-crossing orbits. Ejecta with relatively small velocities can enter the chaotic regions of the 3:1 Kirkwood gap at 2.50 AU and the nearby ν 6 secular resonance which determines the high-inclination edge of the asteroid belt at about 16° inclinations hereabouts. Of the asteroids in this "well-placed" orbit, Hebe is the largest.
An analysis of contributors to Earth's meteorite flux places 6 Hebe at the top of the list, due to its position and large size. Lightcurve analysis suggests that Hebe has a rather angular shape, which may be due to several large impact craters. Hebe rotates in a prograde direction, with the north pole pointing towards ecliptic coordinates = with a 10° uncertainty; this gives an axial tilt of 42°. It has a bright surface and, if its identification as the parent body of the H chondrites is correct, a surface composition of silicate chondritic rocks mixed with pieces of iron–nickel. A scenario for the formation of the surface metal is as follows: Large impacts caused local melting of the iron rich H chondrite surface; the metals, being heavier, would have settled to the bottom of the magma lake, forming a metallic layer buried by a shallow layer of silicates. Sizeable impacts broke up and mixed these layers. Small frequent impacts tend to preferentially pulverize the weaker rocky debris, leading to an increased concentration of the larger metal fragments at the surface, such that they comprise ~40% of the immediate surface at the present time.
As a result of the aforementioned 1977 occultation, a small moon around Hebe was reported by Paul D. Maley, it was nicknamed "Jebe". This was the first modern-day suggestion, it was 17 years when the first asteroid moon was formally discovered. However, the discovery of Hebe's moon has not been confirmed. Former classification of planets shape model deduced from lightcurve MNRAS 7 283 MNRAS 8 103 JPL Ephemeris 6 Hebe at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Iris is a large main-belt asteroid orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter. It is the fourth-brightest object in the asteroid belt, it is classified as an S-type asteroid. Iris was discovered on August 13, 1847, by J. R. Hind from London, UK, it was the seventh asteroid to be discovered overall. Iris was named after the rainbow goddess Iris in Greek mythology, a messenger to the gods Hera, her quality of attendant of Hera was appropriate to the circumstances of discovery, as Iris was spotted following 3 Juno by less than an hour of right ascension. Iris is an S-type asteroid, its surface exhibits albedo differences, with a large bright area in the northern hemisphere. Overall the surface is bright and is a mixture nickel-iron metals and magnesium- and iron-silicates, its spectrum is similar to that of L and LL chondrites with corrections for space weathering, so it may be an important contributor of these meteorites. Planetary dynamics indicates that it should be a significant source of meteorites.
Among the S-type asteroids, Iris ranks fifth in geometric mean diameter after Eunomia, Juno and Herculina. Iris's bright surface and small distance from the Sun make it the fourth-brightest object in the asteroid belt after Vesta and Pallas, it has a mean opposition magnitude of +7.8, comparable to that of Neptune, can be seen with binoculars at most oppositions. At typical oppositions it marginally outshines the larger though darker Pallas, but at rare oppositions near perihelion Iris can reach a magnitude of +6.7, as bright as Ceres gets. Lightcurve analysis indicates a somewhat angular shape and that Iris's pole points towards the ecliptic coordinates = with a 10° uncertainty; this gives an axial tilt of 85°, so that on a whole hemisphere of Iris, the sun does not set during summer, does not rise during winter. On an airless body this gives rise to large temperature differences. Iris was observed occulting a star on May 26, 1995, on July 25, 1997. Both observations gave a diameter of about 200 km.
Former classification of planets Shape model deduced from lightcurve 2011-Feb-19 Occultation / "Discovery of Iris", MNRAS 7 299 JPL Ephemeris "Elements and Ephemeris for Iris". Minor Planet Center. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. 7 Iris at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter. It is occupied by numerous irregularly shaped bodies called minor planets; the asteroid belt is termed the main asteroid belt or main belt to distinguish it from other asteroid populations in the Solar System such as near-Earth asteroids and trojan asteroids. About half the mass of the belt is contained in the four largest asteroids: Ceres, Vesta and Hygiea; the total mass of the asteroid belt is 4% that of the Moon, or 22% that of Pluto, twice that of Pluto's moon Charon. Ceres, the asteroid belt's only dwarf planet, is about 950 km in diameter, whereas 4 Vesta, 2 Pallas, 10 Hygiea have mean diameters of less than 600 km; the remaining bodies range down to the size of a dust particle. The asteroid material is so thinly distributed that numerous unmanned spacecraft have traversed it without incident. Nonetheless, collisions between large asteroids do occur, these can produce an asteroid family whose members have similar orbital characteristics and compositions.
Individual asteroids within the asteroid belt are categorized by their spectra, with most falling into three basic groups: carbonaceous and metal-rich. The asteroid belt formed from the primordial solar nebula as a group of planetesimals. Planetesimals are the smaller precursors of the protoplanets. Between Mars and Jupiter, gravitational perturbations from Jupiter imbued the protoplanets with too much orbital energy for them to accrete into a planet. Collisions became too violent, instead of fusing together, the planetesimals and most of the protoplanets shattered; as a result, 99.9% of the asteroid belt's original mass was lost in the first 100 million years of the Solar System's history. Some fragments found their way into the inner Solar System, leading to meteorite impacts with the inner planets. Asteroid orbits continue to be appreciably perturbed whenever their period of revolution about the Sun forms an orbital resonance with Jupiter. At these orbital distances, a Kirkwood gap occurs. Classes of small Solar System bodies in other regions are the near-Earth objects, the centaurs, the Kuiper belt objects, the scattered disc objects, the sednoids, the Oort cloud objects.
On 22 January 2014, ESA scientists reported the detection, for the first definitive time, of water vapor on Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt. The detection was made by using the far-infrared abilities of the Herschel Space Observatory; the finding was unexpected because comets, not asteroids, are considered to "sprout jets and plumes". According to one of the scientists, "The lines are becoming more and more blurred between comets and asteroids." In 1596, Johannes Kepler predicted “Between Mars and Jupiter, I place a planet” in his Mysterium Cosmographicum. While analyzing Tycho Brahe's data, Kepler thought that there was too large a gap between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. In an anonymous footnote to his 1766 translation of Charles Bonnet's Contemplation de la Nature, the astronomer Johann Daniel Titius of Wittenberg noted an apparent pattern in the layout of the planets. If one began a numerical sequence at 0 included 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, etc. doubling each time, added four to each number and divided by 10, this produced a remarkably close approximation to the radii of the orbits of the known planets as measured in astronomical units provided one allowed for a "missing planet" between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter.
In his footnote, Titius declared "But should the Lord Architect have left that space empty? Not at all."When William Herschel discovered Uranus in 1781, the planet's orbit matched the law perfectly, leading astronomers to conclude that there had to be a planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. On January 1, 1801, Giuseppe Piazzi, chair of astronomy at the University of Palermo, found a tiny moving object in an orbit with the radius predicted by this pattern, he dubbed it "Ceres", after the Roman goddess of the patron of Sicily. Piazzi believed it to be a comet, but its lack of a coma suggested it was a planet. Thus, the aforementioned pattern, now known as the Titius–Bode law, predicted the semi-major axes of all eight planets of the time. Fifteen months Heinrich Olbers discovered a second object in the same region, Pallas. Unlike the other known planets and Pallas remained points of light under the highest telescope magnifications instead of resolving into discs. Apart from their rapid movement, they appeared indistinguishable from stars.
Accordingly, in 1802, William Herschel suggested they be placed into a separate category, named "asteroids", after the Greek asteroeides, meaning "star-like". Upon completing a series of observations of Ceres and Pallas, he concluded, Neither the appellation of planets nor that of comets, can with any propriety of language be given to these two stars... They resemble small stars so much. From this, their asteroidal appearance, if I take my name, call them Asteroids. By 1807, further investigation revealed two new objects in the region: Vesta; the burning of Lilienthal in the Napoleonic wars, where the main body of work had been done, brought this first period of discovery to a close. Despite Herschel's coinage, for several decades it remained common practice to refer to these objects as planets and to prefix t
Very Large Telescope
The Very Large Telescope is a telescope facility operated by the European Southern Observatory on Cerro Paranal in the Atacama Desert of northern Chile. The VLT consists of four individual telescopes, each with a primary mirror 8.2 m across, which are used separately but can be used together to achieve high angular resolution. The four separate optical telescopes are known as Antu, Kueyen and Yepun, which are all words for astronomical objects in the Mapuche language; the telescopes form an array, complemented by four movable Auxiliary Telescopes of 1.8 m aperture. The VLT operates at infrared wavelengths; each individual telescope can detect objects four billion times fainter than can be detected with the naked eye, when all the telescopes are combined, the facility can achieve an angular resolution of about 0.002 arc-second. In single telescope mode of operation angular resolution is about 0.05 arc-second. The VLT is the most productive ground-based facility for astronomy, with only the Hubble Space Telescope generating more scientific papers among facilities operating at visible wavelengths.
Among the pioneering observations carried out using the VLT are the first direct image of an exoplanet, the tracking of individual stars moving around the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way, observations of the afterglow of the furthest known gamma-ray burst. The VLT consists of an arrangement of four large telescopes with optical elements that can combine them into an astronomical interferometer, used to resolve small objects; the interferometer includes a set of four 1.8 meter diameter movable telescopes dedicated to interferometric observations. The first of the UTs started operating in May 1998 and was offered to the astronomical community on 1 April 1999; the other telescopes became operational in 2000, enabling multi-telescope VLT capability. Four 1.8-metre Auxiliary Telescopes have been added to the VLTI to make it available when the UTs are being used for other projects. These ATs were installed and became operational between 2004 and 2007; the VLT's 8.2-meter telescopes were designed to operate in three modes: as a set of four independent telescopes. as a single large coherent interferometric instrument, for extra resolution.
This mode is used, only for observations of bright sources with small angular extent. As a single large incoherent instrument, for extra light-gathering capacity; the instrumentation required to obtain a combined incoherent focus was not built. In 2009, new instrumentation proposals were put forward to make that observing mode available. Multiple telescopes are sometimes independently pointed at the same object, either to increase the total light-gathering power or to provide simultaneous observations with complementary instruments; the UTs are equipped with a large set of instruments permitting observations to be performed from the near-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, with the full range of techniques including high-resolution spectroscopy, multi-object spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging. In particular, the VLT has several adaptive optics systems, which correct for the effects of atmospheric turbulence, providing images as sharp as if the telescope were in space. In the near-infrared, the adaptive optics images of the VLT are up to three times sharper than those of the Hubble Space Telescope, the spectroscopic resolution is many times better than Hubble.
The VLTs are noted for their high level of observing automation. The 8.2 m-diameter telescopes are housed in compact, thermally controlled buildings, which rotate synchronously with the telescopes. This design minimises any adverse effects on the observing conditions, for instance from air turbulence in the telescope tube, which might otherwise occur due to variations in the temperature and wind flow; the principal role of the main VLT telescopes is to operate as four independent telescopes. The interferometry is used about 20 percent of the time for high-resolution on bright objects, for example, on Betelgeuse; this mode allows astronomers to see details up to 25 times finer than with the individual telescopes. The light beams are combined in the VLTI using a complex system of mirrors in underground tunnels where the light paths must be kept equal within differences of less than 1/1000 mm over a light path of a hundred metres. With this kind of precision the VLTI can reconstruct images with an angular resolution of milliarcseconds.
It had long been ESO's intention to provide "real" names to the four VLT Unit Telescopes, to replace the original technical designations of UT1 to UT4. In March 1999, at the time of the Paranal inauguration, four meaningful names of objects in the sky in the Mapuche language were chosen; this indigenous people lives south of Santiago de Chile. An essay contest was arranged in this connection among schoolchildren of the Chilean II Region of which Antofagasta is the capital to write about the implications of these names, it drew many entries dealing with the cultural heritage of ESO's host country. The winning essay was submitted by 17-year-old Jorssy Albanez Castilla from Chuquicamata near the city of Calama, she received an amateur telescope, during the inauguration of the Paranal site. Unit Telescopes 1–4 are since known as Antu, Kueyen and Yepun, respectively. There was some confusion as to whether Yepun stands for the even
Juno is an asteroid in the asteroid belt. Juno was the third asteroid discovered, by German astronomer Karl Harding, it is the 11th-largest asteroid, one of the two largest stony asteroids, along with 15 Eunomia. It is estimated to contain 1% of the total mass of the asteroid belt. Juno was discovered on 1 September 1804, by Karl Ludwig Harding, it was the third asteroid found, but was considered to be a planet. Juno is named after the highest Roman goddess; the adjectival form is Junonian. With two exceptions,'Juno' is the international name, subject to local variation: Italian Giunone, French Junon, Russian Yunona, etc, its planetary symbol is ③. An older symbol, still seen, is ⚵. Juno is one of the larger asteroids tenth by size and containing 1% the mass of the entire asteroid belt, it is the second-most-massive S-type asteroid after 15 Eunomia. So, Juno has only 3% the mass of Ceres; the orbital period of Juno is 4.36578 years. Amongst S-type asteroids, Juno is unusually reflective, which may be indicative of distinct surface properties.
This high albedo explains its high apparent magnitude for a small object not near the inner edge of the asteroid belt. Juno can reach +7.5 at a favourable opposition, brighter than Neptune or Titan, is the reason for it being discovered before the larger asteroids Hygiea, Europa and Interamnia. At most oppositions, Juno only reaches a magnitude of around +8.7—only just visible with binoculars—and at smaller elongations a 3-inch telescope will be required to resolve it. It is the main body in the Juno family. Juno was considered a planet, along with 1 Ceres, 2 Pallas, 4 Vesta. In 1811, Schröter estimated Juno to be as large as 2290 km in diameter. All four were reclassified as asteroids. Juno's small size and irregular shape preclude it from being designated a dwarf planet. Juno orbits at a closer mean distance to the Sun than Ceres or Pallas, its orbit is moderately inclined at around 12° to the ecliptic, but has an extreme eccentricity, greater than that of Pluto. This high eccentricity brings Juno closer to the Sun at perihelion than Vesta and further out at aphelion than Ceres.
Juno had the most eccentric orbit of any known body until 33 Polyhymnia was discovered in 1854, of asteroids over 200 km in diameter only 324 Bamberga has a more eccentric orbit. Juno rotates in a prograde direction with an axial tilt of 50°; the maximum temperature on the surface, directly facing the Sun, was measured at about 293 K on October 2, 2001. Taking into account the heliocentric distance at the time, this gives an estimated maximum temperature of 301 K at perihelion. Spectroscopic studies of the Junonian surface permit the conclusion that Juno could be the progenitor of chondrites, a common type of stony meteorite composed of iron-bearing silicates such as olivine and pyroxene. Infrared images reveal that Juno possesses an 100 km-wide crater or ejecta feature, the result of a geologically young impact. Based on MIDAS infrared data using the Hale telescope, an average radius of 135.7±11 was reported in 2004. Juno was the first asteroid, it passed in front of a dim star on February 19, 1958.
Since several occultations by Juno have been observed, the most fruitful being the occultation of SAO 115946 on December 11, 1979, registered by 18 observers. Juno occulted the magnitude 11.3 star PPMX 9823370 on July 29, 2013, 2UCAC 30446947 on July 30, 2013. Radio signals from spacecraft in orbit around Mars and on its surface have been used to estimate the mass of Juno from the tiny perturbations induced by it onto the motion of Mars. Juno's orbit appears to have changed around 1839 likely due to perturbations from a passing asteroid, whose identity has not been determined. In 1996, Juno was imaged by the Hooker Telescope at Mount Wilson Observatory at visible and near-IR wavelengths, using adaptive optics; the images spanned a whole rotation period and revealed an irregular shape and a dark albedo feature, interpreted as a fresh impact site. Juno reaches opposition from the Sun every 15.5 months or so, with its minimum distance varying depending on whether it is near perihelion or aphelion.
Sequences of favorable oppositions occur every 10th opposition. The last favorable oppositions were on December 1, 2005 at a distance of 1.063 AU, magnitude 7.55, on November 17, 2018 at a minimum distance of 1.036 AU, magnitude 7.45. The next opposition will be October 30, 2031, at a distance of 1.044 AU, magnitude 7.42. Juno in fiction Former classification of planets JPL Ephemeris Well resolved images from four angles taken at Mount Wilson observatory Shape model deduced from light curve Asteroid Juno Grabs the Spotlight "Elements and Ephemeris for Juno". Minor Planet Center. Archived from the original on 2015-09-04. 3 Juno at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters
Eros, provisional designation 1898 DQ, is a stony and elongated asteroid of the Amor group and the first discovered and second-largest near-Earth object with a mean-diameter of 16.8 kilometers. Visited by the NEAR Shoemaker space probe in 1998, it became the first asteroid studied from orbit; the eccentric asteroid was discovered by German astronomer Carl Gustav Witt at the Berlin Urania Observatory on 13 August 1898, named after Eros, a god from Greek mythology. Eros was discovered on 13 August 1898, by Carl Gustav Witt at Berlin Urania Observatory and Auguste Charlois at Nice Observatory. Witt was taking a 2-hour exposure of Beta Aquarii to secure astrometric positions of asteroid 185 Eunike. During the opposition of 1900–1901, a worldwide program was launched to make parallax measurements of Eros to determine the solar parallax, with the results published in 1910 by Arthur Hinks of Cambridge. A similar program was carried out, during a closer approach, in 1930–1931 by Harold Spencer Jones.
The value of the Astronomical Unit obtained by this program was considered definitive until 1968, when radar and dynamical parallax methods started producing more precise measurements. Eros was the first asteroid detected by the Arecibo Observatory's radar system. Eros was one of the first asteroids visited by a spacecraft, the first one orbited, the first one soft-landed on. NASA spacecraft NEAR Shoemaker entered orbit around Eros in 2000, landed in 2001. Eros is the first known to come within the orbit of Mars. Objects in such an orbit can remain there for only a few hundred million years before the orbit is perturbed by gravitational interactions. Dynamical integrations suggest that Eros may evolve into an Earth-crosser within as short an interval as two million years, has a 50% chance of doing so over a time scale of 108–109 years, it is a potential Earth impactor, about five times larger than the impactor that created Chicxulub crater and led to the extinction of the dinosaurs. Eros is named after the Greek god of Erōs.
It is pronounced EER-os or sometimes ERR-os. The used adjectival form of the name is Erotian. Eros is the first masculine name for an asteroid; the NEAR Shoemaker probe visited Eros twice, first with a 1998 flyby, by orbiting it in 2000 when it extensively photographed its surface. On February 12, 2001, at the end of its mission, it landed on the asteroid's surface using its maneuvering jets. Surface gravity depends on the distance from a spot on the surface to the center of a body's mass. Eros's surface gravity varies because Eros is not a sphere but an elongated peanut-shaped object; the daytime temperature on Eros can reach about 100 °C at perihelion. Nighttime measurements fall near −150 °C. Eros's density is about the same as the density of Earth's crust, it rotates once every 5.27 hours. NEAR scientists have found that most of the larger rocks strewn across Eros were ejected from a single crater in an impact 1 billion years ago; this event may be responsible for the 40 percent of the Erotian surface, devoid of craters smaller than 0.5 kilometers across.
It was thought that the debris thrown up by the collision filled in the smaller craters. An analysis of crater densities over the surface indicates that the areas with lower crater density are within 9 kilometers of the impact point; some of the lower density areas were found on the opposite side of the asteroid but still within 9 kilometers. It is theorized that seismic shockwaves propagated through the asteroid, shaking smaller craters into rubble. Since Eros is irregularly shaped, parts of the surface antipodal to the point of impact can be within 9 kilometres of the impact point though some intervening parts of the surface are more than 9 kilometres away in straight-line distance. A suitable analogy would be the distance from the top centre of a bun to the bottom centre as compared to the distance from the top centre to a point on the bun's circumference: top-to-bottom is a longer distance than top-to-periphery when measured along the surface but shorter than it in direct straight-line terms.
Compression from the same impact is believed to have created the thrust fault Hinks Dorsum. Data from the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous spacecraft collected on Eros in December 1998 suggests that it could contain 20,000 billion kilograms of aluminum and similar amounts of metals that are rare on Earth, such as gold and platinum. On January 31, 2012, Eros passed Earth at 0.17867 AU, about 70 times the distance to the Moon, with a visual magnitude of +8.1. During rare oppositions, every 81 years, such as in 1975 and 2056, Eros can reach a magnitude of +7.0, brighter than Neptune and brighter than any main-belt asteroid except 1 Ceres, 4 Vesta and 2 Pallas and 7 Iris. Under this condition, the asteroid appears to stop, but unlike the normal condition for a body in heliocentric conjunction with Earth, its retrograde motion is small. For example, in January and February 2137, it moves retrograde only 34 minutes in right ascension. Eros in fiction List of geological features on 433 Eros NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft NEAR image of the day archive The Subtle Colors of Eros The Color of Regolith Color View of the Saddle Creating Color Images of Eros Eros Color at Higher Resolution Eros' colors Eros in color Movie: NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft