People's Army of Vietnam
The People's Army of Vietnam known as the Vietnamese People's Army, is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. The PAVN is a part of the Vietnam People's Armed Forces and includes: Ground Force, Air Force, Border Defence Force, Coast Guard. However, Vietnam does not have a separate Ground Army branch. All ground troops, army corps, military districts and specialised arms belong to the Ministry of Defence, directly under the command of the Central Military Commission, the Minister of Defence, the General Staff of the Vietnam People's Army; the military flag of the PAVN is the flag of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, with the words Quyết thắng added in yellow at the top left. During the French Indochina War, the PAVN was referred to as the Việt Minh. In the context of the Vietnam War, the army was referred to as the North Vietnamese Army; this allowed writers, the U. S. military, the general public, to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists, or Viet Cong.
However, both groups worked under the same command structure. The Viet Cong was considered a branch of the VPA by the North Vietnamese. In 2010 the PAVN undertook the role of leading the 1,000th Anniversary Parade in Hanoi by performing their biggest parade in history, it is recognized as one of the most battle-hardened and best trained militaries in Asia. The first historical record of Vietnamese military history dates back on the era of Hồng Bàng, the first recorded state in ancient Vietnam to have assembled military force. Since military plays a crucial role on developing Vietnamese history due to its turbulent history of wars against China, Cambodia and Thailand; the Southern expansion of Vietnam resulted with the destruction of Champa as an independent nation to a level that it didn't exist anymore. In most of its history, the Royal Vietnamese Armed Forces was regarded to be one of the most professional, battle-hardened and trained armies in Southeast Asia as well as Asia in a large extent.
The PAVN was first conceived in September 1944 at the first Revolutionary Party Military Conference as "armed propaganda brigades" to educate and mobilise the Vietnamese to create a main force to drive the French colonial and Japanese occupiers from Vietnam. Under the guidelines of Hồ Chí Minh, Võ Nguyên Giáp was given the task of establishing the brigades and the Armed Propaganda Unit for National Liberation came into existence on 22 December 1944; the first formation was made up of thirty one men and three women, armed with two revolvers, seventeen rifles, one light machine gun, fourteen breech-loading flintlocks. The United States' OSS agents, led by Archimedes Patti –, sometimes referred as the founding father of the PAVN due to his role, had provided ammunitions as well as logistic intelligence and equipments and they had helped training these soldiers, become the vital backbone of the Vietnamese military to fight the Japanese occupiers as well as the future wars; the group was renamed the "Vietnam Liberation Army" in May 1945.
In September, the army was again renamed the "Vietnam National Defence Army". At this point, it had about 1,000 soldiers. In 1950, it became the People's Army of Vietnam. Võ Nguyên Giáp went on to become the first full general of the VPA on 28 May 1948, famous for leading the PAVN in victory over French forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and being in overall command against U. S. backed South Vietnam at the Fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. On 7 January 1947, its first regiment, the 102nd'Capital' Regiment, was created for operations around Hanoi. Over the next two years, the first division, the 308th Division well known as the Pioneer Division, was formed from the 88th Tu Vu Regiment and the 102nd Capital Regiment. By late 1950 the 308th Division had a full three infantry regiments, when it was supplemented by the 36th Regiment. At that time, the 308th Division was backed by the 11th Battalion that became the main force of the 312th Division. In late 1951, after launching three campaigns against three French strongpoints in the Red River Delta, the PAVN refocused on building up its ground forces further, with five new divisions, each of 10–15,000 men, created: the 304th Glory Division at Thanh Hóa, the 312th Victory Division in Vinh Phuc, the 316th Bong Lau Division in the northwest border region, the 320th Delta Division in the north Red River Delta, the 325th Binh Tri Thien Division in Binh Tri Thien province.
In 1951, the first artillery Division, the 351st Division was formed, before Battle of Dien Bien Phu in 1954, for the first time in history, it was equipped by 24 captured 105mm US howitzers supplied by the Chinese People's Liberation Army. The first six divisions became known as Iron' divisions. In 1954 four of these divisions defeated the French Union forces at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, ending 83 years of French rule in Indochina. Soon after the 1954 Geneva Accords, the 330th and 338th Divisions were formed by southern Vietminh members who had moved north in conformity with that agreement, by 1955, six more divisions were formed: the 328th, 332nd, 350th in the north of the DRV, the 305th and the 324th near the DMZ, the 335 Division of soldiers repatriated from Laos. In 1957, the theatres of the war with the French were reorganis
Hue–Da Nang Campaign
The Hue–Da Nang Campaign was a series of military actions conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War known in Vietnam as the American War. The campaign was centred on the cities of Huế and Da Nang, with secondary fronts in the provinces of Quảng Trị and Quảng Ngãi; the campaign began on March 5 and concluded on April 2, 1975. During the spring season of 1975, the PAVN High Command in Hanoi made the decision to seize the major South Vietnamese cities of Huế and Da Nang, destroy the various South Vietnamese units in I Corps Tactical Zone, led by ARVN General Ngô Quang Trưởng; the campaign was planned to take place over two phases. However, as the North Vietnamese forces rolled over South Vietnamese defences on the outskirts of Huế and Da Nang, President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu ordered General Trưởng to abandon all territories under his control, pull his forces back to the coastal areas of I Corps; the South Vietnamese withdrawal turned into a rout, as the PAVN 2nd Army Corps picked off one South Vietnamese unit after another, until Huế and Da Nang were surrounded.
By March 29, 1975, PAVN troops had full control of Huế and Da Nang, while South Vietnam lost all territories and most of the units belonging to I Corps. The fall of Huế and Da Nang did not spell the end of the misery suffered by the ARVN. On March 31, ARVN General Phạm Văn Phú—commander of II Corps Tactical Zone—attempted to form a new defensive line from Qui Nhơn to cover the retreat of the ARVN 22nd Infantry Division, but they too were destroyed by the PAVN. By April 2, South Vietnam had lost control of the northern provinces, as well as two army corps. During the Huế–Da Nang Campaign of 1975, North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces were organised into three formations; the 2nd Corps fielded three infantry divisions, the 673rd Air-Defence Division, the 164th Artillery Brigade, the 203rd Armoured Regiment, the 219th Combat Engineers Brigade, the 463rd Communications Regiment. The 2nd Corps was led by Major-General Nguyễn Hữu An, with Major-General Le Linh as Political Commissar. Colonel Hoang Dan was the deputy commander, Colonel Nguyen Cong Trang was the deputy political commissar.
Led by Brigadier-General Lê Tự Đồng, the Tri Thien Military Zone had three infantry regiments, two battalions. Military Region 5 had one infantry division, supported by the 141st Regiment, the 52nd Independent Brigade, two artillery regiments, two local battalions, two local regiments. North Vietnamese and Viet Cong units of Military Region 5 were placed under the responsibility of Major-General Chu Huy Mân, with Vo Chi Cong as political commissar. On February 21, 1975, PAVN field commanders from Tri-Thien Military Zone and the 2nd Army Corps held a conference to establish their objectives, which were planned to occur in two phases; the PAVN objective was to take control of Quảng Trị Province, isolate the city of Huế and, if the opportunity presented itself, capture the entire Tri Thien-Huế area. To isolate Huế, the PAVN 2nd Army Corps would move against their target from the north-west direction along Route 12 down to the south-west along Highway 14, thereby isolating the region from South Vietnamese forces in II Corps Tactical Zone.
In preparation for the Huế–Da Nang Campaign, the PAVN 2nd Army Corps had captured several important base areas that surrounded South Vietnamese units in Quảng Trị Province and Thừa Thiên Province. Those areas included Đông Hà–Ái Tử to the north, Khe Sanh-Ba Long to the west, A Lưới-Nam Dong in southern Huế; the main body of the 304th Division and the 3rd Regiment, 324th Division, had assembled in Nong Son and Thường Đức to attack Da Nang from the west. In Military Region 5, the 2nd Division had established its positions in Tiên Phước, Tra My and Trà Bồng in Quảng Ngãi Province, Đắk Tô and Tân Cảnh in Kon Tum Province. Once Huế had been isolated, Military Region 5 Command would initiate the Nam-Ngai Campaign from the provinces of Quảng Tin and Quảng Ngãi, to isolate Da Nang from the Central Highlands. PAVN units such as the 2nd Division, the 141st Regiment, the 52nd Brigade, along with two artillery regiments would coordinate their efforts with the VC 94th and 96th Local Force Regiments, the 70th and 72nd Local Force Battalions.
As part of their overall objective, they would tie down the ARVN 2nd Division, the 11th Armoured Squadron and the 912th Regional Force Company in Quảng Ngãi Province, and, if the opportunity arose, they would capture Bình Định Province and the city of Qui Nhơn. In the final phase of their operation, the PAVN and VC would cut off Da Nang from the surrounding regions which made up I Corps Tactical Zone, prevent reinforcements from retaking the city. Depending on the situation, the PAVN would organize an attack to capture the major South Vietnamese army and air force installations in the city. South Vietnamese military forces in Huế and Da Nang belonged to the ARVN I Corps Tactical Zone. Commanded by Lieutenant General Ngô Quang Trưởng, the South Vietnamese I Corps was considered to be the strongest amongst all the military formations of South Vietnam, it had three infantry divisions (1st
Ho Chi Minh trail
The Hồ Chí Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam to the Republic of Vietnam through the kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia. The system provided support, in the form of manpower and materiel, to the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam and the People's Army of Vietnam, or North Vietnamese Army, during the Vietnam War, it was named by the Americans after North Vietnamese president Hồ Chí Minh. The origin of the name came from the First Indochina War because there was a Viet Minh logistics line called the Route of Ho Chi Minh, in 1961, as the present trail developed, Agence France-Presse announced on the radio that a North–South trail had now opened, they named the corridor La Piste de Hồ Chí Minh, or in English the Hồ Chí Minh Trail; the trail ran in Laos, was called by the communists the Trường Sơn Strategic Supply Route, after the Vietnamese name for the Annamite Range mountains in central Vietnam, the communists further identified the trail as either West Trường Sơn or East Trường Sơn.
According to the United States National Security Agency's official history of the war, the Trail system was "one of the great achievements of military engineering of the 20th century". The trail was able to supply troops fighting in the south, a military feat unparalleled given it was the site of the single most intense bombing campaign in history, with bombs dropping on average every seven minutes. Parts of what became the trail had existed for centuries as primitive footpaths that facilitated trade; the area through which the system meandered was among the most challenging in Southeast Asia: a sparsely-populated region of rugged mountains, triple-canopy jungle and dense primeval rainforests. Pre First Indochina War the routes were known as the Southward March, Eastward March, Westward March and Northward March. During the First Indochina War the Việt Minh maintained north–south communication and logistics by expanding on this system of trails and paths, called the routes the Trans-West Supply Line and the Trans-Indochina Link.
In 1959, Hanoi established the 559th Transportation Group under the command of Colonel Võ Bẩm to improve and maintain a transportation system to supply the NLF uprising against the South Vietnamese government. The North Vietnamese effort concentrated on infiltration across and below the Demilitarized Zone that separated the two Vietnams; as early as May 1958 PAVN and Pathet Lao forces had seized the transportation hub at Tchepone, on Laotian Route 9. This had been accomplished due to the results of elections in May that had brought a right-wing government to power in Laos, its increasing dependence on U. S. military and economic aid, an antagonistic attitude toward North Vietnam. The 559th Group "flipped" its line of communications to the western side of the Trường Sơn mountains. By 1959, the 559th had 6,000 personnel in two regiments alone, the 70th and 71st, not including combat troops in security roles or North Vietnamese and Laotian civilian laborers. In the early days of the conflict the trail was used for the infiltration of manpower.
This was due to the fact. After the initiation of U. S. naval interdiction efforts in coastal waters, known as Operation Market Time, the trail had to do double duty. Materiel sent from the north was stored in caches in the border regions that were soon retitled Base Areas, which, in turn, became sanctuaries for NLF and PAVN forces seeking respite and resupply after conducting operations within South Vietnam. There were five large Base Areas in the panhandle of Laos. BA 604 was the main logistical center during the Vietnam War. From there, the coordination and distribution of men and supplies into South Vietnam's Military Region I and BAs further south was accomplished. BA 611 facilitated transport from BA 604 to BA 609 and the supply convoys moving in either direction, it fed fuel and ammunition to BA 607 and on into South Vietnam's A Shau Valley. BA 612 was used for support of the B-3 Front in the Central Highlands of South Vietnam. BA 614, between Savannakhet and Kham Duc, South Vietnam was used for transporting men and materiel into MR 2 and to the B-3 Front.
BA 609 was important due to a fine road network that made it possible to transport supplies during the rainy season. The notion of barefoot hordes pushing loaded bicycles, driving oxcarts, or acting as human pack animals, moving hundreds of tons of supplies in this manner was supplanted by trucks, which became the main method of supply transportation; as early as December 1961, the 3rd Truck Transportation Group of PAVN's General Rear Services Department had become the first motor transport unit fielded by North Vietnamese to work the trail and the use of motor transport escalated. Two types of units served under the 559th Group: "Binh Trams" and commo-liaison units. A "Binh Tram" was the equivalent of a regimental logistical headquarters and was responsible for securing a particular section of the network. While separate units were tasked with security and signal functions, a "Binh Tram" provided the logistical necessities. Located one days march from one another, commo-liaison units were responsible for providing food, medical care, guides to the next way-station.
By April 1965, command of the 559th
Phú Lộc District
Phú Lộc is a rural district of Thừa Thiên–Huế Province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. As of 2003 the district had a population of 149,418; the district covers an area of 728 km². The district capital lies at Phú Lộc; the area abuts the South China Sea to the Hải Vân Pass to the south. The city of Phú Lộc is the main economic focal point of the district due to tourism; the district comprises the townships of Lăng Cô and Phú Lộc, the communes of Lộc Trì, Lộc Bổn, Vinh Hải, Lộc Hòa, Lộc An, Lộc Bình, Lộc Thủy, Vinh Giang, Lộc Vĩnh, Vinh Mỹ, Lộc Sơn, Lộc Tiến, Vinh Hiền, Vinh Hưng, Xuân Lộc and Lộc Điền. The district is divided into three sectors, from Huế and moving southwards towards Phú Lộc is Sector 1, opposite is Sector 2, the region between Lăng Cô and Phú Lộc is Sector 3
1st Battalion, 9th Marines
The 1st Battalion 9th Marines was an infantry battalion of the United States Marine Corps. Formed during World War I, it served until the mid-2000s when it was deactivated to make room for one of three light armor reconnaissance battalions. During the Vietnam War, 1/9 sustained the highest casualty rate in Marine Corps history; this earned them the nickname "The Walking Dead". In late 2005, the battalion was once again activated and attached to the 8th Marine Regiment at MCB Camp Lejeune. Although the first full company has deployed, 1/9 was not expected to be ready for deployment as a battalion until May 2008. On 19 April 2007, 1/9 was stood up with all of its subordinate units manned; as of 29 August 2014 the battalion has once again been deactivated due to a force shaping initiative and downsizing of the Marine Corps. On the occasion of this deactivation, one of its former officers lauded: "Not a better battalion in the world"; the battalion was composed of four rifle infantry companies and one headquarters and services company: Alpha Company Bravo Company Charlie Company Delta Company Headquarters & Service Company to include Scouts.
H&S Co. had a provisional rifle platoon composed of all Marines in H&S in the'65-'66 time period. Many of these personnel were assigned to each of the four rifle infantry companies; the battalion was activated on 20 November 1917 at Virginia as the 9th Regiment. During December 1917 they were deployed to Guantanamo Bay and attached to the 3rd Provisional Brigade, they were relocated during August 1918 to Fort Crockett, Galveston and detached from 3rd Provisional Brigade. They moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania during April 1919 and deactivated 25 April 1919; the battalion was activated on 1 March 1942 at San Diego and were assigned to the 2nd Marine Regiment of the 2nd Marine Division. They were reassigned during August 1942 to Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet and shortly thereafter relocated during September 1942 to Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton and reassigned to the 3rd Marine Division, they deployed during January–February 1943 to Auckland, New Zealand and from there participated in the following World War II Campaigns: Bougainville Campaign Northern Solomons Battle of Guam Battle of Iwo Jima Following the surrender of Japan the battalion was detached during December 1945 from the 3rd Marine Division and returned during December 1945 to Camp Pendleton, California.
They were formally deactivated on 31 December 1945. During the Vietnam War, the unit earned the name "The Walking Dead" for its high casualty rate; the battalion endured the longest sustained combat and suffered the highest killed in action rate in Marine Corps history during the Battle of July Two. The battalion was engaged in combat for 47 months and 7 days, from 15 June 1965 to 19 October 1966 and 11 December 1966 to 14 July 1969. Based on a typical battalion strength of 800 Marines and Navy hospital corpsmen, 2,892 Marines passed through the unit over those 47 months, meaning 25.89% were Killed In Action and 0.0007% were Missing In Action. 1/9 participated in the following operations during the Vietnam War: During most of this time period, the battalion rotated between Camp Pendleton and Camp Hansen, Japan. This consisted of 18 months in California. 1stBn, 9thMarines, Fleet Marine Force, Camp Pendleton, California served on several overseas deployments. 1/9 was re-designated as Battalion Landing Team One Slant Nine and deployed as the 13th MAU/SOC and 11th MAU/SOC.
During its deployments, the Marines and Sailors of 1/9 became a Marine Amphibious Unit, Special Operations Capable. This designation became America's 911 calling card; the Marines and Sailors were well trained in Counter Terrorism, Downed Airman Rescue, Embassy evacuations, SPIE rigging, fast roping, rubber raiding in their inflatable boats for boarding and insertion, rappelling. The tempo of the times called for high speed actions at a moments notice. With the Cold War a real threat, much of the training was spent on foreign Soviet weapons and Soviet military doctrine; the Battalion proudly served in Gulf War I. In September 1993, 1st Battalion 9th Marines from Camp Pendleton, California commanded by LtCol. Silva were the battalion deployed as the ground combat element of the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit; the 13th MEU arrived off the coast of Somalia in early October in direct response to the Battle of Mogadishu fought on 3 and 4 October 1993. The 13th MEU and 22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit formed the 1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade commanded by General Peter Pace.
1st MEB remained on station ready to provide support to United States and United Nations forces. 1st MEB was disestablished when the 22nd MEU was reassigned to the Mediterranean area of operations in mid-November. The 13th MEU remained as the principle rapid response force in support of the joint task force and participated in Operation Restore Hope and Operation Continue Hope, they developed and executed two humanitarian assistance operations. The first, Operation Show Care took place in the cities of Qoryooley from 11 -- 14 November. From 1–3 December 1993, Operation More Care was conducted in the Old Port of Mogadishu. Both operations provided needed dental assistance to Somali citizens; the 13th MEU continued its presence mission through January, providing aircraft for the "Eyes Over Mogadishu"
Con Thien was a United States Marine Corps combat base located near the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone about 3 km from North Vietnam in Gio Linh District, Quảng Trị Province. It was the site of fierce fighting from February 1967 through February 1968. Con Thien is located at 16°54′35″N 106°58′48″E and was established as a Special Forces/CIDG camp before being taken over by the Marines in December 1966. Together with Marine bases at Gio Linh, Đông Hà and Cam Lộ, Con Thien enclosed the area known to the Marines as Leatherneck Square. Con Thien was intended to be used as a base for the McNamara Line to prevent People's Army of Vietnam infiltration across the DMZ; the firebase was strategically important because it offered unfettered views for 15 km east to the coast and north into North Vietnam. It was very vulnerable because it was within range of PAVN artillery north of the DMZ, immune to counter-battery fire. On 27 February 1967, in response to Marine artillery fire into and the area north of the DMZ PAVN mortar and artillery fire hit Con Thien and Gio Linh.
On 20 March, NVA began shelling Con Thien and Gio Linh, which continued sporadically for the next two weeks. On 24 March 1st Battalion, 9th Marines began Operation Prairie III where they encountered a PAVN battalion in a bunker complex southeast of Con Thien. After a two-hour fight the PAVN withdrew leaving 33 killed in action. Sergeant Walter K. Singleton was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions in the attack. 3rd Battalion, 3rd Marines operating beside 1/9 encountered an entrenched PAVN Company, killing 28 PAVN including two women. On 30 March, Company I 3rd Battalion, 9th Marines was establishing a night ambush position when it was attacked by a PAVN force, 2LT John P. Bobo was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions during the attack. In mid-April Charlie Company, 11th Engineer Battalion was tasked with clearing a 200m wide strip from Con Thien to Gio Linh, a distance of 10.6 km. The engineers were protected by a task force consisting of the 1st Battalion, 4th Marines, an AMTRAC platoon, a platoon of M42 Dusters from the 1st Battalion, 44th Artillery Regiment and some Army of the Republic of Vietnam units.
By 19 April, despite harassment from PAVN mines, small arms, recoilless rifle and artillery fire the strip was half-completed. In order to protect Route 561, the supply line to Con Thien from Route 9, the Marines had established two outposts: Charlie 2 was located 3 km southeast of Con Thien and contained artillery and infantry positions, while C-2A was on low-lying ground overlooking a bridge. At 03:00 on 8 May some 300 rounds of mortar and artillery fire hit the base, while PAVN sappers with Bangalore torpedoes breached the perimeter wire. At 04:00 two battalions of the PAVN 812th Regiment armed with flamethrowers overran the Marine stronghold. At the time of the attack the base was defended by the command element and Company'D' of the 1/4th Marines; the well organized attack fell on Company D's northern perimeter. Fierce hand-to-hand combat along the perimeter by the outnumbered Marines led to repelling the initial attacking forces. A relief column from Company'A' was sent with 2 LVT-5s and 2 quarter ton trucks.
The M42 was hit by an RPG-7 and an LVT-5 and one truck were destroyed by flamethrowers and satchel charges. A large number of casualties were sustained by Marines of'A' company. By 09:00 some six hours the enemy had withdrawn leaving 197 killed and 8 prisoners; the Marines had suffered 110 wounded. After the 8 May attack, recognizing that the PAVN were using the DMZ as a sanctuary for attacks into I Corps, Washington lifted the prohibition on US forces entering the DMZ and MACV authorized the III Marine Amphibious Force to conduct combat operations into the southern half of the DMZ. From 13–16 May, 1/9 Marines cleared Route 561 from Cam Lo to Con Thien fought a well-entrenched PAVN force south of the base; the PAVN subsequently withdrew into the DMZ. III MAF proceeded to plan a series of combined operations with ARVN forces that occurred from 18 to 26 May. Under Operation Hickory 3rd Marine Regiment advanced to the Bến Hải River. Under Operation Lam Son 54 the ARVN 1st Division advanced parallel to the 3rd Marines along Highway 1 while the amphibious Special Landing Force Alpha secured the coastline south of the Bến Hải River under Operation Beau Charger and Special Landing Force Bravo linked up with 3rd Marines under Operation Belt Tight.
Once at the Bến Hải River, the forces swept south on a broad front to Route 9. From 19 to 27 May, when Lam Son 54 ended, the ARVN were in constant contact with the PAVN; the ARVN suffered 22 killed and 122 wounded, while claiming the PAVN suffered 342 killed and 30 captured. The amphibious element of Operation Beau Charger met no opposition while the heliborne assault dropped into a hot LZ. Only one platoon was landed and it remained isolated until rescued several hours later. Beau Charger continued until 26 May with minimal contact. 85 PAVN were claimed to have been killed. In Operation Hickory, the 2nd Battalion, 26th Marines and 2nd Battalion, 9th Marines advanced north from Con Thien on the morning of 18 May to press any PAVN against a blocking force from the 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines landed by helicopters on the Bến Hải River. At 10:00, 2/26 Marines made contact with 2 PAVN Battalions in trenches; the 2/9 Marines fought a running battle until nightfall. Five Marines were killed and 142 were wounded, while 31 PAVN were killed.
That night 75 radar-controlled airstrikes were called in on the bunker complex. At 07:00 on 1
Bình Dương Province
Bình Dương is a province of Vietnam. It is located in the Southeast region of the country to the north of Ho Chi Minh City; the province was created from Sông Bé Province on January 1, 1997. Bình Dương Province is situated on level terrain, is crossed by the Saigon, Đồng Nai, Bé river. On the other hand, it has some hills. From the Lái Thiêu central church view, you overlook Bình Dương, it looks like some places of Lâm Đồng province. Bình Dương is a flat lands, but it is higher than Ho Chi Minh City Originally, the area now known as Bình Dương was forested, was dominated by peoples of the Xtiêng, Cho Ro, Khmer Krom ethnic groups. In the 17th century, ethnic Vietnamese settlers arrived in the region from the east. Most were peasants. There were a number of refugees from a war between two feudal houses. In 1698, there were enough people in the area that a prominent Vietnamese general was sent to establish official institutions and enforce law. From that point, Bình Dương developed with extensive clearance of forests to make room for crops.
The province is now dominated by ethnic Vietnamese. Bình Dương is subdivided into nine district-level sub-divisions: 4 districts: 4 district-level towns: 1 provincial city: Thủ Dầu Một They are further subdivided into two commune-level towns, 48 communes, 41 wards; the area is considered to be good cropland, agriculture is an important industry in the province. Bình Dương is home to a significant manufacturing industry, in the first half of 2004, the province had the second highest levels of foreign investment in Vietnam. Nike, Adidas, H&M and McDonald's have set up factories to manufacture goods they sell locally and abroad in the province; the southern Dĩ An and Thuận An wards are urbanised and are now encompassed within the Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan area. Official Bình Dương Province website Bình Dương news website