Archive.today is an archive site which stores snapshots of web pages. It retrieves one page at a time similar to WebCite, smaller than 50MB each, but with support for modern sites such as Google Maps and Twitter. Archive.is uses headless browsing to record what embedded resources need to be captured to provide a high-quality memento, creates a PNG image to provide a static and non-interactive visualization of the representation. Archive.today can capture individual pages in response to explicit user requests. Since July 2013, archive.is supports the Memento Project application programming interface. Archive.today was founded in 2012. The site branded itself as archive.today, but in May 2015 changed the primary mirror to archive.is. In January 2019, it began to deprecate the archive.is domain in favor of the archive.today mirror. In March 2019 the site was blocked by several Australian internet providers in the aftermath of the Christchurch mosque shootings in an attempt to limit distribution of the footage of the attack.
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Voenizdat is a publishing house in Moscow, Russia. It was one of the largest publishing houses in USSR, that continues to operate today; the name is a Russian abbreviation for "Voennoe Izdatelstvo", meaning "Military Publication". Voenizdat was established by Revvoyensoviet on October 25, 1919; the initial aim was to publish literature for the needs of Ministry of Defence. It now publishes both fiction and non-fiction literature, technical manuals and dictionaries
Western Front (Soviet Union)
The Western Front was a front of the Red Army, one of the Red Army Fronts during World War II. The Western Front was created on 22 June 1941 from the Western Special Military District; the first Front Commander was Dmitry Pavlov. The western boundary of the Front in June 1941 was 470 km long, from the southern border of Lithuania to the Pripyat River and the town of Włodawa, it connected with the adjacent North-Western Front, which extended from the Lithuanian border to the Baltic Sea, the Southwestern Front in the Ukraine. The 1939 partition of Poland according to the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact established a new western border with no permanent defense installations, the army deployment within the Front created weak flanks. At the outbreak of war with Germany, the Western Special Military District was, in accordance with Soviet pre-war planning converted into the Western Front, under the District's commander, Army General Dmitry Grigorevich Pavlov; the main forces of the Western Front were concentrated forward along the frontier, organized in three armies.
To defend the Białystok salient, the front fielded the 10th Army, under Lieutenant General Konstantin Dmitrievich Golubev, supported by the 6th Mechanized Corps and 13th Mechanised Corps, under Major Generals Mikhail Georgievich Khatskilevich and Petr Nikolaevich Akhliustin. On 10th Army's left flank was 4th Army, under Lieutenant General Aleksander Andreevich Korobkov, supported by the 14th Mechanised Corps, under Major General Stepan Ilich Oborin. To the rear were 13th Army, under Lieutenant General Petr Mikhailovich Filatov; this army existed as a headquarters unit only, with no assigned combat forces. Among forces of Frontal designation were the 2nd Rifle Corps, 21st Rifle Corps, 44th Rifle Corps, 47th Rifle Corps, 50th Rifle Division, 4th Airborne Corps commanded by Aleksei Semenovich Zhadov at Minsk, the 58th, 61st, 63rd, 64th and 65th Fortified Regions. Mechanised forces in reserve included the 20th Mechanized Corps under Major General Andrei Grigorevich Nikitin at Minsk and the 17th Mechanized Corps, under Major General Mikhail Petrovich Petrov further forward at Slonim.
Altogether, on 22 June the Western Special Military District fielded 671,165 men, 14,171 guns and mortars, 2,900 tanks and 1,812 combat aircraft. The Western Front was on the main axis of attack by the German Army Group Centre, commanded by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock. German plans for Operation Barbarossa called for Army Group Centre's Second Panzer Group, under Colonel General Heinz Guderian, to attack south of Brest, advance through Slonim and Baranovichi, turning north-east towards Minsk where it would be met by Colonel General Hermann Hoth's Third Panzer Group, which would attack Vilnius, to the north of the Białystok salient, turn south-east. In addition to the two panzer groups. Army Group Centre included Field Marshal Günther von Kluge's Fourth Army and Colonel General Adolf Strauss' Ninth Army. Air support was provided by Field Marshal Albert Kesselring's Luftflotte 2 which contained more than half the German aircraft committed to the attack on the Soviet Union; the war started disastrously for the Western Front with the Battle of Białystok-Minsk.
The German Ninth and Fourth Armies of Army Group Centre penetrated the border north and south of the Białystok salient. The Front's tanks and aviation at airfields were annihilated by German air strikes. Soviet command and control suffered complete breakdown, worst hit was 4th Army which failed to establish communications both with headquarters above and below it. Attempts to launch a counter-attack with 10th Army on 23 June were unsuccessful; that same day the German Third Panzer Group captured Vilnius after outflanking 3rd Army. On 24 June Pavlov again attempted to organize a counter-attack, assigning his deputy Lieutenant General Ivan Vasilevich Boldin the command of 6th and 11th Mechanized Corps and 6th Cavalry Corps, commanded by Major General Ivan Semenovich Nikitin. With this mobile force Boldin was to attack northward from the Białystok region towards Grodno to prevent encirclement of Soviet forces in the salient; this attempted counter-attack was fruitless. Without any interference from Soviet fighters, Fliegerkorps VIII's close support aircraft were able to break the backbone of Western Front's counter-attack at Grodno.
6th Cavalry Corps was so badly mauled by this aerial onslaught against its columns that it was unable to deploy for attack. Jagdgeschwader 53's Hermann Neuhoff recalled: "We found the main roads in the area congested with Russian vehicles of all kinds, but no fighter opposition & little flak. We caused terrible destruction on the ground. Everything was ablaze by the time we turned for home." This air operation continued until nightfall on 24th June, resulting in 105 Tanks destroyed by German aircraft. Successful attacks were made by the Dornier 17's of KG 2. In effect Pavlov's counter-attack was routed. Of 6th Mechanized Corps' 1212 tanks, only about 200 reached their assembly areas due to air attacks and mechanical breakdowns, they ran out of fuel by the end of the day; the same fate awaited the 243 tanks of 11th Mechanized Corps, ordered to attack towards Grodno on 25 Ju
Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan is the unified armed forces of Kazakhstan. It consists of the Ground Forces and Air Defence Forces, Naval Forces, Republican Guard; the national defence policy aims are based on the Constitution of Kazakhstan. They guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state and the integrity of its land area, territorial waters and airspace and its constitutional order; the armed forces of Kazakhstan act under the authority of the Kazakhstan Ministry of Defence. The Military Balance 2013 reported the armed forces' strength as, it reported 31,000 paramilitary personnel. On May 7, 1992, the President of Kazakhstan took a number of actions regarding defence, he signed a decree on the'establishment of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan', the transformation of the State Committee of Defence of the Republic of Kazakhstan into the Ministry of Defence, on the attribution of Sagadat Nurmagambetov the military rank of Colonel General, the appointment of General-Colonel Sagadat Nurmagambetov as Defence Minister of Kazakhstan.
Mukhtar Altynbayev served as the Minister of Defence twice, most from December 2001 to 10 January 2007. On June 30, 1992, the Soviet Armed Forces' Turkestan Military District disbanded, following the collapse of the Soviet Union; the most powerful grouping of forces from the Turkestan Military District became the core of Kazakhstan's new military. Kazakhstan acquired all the units of the 40th Army and part of the 17th Army Corps, including 6 land force divisions, storage bases, the 14th and 35th air-landing brigades, 2 rocket brigades, 2 artillery regiments and a large amount of equipment, withdrawn from over the Urals after the signing of the Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe. On July 6, 2000, a Presidential Decree "On the structure of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan" changed the structure: The Armed Forces returned to a dual structure; the Airmobile Forces were created, the transition to the new military-territorial structure, established military districts, harmonized structure and deployment of troops.
On August 7, Lieutenant-General A. B. Dzharbulov was appointed commander of the Southern Military District and Lieutenant-General E. Ertaev became commander of the Eastern Military District. In February 2001 a Presidential Decree divided the functions of the Ministry of Defence and General Staff. According to the decree, the head of the General Staff subordinates all kinds of aircraft and type of troops and military districts, while the Minister of Defence has a administrative and political functions. On March 30, Major General M. K. Sihimov was appointed commander of the Western Military Region. On October 12, M. Saparov was appointed to Chief of the General Staff and First Deputy of the Defence Minister. V. B. Elamanov became commander of the Airmobile Forces. On December 8, a new Defense Minister was appointed: General K. Altynbayev, on December 27, Major General K. K. Akhmadiev was appointed commander of the Air Defense Forces. Key defense posts announced. Dzhulamanov commander of the Eastern Military District, Maj. Gen. Zhasuzakov commander of the Airmobile Forces, Major-General A. Shatskov commander of the Central Military District and K. Altynbayev given the title of Army General.
Kazakhstan had its first military parade in its history at Otar Military Base on May 7, 2013, celebrating the Defender of the Fatherland Day as the national holiday for the first time ever. During the ceremony, the first woman was promoted to the rank of General. Today there are four regional commands: Regional Command Astana, Regional Command South at Taraz, Regional Command East at Semipalatinsk, Regional Command West at Aktobe, as well as the Air Defence Forces, the Airmobile Forces with four brigades, the Artillery and Missile Forces. Kazakhstan is a founding member of CSTO and SCO. Kazakhstan has an Individual Partnership Action Plan with NATO & strategic cooperation with the Turkish Armed Forces; the 32nd Army had been serving in Kazakhstan for many years. The 32nd Army had been redesignated the 1st Army Corps the 40th Army, it came under Kazakh control in May 1992. On November 1, 1992, on the basis of units of the former Soviet 40th Army of the Turkestan Military District, the First Army Corps was created, with its headquarters in Semipalatinsk.
At its base was established the Eastern Military District, retitled on 13 November 2003 as Regional Command East. Prior to its dissolution, the 40th Army consisted of the 78th Tank Division; the 69th Tank Division and the 10th Fortified Area were both disbanded in 1992. In the middle of the 1990s Kazakhstan's land forces included the 1st Army Corps, with the 68th Motor Rifle Division – 2 motor-rifle and one tank regiment and the 78th Tank Division. While the 68th Division was called a motor-rifle formation, in equipment terms it ha
313th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 313th Rifle Division was a standard Red Army rifle division formed on July 15, 1941 in the Udmurt ASSR before being sent to the vicinity of Leningrad, first in the 7th Separate Army east of Lake Ladoga, in 32nd Army of Karelian Front, where it spent most of the war facing the Finnish Army in East Karelia. In consequence the division saw uneventful service on this quiet front until the summer of 1944, when it took part in the offensive that drove Finland out of the war; when this was accomplished, the division was redeployed to take the fight into Poland and into the German heartland in the winter and spring of 1945. It ended the war north of Berlin after compiling a distinguished record of service; the 313th began forming on July 1941 in the Udmurt ASSR in the Urals Military District. Its basic order of battle was as follows: 1068th Rifle Regiment 1070th Rifle Regiment 1072nd Rifle Regiment 856th Artillery RegimentMaj. Gen. Anton Aleksandrovich Pavlovich was given command of the division on the day.
In August, while still forming up, the division was assigned to the Reserve of the Supreme High Command and between September 5 - 9 it arrived in the Petrozavodsk area near Lake Onega and was assigned to the 7th Army. In October it moved north and became part of the Karelian Front, in the Medvezhegorskaya Operational Group, which became the 2nd Formation of the 32nd Army in March 1942. In mid-October, General Pavlovich handed command to Col. Aleksandr Pavlovich Petrov, but he in turn was replaced by Col. Grigorii Vasilevich Golovanov a month later; the 313th remained on this static front, facing the Finns just south of the Arctic Circle, until the summer of 1944. On July 19, 1943, it was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for "exemplary fulfillment of command tasks" and its "valor and courage". Leningrad Front began its offensive on the Isthmus of Karelia on June 10, making rapid progress towards Vyborg despite strong Finnish resistance. On June 16 the Finnish commander-in-chief, Marshal Mannerheim, issued orders to give up East Karelia, to free up forces for the main front on the Isthmus, so when Karelian Front launched its own offensive on the 20th it faced a fluid situation.
The 313th was tasked with clearing the railway southwards along the western shores of Lake Onega to link up with 7th Army. It did so on June 29 at Petrozavodsk, was distinguished with the name of the town where it had arrived at the front, liberated nearly three years as an honorific: "PETROZAVODSK"...313 Rifle Division... the troops who participated in the battles with the enemy, the liberation of Petrozavodsk, by the order of the Supreme High Command of 29 June 1944, a commendation in Moscow, are given a salute of 24 artillery salvos from 324 guns. Following this, the division helped continue to push the Finnish forces back to the so-called U-Line, along the Uksu River - Lake Loimola - Lake Tolva, north of Lake Ladoga, reached by July 10. In November, when this operation was ended, the 313th was transferred to the 19th Army in the Reserve of the Supreme High Command, it returned to the fighting front in January 1945, in the 132nd Rifle Corps of that Army, in the 2nd Belorussian Front, fought under those headquarters until the end of the war.
At the start of the second phase of the Vistula-Oder Offensive on February 24, 19th Army attached the division to the 3rd Guards Tank Corps as an exploitation force to drive through to the Baltic coast north of Koslin to cut the path to the west of the German forces in eastern Pomerania. By the 27th the tanks had made great progress, advancing as much as 60km, forcing units of German 2nd Army to fall back without much resistance, but the rifle divisions were falling behind; as well, 19th Army headquarters was losing communications with its troops, the Front had to order a delay of the further offensive by the tank corps while the Army reorganized. On March 5 the division received its last commander, Col. Vasilii Andryanovich Asafev, replacing Colonel Tsygankov. In April, the 313th participated in the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation, ended the war north of Berlin; when hostilities ceased, the division carried the official title of 313th Rifle, twice Order of the Red Banner, Order of Suvorov, Order of Kutuzov Division.
The division was disbanded "in place" during the summer of 1945 with the Northern Group of Forces. Affairs Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union. Сборник приказов РВСР, РВС СССР, НКО и Указов Президиума Верховного Совета СССР о награждении орденами СССР частей, соединениий и учреждений ВС СССР. Часть I. 1920 - 1944 гг. Moscow. Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306. Main Personnel Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union. Командование корпусного и дивизионного звена советских вооруженных сил периода Великой Отечественной войны 1941 – 1945 гг. Moscow: Frunze Military Academy. P. 258 Anton Aleksandrovich Pavlovich Grigorii Vasilevich Golovanov
20th Army (Soviet Union)
The 20th Army was a field army of the Red Army that fought on the Eastern Front during World War II. The Army was first formed in the Orel Military District in June 1941. On 22 June 1941 the Army was part of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command and was located west of Moscow. On 27 June 1941 it was proposed to Joseph Stalin that the Soviet armies would defend the line going through the Daugava-Polotsk-Vitebsk-Orsha-Mogilev-Mazyr as part of the Reserve Front. Committed as part of Western Front in defensive battles in Belarus and Vyazma. By 5 August 1941 the army, in David Glantz's words, had been'reduced to a skeleton.' The strength of the 289th Rifle Division had fallen to 285 men, 17 machine guns, one anti-tank gun, the 73rd Rifle Division to 100 men and 4 to 5 machine guns, 144th Rifle Division to 440 men, 153rd Rifle Division to 750 men. The Army HQ was disbanded having been destroyed in the Vyazma Pocket. Source: Combat composition of the Soviet Army via tashv and Leo Niehorster 61st Rifle Corps 110th Rifle Division 144th Rifle Division 172nd Rifle Division 69th Rifle Corps 73rd Rifle Division 229th Rifle Division 233rd Rifle Division 18th Rifle Division 301st Howitzer Artillery Regiment 537th High Power Howitzer Artillery Regiment 438th Corps Artillery Regiment 7th Mechanised Corps 14th Tank Division 18th Tank Division 1st Moscow Motor Rifle Division 9th Motorcycle Regiment 60th Pontoon Bridge Battalion Lieutenant General Fyodor Remezov Lieutenant General Pavel Kurochkin Lieutenant General M. F. Lukin Lieutenant General F. A. Ershakov Reestablished in November 1941 from Operational Group Liziukov.
Reformed November 1941 for the Battle of Moscow, including 331st and 350th Rifle Divisions, the 28th, 35th, 64th separate rifle brigades. Fought as part of the Western Front. In 1942-43 it operated on the Rzhev-Sychevka bridgehead, took part in the Rzhev-Vyazma offensive operation. In 1944 it became part of the Stavka Reserve and was reassigned to Kalinin Front and Leningrad Front, it was disbanded in April 1944 by being dispersed within the formations of 3rd Baltic Front. The army was in strategic reserve from July 1943 to April 1944. In April 1944 the headquarters was used to form the 3rd Baltic Front. Lieutenant General Andrey Vlasov Lieutenant General Max Reyter Major General N. I. Kiriukhin Lieutenant General Mikhail Khozin Lieutenant General Nikolai Berzarin Major General A. N. Ermakov Lieutenant General Nikolai Berzarin Major General A. N. Ermakov Lieutenant General Anton Lopatin Lieutenant General Nikolai Gusev
Moscow is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 20 million within the metropolitan area. Moscow is one of Russia's federal cities. Moscow is the major political, economic and scientific center of Russia and Eastern Europe, as well as the largest city on the European continent. By broader definitions, Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the 14th largest metro area, the 18th largest agglomeration, the 14th largest urban area, the 11th largest by population within city limits worldwide. According to Forbes 2013, Moscow has been ranked as the ninth most expensive city in the world by Mercer and has one of the world's largest urban economies, being ranked as an alpha global city according to the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, is one of the fastest growing tourist destinations in the world according to the MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index. Moscow is the coldest megacity on Earth.
It is home to the Ostankino Tower, the tallest free standing structure in Europe. By its territorial expansion on July 1, 2012 southwest into the Moscow Oblast, the area of the capital more than doubled, going from 1,091 to 2,511 square kilometers, resulting in Moscow becoming the largest city on the European continent by area. Moscow is situated on the Moskva River in the Central Federal District of European Russia, making it Europe's most populated inland city; the city is well known for its architecture its historic buildings such as Saint Basil's Cathedral with its colorful architectural style. With over 40 percent of its territory covered by greenery, it is one of the greenest capitals and major cities in Europe and the world, having the largest forest in an urban area within its borders—more than any other major city—even before its expansion in 2012; the city has served as the capital of a progression of states, from the medieval Grand Duchy of Moscow and the subsequent Tsardom of Russia to the Russian Empire to the Soviet Union and the contemporary Russian Federation.
Moscow is a seat of power of the Government of Russia, being the site of the Moscow Kremlin, a medieval city-fortress, today the residence for work of the President of Russia. The Moscow Kremlin and Red Square are one of several World Heritage Sites in the city. Both chambers of the Russian parliament sit in the city. Moscow is considered the center of Russian culture, having served as the home of Russian artists and sports figures and because of the presence of museums and political institutions and theatres; the city is served by a transit network, which includes four international airports, nine railway terminals, numerous trams, a monorail system and one of the deepest underground rapid transit systems in the world, the Moscow Metro, the fourth-largest in the world and largest outside Asia in terms of passenger numbers, the busiest in Europe. It is recognized as one of the city's landmarks due to the rich architecture of its 200 stations. Moscow has acquired a number of epithets, most referring to its size and preeminent status within the nation: The Third Rome, the Whitestone One, the First Throne, the Forty Soroks.
Moscow is one of the twelve Hero Cities. The demonym for a Moscow resident is "москвич" for male or "москвичка" for female, rendered in English as Muscovite; the name "Moscow" is abbreviated "MSK". The name of the city is thought to be derived from the name of the Moskva River. There have been proposed several theories of the origin of the name of the river. Finno-Ugric Merya and Muroma people, who were among the several Early Eastern Slavic tribes which inhabited the area, called the river Mustajoki, it has been suggested. The most linguistically well grounded and accepted is from the Proto-Balto-Slavic root *mŭzg-/muzg- from the Proto-Indo-European *meu- "wet", so the name Moskva might signify a river at a wetland or a marsh, its cognates include Russian: музга, muzga "pool, puddle", Lithuanian: mazgoti and Latvian: mazgāt "to wash", Sanskrit: májjati "to drown", Latin: mergō "to dip, immerse". In many Slavic countries Moskov is a surname, most common in Bulgaria, Russia and North Macedonia. There exist as well similar place names in Poland like Mozgawa.
The original Old Russian form of the name is reconstructed as *Москы, *Mosky, hence it was one of a few Slavic ū-stem nouns. As with other nouns of that declension, it had been undergoing a morphological transformation at the early stage of the development of the language, as a result the first written mentions in the 12th century were Московь, Moskovĭ, Москви, Moskvi, Москвe/Москвѣ, Moskve/Moskvě. From the latter forms came the modern Russian name Москва, a result of morphological generalisation with the numerous Slavic ā-stem nouns. However, the form Moskovĭ has left some traces in many other languages, such as English: Moscow, German: Moskau, French: Moscou, Georgian: მოსკოვი, Latvian: Maskava, Ottoman Turkish: Moskov, Tatar: Мәскәү, Mäskäw, Kazakh: Мәскеу, Mäskew, Chuvash: Мускав, etc. In a similar manner the Latin name Moscovia has been formed it became a collo