Soltsy is a town and the administrative center of Soletsky District in Novgorod Oblast, located on the left bank of the Shelon River, 78 kilometers southwest of Veliky Novgorod, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 10,086 . Soltsy, whose name owes to the nearby salt water springs, was first mentioned in a chronicle in 1390 and in the following played an important role as an intermediate station on the trade route connecting Novgorod and Pskov. In 1471, the Battle of Shelon between Muscovite forces led by Ivan III and the army of the Novgorod Republic took place near Soltsy, which marked the end of political independence of the Novgorod Republic. Soltsy became a part of the Moscow State. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the territory was included into Ingermanland Governorate. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, in 1772, Pskov Governorate was established. In 1776, Porkhovsky Uyezd was transferred from Novgorod Governorate to Pskov Governorate.
Soltsy was the seat of Soletskaya Volost of Porkhovsky Uyezd. In August 1927, the uyezds were abolished and, effective October 1, 1927, Soletsky District was established, with the administrative center in Soltsy. Pskov Governorate was abolished as well and the district became a part of Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. At the same time, Soltsy was granted town status. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. Between July 13 to 16, 1941 and again from July 22, 1941 to February 21, 1944, Soltsy was occupied by German troops. On July 5, 1944, together with Soletsky District, was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Soltsy serves as the administrative center of Soletsky District; as an administrative division, it is, together with two rural localities, incorporated within Soletsky District as the town of district significance of Soltsy. As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Soltsy is incorporated within Soletsky Municipal District as Soletskoye Urban Settlement.
The main branches of industry in Soltsy are food industry. The railway connecting St. Petersburg and Nevel via Dno crosses the district from north to south, running close to Soltsy; the railway connecting Bologoye and Pskov via Staraya Russa crosses the southern tip of the district. The town is located along the Veliky Novgorod–Pskov highway and is connected by road to Staraya Russa via Volot; the Shelon River is navigable downstream of Soltsy. Soltsy contains one cultural heritage monument of federal significance and additionally fifty-one objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance; the federal monument is the St. Ilia Cathedral. Soletsky District Museum is located in Soltsy, it exhibits collections of local interest. A key strategic military base, Soltsy-2 is located northeast of the town. Снытко, О. В.. С. Д. Трифонов. Б. Чуйкова. В. Федина. Э. Дубоносова, eds. Административно-территориальное деление Новгородской губернии и области 1727-1995 гг. Справочник. St. Petersburg.
Retrieved May 27, 2014. Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №559-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области», в ред. Областного закона №730-ОЗ от 26 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Областной закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №75, 23 ноября 2005 г.. Администрация Новгородской области. Постановление №121 от 8 апреля 2008 г. «Об реестре административно-территориального устройства области», в ред. Постановления №408 от 4 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориального устройства области». Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №49–50, 16 апреля 2008 г.. Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №284-ОЗ от 7 июня 2004 г. «О наделении сельских районов и города Великий Новгород статусом муниципальных районов и городского округа Новгородской области и утверждении границ их территорий», в ред. Областного закона №802-ОЗ от 31 августа 2015 г.
«О внесении изменений в некоторые областные Законы, устанавливающие границы муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня, следующего за днём официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №86, 22 июня 2004 г.. Новгородская областная Дума. Обла
Volot, Volot Settlement, Volotovsky District, Novgorod Oblast
Volot is a rural locality and the administrative center of Volotovsky District of Novgorod Oblast, located in the west of the oblast on the banks of the Psizha River. It serves as the administrative center of Volot Settlement, one of the three settlements into which the district is administratively divided. Municipally, it is the administrative center of Volot Rural Settlement. Population: 2,236 . In the 19th century, the village Volot was a part of Starorussky Uyezd of Novgorod Governorate. In 1897, a railroad connecting Bologoye and Pskov was opened, Volot became one of the sixteen railway stations; the settlement at the railway station became the settlement of Volot. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished, Volotovsky District was established, with the center in the railway station of Volot. Novgorod Governorate was abolished as well, the district belonged to Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. On July 23, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, the districts became directly subordinate to the oblast.
On January 1, 1932 Volotovsky District was abolished and split between Dedovichsky, Dnovsky and Starorussky Districts. On February 15, 1935 it was re-established. Between 1941 and 1944 Volot was occupied by German troops. In the district, an extended underground resistance organization was active. On July 5, 1944, Volot and Volotovsky District were transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast; the industry in Volot is represented by small enterprises of food industry. Volot was founded as a railway station on the railway which connects Bologoye and Pskov via Staraya Russa; the station is still in operation. Volot is connected by roads with Staraya Soltsy. There are local roads. Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №559-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области», в ред. Областного закона №730-ОЗ от 26 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Областной закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г.
Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №75, 23 ноября 2005 г.. Администрация Новгородской области. Постановление №121 от 8 апреля 2008 г. «Об реестре административно-территориального устройства области», в ред. Постановления №408 от 4 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориального устройства области». Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №49–50, 16 апреля 2008 г.. Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №350-ОЗ от 2 декабря 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Волотовского муниципального района, наделении их статусом сельских поселений, определении административных центров и перечня населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений», в ред. Областного закона №120-ОЗ от 3 октября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Областные законы, содержащие перечни населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений». Вступил в силу со дня, следующего за днём официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №82, 15 декабря 2004 г
Demyansk is an urban locality and the administrative center of Demyansky District of Novgorod Oblast, located along the Yavon River. Municipally, it is incorporated as Demyanskoye Urban Settlement, the only urban settlement in the district. Population: 5,365 . Demyansk was first mentioned in a chronicle in 1406 as Demon; the area was a part of Derevskaya Pyatina of Novgorod. Demon was a fortress protecting a waterway from Lake Ilmen upstream the Pola and the Yavon to Lake Seliger; the fortress was located close to the boundary between the Novgorod Republic and the Grand Duchy of Moscow, it was at least twice sieged by Muscovite troops. In 1441, the Muscovites did not manage to conquer Demon, but in the 1470s they conquered and destroyed the fortress. After the subsequent fall of Novgorod, Demon was transferred to the Grand Duchy of Moscow. In the 17th century, Demon went into decline, a new settlement was founded nearby, known as Demyansky Pogost, as Demyansk. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate.
In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off. Between 1772 and 1824, Demyansk was a part of Starorussky Uyezd of Novgorod Viceroyalty. In 1824, it was chartered and became the center of Demyansky Uyezd, split off Starorussky Uyezd. On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished, Demyansky District was established, with the center in Demyansk. Demyansk belonged to Novgorod Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. Effective October 1, 1927 the town of Demyansk was made a selo. On July 23, 1930 the okrugs were abolished, the districts became directly subordinate to the oblast. Between September, 1941, February, 1943 parts of Demyansk District were occupied by German troops; the settlement was a place for the Battle of Demyansk during World War II in 1942. On July 5, 1944, Demyansky District was transferred to newly established Novgorod Oblast and remained there since. On December 28, 1960 Demyansk was granted the urban-type settlement status; the existing enterprises in Demyansk serve food industries. Demyansk is located on the road connecting Staraya Russa.
There are local roads. There is bus traffic originating from Demyansk. Demyansk contains thirteen objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance; these include a number of pre-1917 buildings of the former uyezd center, including a prison, an archaeological monument, a number of graves of soldiers fallen in World War II. Demyansk hosts the Demyansky District Museum. Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №559-ОЗ от 11 ноября 2005 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области», в ред. Областного закона №730-ОЗ от 26 февраля 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Областной закон "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Новгородской области"». Вступил в силу 1 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №75, 23 ноября 2005 г.. Администрация Новгородской области. Постановление №121 от 8 апреля 2008 г. «Об реестре административно-территориального устройства области», в ред. Постановления №408 от 4 августа 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в реестр административно-территориального устройства области».
Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №49–50, 16 апреля 2008 г.. Новгородская областная Дума. Областной закон №397-ОЗ от 17 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории Демянского муниципального района, наделении их статусом городского и сельских поселений, определении административных центров и перечня населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений», в ред. Областного закона №216-ОЗ от 1 марта 2013 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы, содержащие перечни населённых пунктов, входящих в состав территорий поселений». Вступил в силу со дня, следующего за днём официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Новгородские ведомости", №11–12, 26 января 2005 г
12th Guards Rifle Corps
The 12th Guards Rifle Corps was a corps of the Soviet Union's Red Army. Formed in 1942, the corps fought in the Vistula–Oder Offensive, East Pomeranian Offensive and Berlin Offensive; the corps was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for its actions during the storming of Berlin. It was disbanded in Germany in June 1946; the corps was first formed on the Northwestern Front in December 1942, on the basis of the 384th Rifle Division. It was commanded by Major General Nikanor Zakhvatayev. In May 1944, Zakhvatayev was transferred to command the 1st Shock Army, he was replaced by Major General Mikhail Siyazov. On 29 July, Siyazov became 67th Army deputy commander and was replaced by Major General Stepan Bunkov. On November 3, 1944 the corps included the 23rd Guards, 52nd Guards and 33rd Rifle Divisions as part of the 3rd Shock Army, it was the main force moving forward to the railway line Auce – Layzhuva. On 2 December, the corps was part of Stavka Reserve and received orders to concentrate south of Jelgava for loading onto troop transports at the Jelgava, Platone and Joniškis.
At the beginning of January 1945, trains carrying elements of the corps arrived at Mrozy, 50 kilometers east of Warsaw. The corps was concentrated 25 kilometers east of Warsaw, in the area of Mińsk Mazowiecki, Kałuszyn and Dobre. On 14 January, the Vistula–Oder Offensive was launched; the corps was part of the army reserve in the early days of the offensive. On 19 January, the corps moved to bypass Warsaw from the north. On the morning of 20 January, the corps was in the area of Sochaczew and Skierniewice. By the end of 25 January, it was in the area of Izbica and Klodawa. By the end of January, the corps had reached Bromberg; the 33rd and 52nd Guards Rifle Divisions positioned themselves at Bushkovo and Kline-Visnevka. The 23rd Guards Rifle Division was stationed in the second echelon; the 32nd and 15th SS Infantry Divisions made several attacks against the corps, supported by tanks. These attacks were repulsed. Bunkov was sent to study at the Military Academy of the General Staff on 12 February and replaced by Lieutenant General Alexander Kazankin.
The 23rd and 52nd Guards Rifle Divisions took up defensive positions on the east bank of the Oder between Nieder-Krenina and Alt-Rudnitz. From 16 April, the corps was involved in the Battle of Berlin. Kazankin was wounded on 27 April during the fighting for Berlin, he was replaced by 3rd Shock Army deputy commander Major General Alexander Filatov. On the morning of 2 May, the German troops began to surrender and the fighting ended soon after. On 11 June, the corps was awarded the Order of the Red Banner for its actions at Berlin; the corps appears to have been disbanded in June 1946, still part of the 3rd Shock Army. Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306. Corps commander list at samsv.narod.ru
A field army is a military formation in many armed forces, composed of two or more corps and may be subordinate to an army group. Air armies are equivalent formation within some air forces. A field army is composed of 100,000 to 150,000 troops. Particular field armies are named or numbered to distinguish them from "army" in the sense of an entire national land military force. In English, the typical style for naming field armies is word numbers, such as "First Army". A field army may be given a geographical name in addition to or as an alternative to a numerical name, such as the British Army of the Rhine, Army of the Niemen or Aegean Army; the Roman army was among the first to feature a formal field army, in the sense of a large, combined arms formation, namely the sacer comitatus, which may be translated as "sacred escort". The term is derived from the fact that they were commanded by Roman emperors, when they acted as field commanders. While the Roman comitatensis is sometimes translated as "field army", it may be translated as the more generic "field force" or "mobile force".
In some armed forces, an "army" has been equivalent to a corps-level unit. Prior to 1945, this was the case with a gun within the Imperial Japanese Army, for which the formation equivalent in size to a field army was an "area army". In the Soviet Red Army and the Soviet Air Forces, an army was subordinate in wartime to a front, it contained at least three to five divisions along with artillery, air defense and other supporting units. It could be classified as either tank army. In peacetime, a Soviet army was subordinate to a military district. Modern field armies are large formations which vary between armed forces in size and scope of responsibility. For instance, within NATO a field army is composed of a headquarters, controls at least two corps, beneath which are a variable number of divisions. A battle is influenced at the field army level by transferring divisions and reinforcements from one corps to another to increase the pressure on the enemy at a critical point. NATO armies are commanded by a general or lieutenant general.
Armeeoberkommando Military unit Military history List of numbered armies
The Lovat is a river in Vitebsk Oblast of Belarus, Usvyatsky and Loknyansky Districts, as well as of the city of Velikiye Luki, of Pskov Oblast and Kholmsky, Poddorsky and Parfinsky Districts of Novgorod Oblast in Russia. The source of the Lovat is Lake Lovatets in northeastern Belarus, the Lovat is a tributary of Lake Ilmen, its main tributaries are the Loknya, the Kunya, the Polist, the Redya, the Robya Rivers. The towns of Velikiye Luki and Kholm, as well as the urban-type settlement of Parfino, are located on the banks of the Lovat. From the source, the Lovat flows in the southeastern direction along the border between Russia and Belarus, the it turns north and enters Pskov Oblast of Russia, crossing the border as Lake Sesito. In this area, the Lowat flows through the lake district, passing, in Lake Vorokhobskoye. Downstrean of Velikiye Luki, in the selo of Podberezye, the Lovat turns northwest and enters Novgorod Oblast. Close to Lake Ilmen, the Lovat shares a river delta with the Pola and the Polist, though technically Polist is counted as a tributary of the Lovat.
The river basin of the Lovat comprises vast areas in the south of Novgorod and Pskov Oblasts, as well as some areas in Tver Oblast and Vitebsk Oblast of Belarus. The Lovat is listed in the State Water Register of Russia as navigable between Parfino and the mouth, there is no passenger navigation; until the 1990s, it was used for timber rafting. The Lovat served as a stretch of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks, the most important trading route of medieval Rus. From Lake Ilmen, ships wen upstream the Lovat and the Kunya, before ending up in the Western Dvina and the Dnieper, from where they could reach Constantinople via the Black Sea. Media related to Lovat River at Wikimedia Commons Река Ловать. State Water Register of Russia. Retrieved 23 February 2012
The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta