The Xian Y-7 is a transport aircraft built in the Peoples Republic of China. It is based on the Soviet-designed Antonov An-24 series, the Peoples Republic of China imported the Antonov An-24 from early in its production run and negotiated licences for production of the aircraft and its engines. In 1966, Xian aircraft factory started the project of production of An-24. The first Chinese-assembled An-24T had its flight on 25 December 1970. The WJ-5A1 turboprop engine was chosen as the Y-7s power source, the first production aircraft was not flown until February 1984, illustrating the slow progress. The Chinese aircraft equated to the An-24RV, having a complement of windows. The majority of deliveries were to the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force, mostly as transports. After the initial licensed production run the Y-7 was developed separately from the An-24 with a succession of upgrades culminating in the Xian MA60 series. A tactical transport derivative was copied, from the Antonov An-26 and emerged as the Y-7H, incorporating the cargo ramp door, Xian Y-7E Speculative designation for a Hot and High version with more powerful engines.
Xian Y-7G A military variant of the MA60 produced for the PLAAF, Xian Y-7H A reverse-engineered An-26 with rear loading ramp for the PLAAF, entering production in 1992. Xian Y7H-500 Civil variant of the Y-7H certified in 1994, Xian Y-14 The original designation for the An-26 copy/Y-7H. Xian Y-7-100 Improved version, developed in co-operation with HAECO, with redesigned cockpit and cabin and this variation was added upgraded passenger cabin interior, new avionics sourced from western providers. Flight crew was down to three, it is capable of carrying 52 passengers, Xian Y-7-100C1 Five-crew variant with equipment changes. Xian Y-7-100C2 Five-crew variant with equipment changes, Xian Y-7-100C3 Five-crew variant with equipment changes. Xian Y-7-200 Fitted with new avionics, without winglets, Xian Y-7-200A Powered by two Pratt & Whitney PW127C turboprop engines. Xian Y-7-200B Stretched version with WJ5A-1G engines, built for the Chinese domestic market, Xian HYJ-7 A pilot and crew trainer for H-6 heavy bombers fitted with a stabilised HM-1A bombsight, bomb-aiming radar and a TNL-7880 combined navigation system.
Xian MA60 A westernised variant of the Y-7 intended to more western customers. Xian JZY-01 experimental aircraft / Y-7 AWACS Carrier-based AWACS variant and this crash is the worst ever accident involving the Y-7
People's Liberation Army
The Chinese Peoples Liberation Army is the armed forces of the Communist Party of China and the Peoples Republic of China. The PLA consists of five service branches, the Ground Force, Air Force, Rocket Force. The PLA is the worlds largest military force, with a strength of approximately 2,183,000 personnel. In September 2015, Xi Jinping, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, the PLAs insignia consists of a roundel with a red star bearing the Chinese characters for Eight One, referring to the Nanchang Uprising which began on August 1,1927. The PLA is under the command of the Central Military Commission of the CPC and its commander in chief is the Chairman of the Central Military Commission. The Ministry of National Defense, which operates under the State Council and this conception of the role of the PLA requires the promotion of specialised officers who can understand modern weaponry and handle combined arms operations. Units around the country are assigned to one of five Theater commands by geographical location, Military service is compulsory by law, compulsory military service in China has never been enforced due to large numbers of military and paramilitary personnel.
In times of emergency, the Peoples Armed Police and the Peoples Liberation Army militia act as a reserve. They were known as the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army, between 1934 and 1935, the Red Army survived several campaigns led against it by Chiang Kai-Shek and engaged in the Long March. After the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the Communist Party merged the Eighth Route Army and New Fourth Army and they eventually won the Chinese Civil War, establishing the Peoples Republic of China in 1949. The PLA saw a reorganisation with the establishment of the Air Force leadership structure in November 1949 followed by the Navy leadership the following April. In 1950, the structures of the artillery, armoured troops, air defence troops, public security forces. The chemical warfare defence forces, the forces, the communications forces. During the 1950s, the PLA with Soviet assistance began to transform itself from a peasant army into a modern one, part of this process was the reorganisation that created thirteen military regions in 1955.
The PLA contained many former National Revolutionary Army units and generals who had defected to the PLA, Ma Hongbin and his son Ma Dunjing were the only two Muslim generals who led a Muslim unit, the 81st corps, to ever serve in the PLA. Han Youwen, a Salar Muslim general, defected to the PLA, in November 1950, some units of the PLA under the name of the Peoples Volunteer Army intervened in the Korean War as United Nations forces under General Douglas MacArthur approached the Yalu River. Under the weight of offensive, Chinese forces drove MacArthurs forces out of North Korea and captured Seoul. The war served as a catalyst for the modernisation of the PLAAF
Beijing Nanyuan Airport
Beijing Nanyuan Airport is a military airbase that serves as the secondary airport of Beijing. Located in Fengtai District,3 kilometres south of the Fourth Ring Road and 13 km from Tiananmen Square, Nanyuan Airport was first opened in 1910 and it is the main hub of China United Airlines. In 1904, two French light aircraft performed air shows above the Nanyuan training ground and this is the first time aircraft, as a symbol of modern science and technology, took off and landed in China. In August 1910, the Qing government began to air transportation in China. The government built rudimentary runways in Nanyuans YiJun training ground, Nanyuan airport has become the first airport in China. After the Second Zhili-Fengtian War, the academy was closed, the more than 100 pilots that trained in the academy over 4 terms have played important roles in Chinas aviation history. Later on, some of them has become key persons in civil aviation, during the Sino-Japanese War, the Japanese Army extended the airport, upgraded its air traffic control facilities, and changed the name to Nanyuan military camp.
After the Surrender of Japan in 1945, Nanyuan Airport has become one of the most important airports for the Nationalist government and its air force. The private planes of Chiang Kai-shek and Fu Zuoyi have taken off from the Nanyuan Airport, many of Kuomintangs important military, there was an aviation accident happened at the airport in 1945. in December 1948, the Peoples Liberation Army took control of the airport. In August 1949, the first flying brigade of the Peoples Liberation Army Air Force was formed in here, since then, Nanyuan Airport has been supporting the training of air and ground forces in all of the subsequent National Day Show of Force events. In 1986, China United Airlines was established, and has been using Nanyuan Airport as its hub since the beginning. In 2008, Nanyuan Airport witnessed a growth rate. The total number of passengers served increased by 80. 1%, reaching 1,357,038, total freight loaded/unloaded reached 13,243 tonnes, traffic movements had a very strong growth rate of 72. 2%, registering 12,245.
Nanyuan Airport opened a new terminal in September 2013 with a passenger handling capacity of 6 million people. The previous terminal was capable of handling 2.8 million passengers during 2011, Nanyuan Airport will close down once the proposed Beijing Daxing International Airport is built, estimated to be in late 2018. A limo Beijing Airport Bus service is available to and from the Air China Building at Xidan in Beijings city centre, the distance is 10 km by road, about 20 minutes by taxi, from Dahongmen or Gongyixiqiao. Beijing Capital International Airport Beijing Daxing International Airport List of airports in China List of the busiest airports in China List of Peoples Liberation Army Air Force airbases
The Ilyushin Il-18 is a large turboprop airliner that first flew in 1957 and became one of the best known and durable Soviet aircraft of its era. The Il-18 was one of the worlds principal airliners for several decades and was widely exported, due to the aircrafts airframe durability, many examples achieved over 45,000 flight hours and the type remains operational in both military and civilian capacities. The Il-18s successor was the long range Il-62 jet airliner, Two Soviet aircraft shared the designation Ilyushin Il-18. The first Il-18 was an airliner of 1946 but after a year of test flights that programme was abandoned. The two aircraft designs were developed as the Ilyushin Il-18 and the Antonov An-10 and the chosen was the Kuznetsov NK-4 rather than the Ivchenko AI-20. The Il-18 design had started in 1954 before the directive was issued, the design was for a four-engined low-wing monoplane with a circular pressurised fuselage and a conventional tail. The forward retracting tricycle landing gear had four wheels fitted on the main leg bogies, a new feature at the time was the fitting of a weather radar in the nose and it was the first soviet airliner to have an automatic approach system.
The aircraft has two doors on the port-side before and after the wing and two overwing emergency exits on each side. The prototype SSSR-L5811 was rolled out in June 1957 and after ground-testing it began taxi test, on 4 July 1957 the prototype first flew from Khodynka. On 10 July 1957 the aircraft was flown to Moscow-Vnukovo Airport to be presented to a Soviet government commission, present was the prototype Antonov An-10 and the Tupolev Tu-114. The Il-18 type was formally named Moskva and this was painted on the fuselage, the Moscow Machinery Plant No.30 located at Khodynka, near where the Ilyushin design office and the prototype had been built, was chosen to manufacture the aircraft. During 1957 the plant began to reduce its production of the Ilyushin Il-14, the Il-18A was only different from the prototype in minor details, mainly internal configuration to increase the seating from 75 to 89. The first Il-18B flew on 30 September 1958 powered by the AI-20, from April 1961 a TG-18 Auxiliary Power Unit was fitted for ground starting rather than the bank of lead-acid batteries.
Some aircraft were modified to allow the APU to be run in flight, with experience of the earlier aircraft a further improvement was the Il-18V variant. The Il-18V was structurally the same but the interior was re-designed including moving the galley, the first Il-18V appeared in December 1959 and was to continue into production until 1965 after 334 had been built. Specialised variants of the aircraft appeared, including aircraft modified for flight calibration. Military variants appeared including the anti-submarine Ilyushin Il-38, the first Il-18, initially equipped with Kuznetsov NK-4 engines, flew on 4 July 1957. On 17 September 1958 the aircraft first flew with the new Ivchenko AI-20 engines, vladimir Kokkinaki was the test pilot
China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1.381 billion. The state is governed by the Communist Party of China and its capital is Beijing, the countrys major urban areas include Shanghai, Beijing, Shenzhen and Hong Kong. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia. The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14,500 kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in 1912, the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until 1949, when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October 1949, both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline. Since the introduction of reforms in 1978, China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of 2016, it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army. The PRC is a member of the United Nations, as it replaced the ROC as a permanent member of the U. N. Security Council in 1971. China is a member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the WTO, APEC, BRICS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the BCIM, the English name China is first attested in Richard Edens 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa.
The demonym, that is, the name for the people, Portuguese China is thought to derive from Persian Chīn, and perhaps ultimately from Sanskrit Cīna. Cīna was first used in early Hindu scripture, including the Mahābhārata, there are, other suggestions for the derivation of China. The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The shorter form is China Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó and it was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to Chinas Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing
People's Liberation Army Air Force
The Peoples Liberation Army Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the Peoples Liberation Army, the armed forces of the Peoples Republic of China. The PLAAF was officially established on 11 November 1949, as of 2014, the PLAAF has a strength of around 398,000 personnel and is the largest air force in Asia. The PLAAF was founded with Soviet assistance on November 11,1949, the PLA had operated few aircraft before that. The PLAs first organized air unit, the Nanyuan Flying Group, was formed only in the summer of 1949 from about 40 ex-Nationalist aircraft, its task was to defend Beijing, the nations new capital. The PLAAF fought the Korean War in Soviet-built MiG-15, known as the J-2 in Chinese service, the war brought Soviet assistance for the indigenous aircraft industry. The Shenyang Aircraft Factory built the two-seat MiG-15UTI trainer as the JJ-2 and this prepared them to mass-produce derivatives of Soviet aircraft under license, starting with the J-5 in 1956, the J-6 in 1959, and the J-7 in 1967.
The 1960s were a time for the PLAAF. The withdrawal of Soviet aid due to the Sino-Soviet split, a recovery began around 1965 as J-2s, J-5s, and some J-6s were provided to North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Development of the J-8, Chinas first indigenous fighter, was initiated during the 1960s. The PLA Air Force underwent reorganization and streamlining as part of the reduction in force begun in 1985, before the 1985 reorganization, the Air Force reportedly had four branches, air defense, ground attack and independent air regiments. In war, control of the Air Force probably reverted to the regional commanders, in 1987 it was not clear how the reorganization and the incorporation of air support elements into the group armies affected air force organization. The largest Air Force organizational unit was the division, which consisted of 17,000 personnel in three regiments, a typical air defense regiment had three squadrons of three flights, each flight had three or four aircraft. The Air Force had 220,000 air defense personnel who controlled about 100 surface-to-air missile sites, in addition, it had a large number of early-warning, ground-control-intercept, and air-base radars manned by specialized troops organized into at least twenty-two independent regiments.
In the 1980s the Air Force made serious efforts to raise the educational level, superannuated pilots were retired or assigned to other duties. All new pilots were at least middle-school graduates, the time it took to train a qualified pilot capable of performing combat missions reportedly was reduced from four or five years to two years. Training emphasized raising technical and tactical skills in individual pilots and participation in combined-arms operations, in 1987 the Air Force had serious technological deficiencies — especially when compared with its principal threat, the Soviet Union — and had many needs that it could not satisfy. After the fall of the USSR, Russia became Chinas principal arms supplier to the effect that Chinese economic growth allowed Russia to sustain its aerospace industry. In the late 1980s, the mission of the PLAAF was the defense of the mainland
The Shaanxi Y-8 or Yunshuji-8 aircraft is a medium size medium range transport aircraft produced by Shaanxi Aircraft Corporation in China, based on the Soviet Antonov An-12. It has become one of Chinas most popular military and civilian transport/cargo aircraft, although the An-12 is no longer made in Ukraine, the Chinese Y-8 continues to be upgraded and produced. An estimated 169 Y-8 aircraft had been built by 2010, in the 1960s, China purchased several An-12 aircraft from the Soviet Union, along with license to assemble the aircraft locally. However, due to the Sino-Soviet split, the Soviet Union withdrew its technical assistance, the Xian Aircraft Company and Xian Aircraft Design Institute worked to reverse engineer the An-12 for local production. Design of the aircraft was completed by February 1972, the original Y-8 inherited the An-12’s twin 23mm cannon tail turret, but this was removed on subsequent variants. The Y-8 equipped with four engines mounted under the leading edges of non-swept wings.
The wings are attached high on the fuselage, and the landing gear is equipped with low pressure tires. Some specialized versions omit the cargo ramp entirely, the Y-8 is capable of carrying troops, dropping supplies, parachute drops, and functioning as an air ambulance. It can be used for commercial uses as a freighter and it is capable of hauling 20 tons of cargo, approximately 96 soldiers, or about 82 paratroopers in the cargo compartment which is 13.5 metres long,3 metres wide and 2.4 metres high. It can carry 60 severely wounded soldiers with their stretchers,20 slightly injured soldiers and 3 medical attendants, many variants for specialized roles have been built, but information on them can be vague or difficult to obtain due to the secretive nature of the Chinese military. The Y-8 transport aircraft was put into production in the Xian Aircraft Factory in June 1972. By December 1974, the first Chinese-assembled Y-8 conducted its maiden flight, following trial production of the first Y-8s, operations were transferred to the Shaanxi Aircraft Factory.
The Shaanxi-produced Y-8s conducted their test flights in December 1975, after a regime of 66 test flights the Y-8 was officially certified for use by the Chinese government. By 1981, the Y-8 entered serial production, mr. Ouyang Shaoxiu would eventually become the general designer, designing many variants of Y-8, including KJ-200. In the early 1980s, Chinese officials saw US Army recruiting advertisements featuring parachute extraction of an Army jeep along with troops, the PLA was told to develop this kind of capability. But there were two design problems, one, Y-8 wings have very sharp leading edges, so one wing tends to stall before the other, causing the aircraft to roll inverted as it stalls. The second design flaw as that the deck of the Y-8 had a 10 degree downward slope starting at the landing gear. When the PLA Air Force started to test parachute extraction, these two design flaws caused a near disaster, the cargo hit the top of the cargo door on the way out, making it clear that the Y-8 could not do parachute cargo extraction
Beijing Military Region
The Beijing Military Region was one of seven military regions for the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army. It has administration of all military affairs within Beijing city, Tianjin city, Hebei province, Shanxi province and this region is now superseded by Central Theater Command. In reductions announced in September 2003, the 24th Group Army, the last commander was General Song Puxuan. The political commissar was General Liu Fulian, the Beijing Military Region traces its lineage to the establishment of the Northwest Military Region in May 1948. It was renamed the Beijing Military Region in 1955, when the Inner Mongolia Military Region was downgraded to a district, the Beijing Military Region is primarily charged with protecting the capital. Because of its location in the capital, the Beijing Military Region is the most important of the seven military regions. In addition to guarding the capital, the Beijing Military Region is in charge of training key personnel for leadership positions through the military academies in the region.
Organizations affiliated with the Beijing Military Region often use the comrade, including the Comrade Performance Troupe