4th century BC
The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of epoch, or historical period; this century marked the height of Classical Greek civilization in all of its aspects. By the year 400 Greek philosophy, art and architecture had spread far and wide, with the numerous independent Greek colonies that had sprung up throughout the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. Arguably the most important series of political events in this period were the conquests of Alexander, bringing about the collapse of the once formidable Persian Empire and spreading Greek culture far into the east. Alexander dreamed of an east/west union, but when his short life ended in 323 BC, his vast empire was plunged into civil war as his generals each carved out their own separate kingdoms, thus began the Hellenistic age, a period characterized by a more absolute approach to rule, with Greek kings taking on royal trappings and setting up hereditary successions. While a degree of democracy still existed in some of the remaining independent Greek cities, many scholars see this age as marking the end of classical Greece.
In India, the Mauryan Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya who expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by the armies of Alexander. China in the 4th century BC entered an era of constant warfare known as the Warring States period; the period saw the rapid rise of large states over smaller ones thanks to technological advancement. Though the period has been characterized by historians as being excessively violent compared to the Spring and Autumn period, it was punctured by several cultural and social growths through the expansion of several different sects of Confucianism and Taoism, the formulation of Legalist thought. Oldest Brāhmī script dates from this period. Brāhmī is the ancestor of Brahmic scripts, used in much of Southeast Asia. Romans build their first aqueduct. Chinese use the handheld trigger crossbow for the first time; the first crossbow, the gastraphetes, is invented at Syracuse.
Burnt brick'or fired bricks' were first used in Medeterranean Civilizations. Donkey-powered mills or ` Pompeiian Mills' were first used in Italy. In Greece, Aristotle proposes the division of the known sciences. Torque with lion's-head terminals, from Susa was made, it is now in Paris. Daric, a coin first minted under Darius I of Persia is made, it is now kept in Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Second half of the 4th century BC – Tomb II, so called Tomb of Philip II of Macedon, Macedonia is made. Starting in the year 309 BC, the Chinese historian Sima Qian wrote that the Qin-employed engineer Bi Ling of the newly conquered State of Shu in Sichuan had the shoulder of a mountain cut through, making the'Separated Hill' that abated the Mo River, excavated two canals in the plain of Chengdu; the significance of this was phenomenal, as it allowed the new Guardian irrigation system to populate an area of some 40 by 50 miles with over five million people, still in use today. The Chinese astronomer Gan De divides the celestial sphere into 365¼ degrees, the tropical year into 365¼ days at a time when most astronomers used the Babylon division of the celestial sphere as 360 degrees.
First written in Sanskrit. Agnodice, female Athenian physician and midwife Alexander the Great, king of Macedon Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Macedonian diadoch Antipater, Macedonian statesman Atropates, Persian nobleman Bessus, Persian satrap of Bactria Cassander, King of Macedon Chandragupta Maurya, Founder of the "Mauryan Dynasty" Craterus, Macedonian diadoch Darius III, king of the Achaemenid Empire Demetrius Poliocretes, King of Macedon Demosthenes, Athenian statesman and orator Dhana Nanda, last emperor of the Nanda dynasty Duke Xiao of Qin, ruler of Qin Epaminondas, Theban statesman Hephaestion, Macedonian general King Wuling of Zhao, ruler of Zhao Lysimachus, Macedonian diadoh and king of Thrace Mahapadma Nanda, founding emperor of the Nanda dynasty Manius Curius Dentatus, Roman statesman Nakhthorheb, last native Pharaoh of Egypt Pang Juan, Chinese general Parmenion, Macedonian general Pelopidas, Theban statesman Perdiccas, Macedonian diadoh Philip II, King of Macedon Ptolemy I Soter, Macedonian diadoh and king of Egypt Porus, King of the Pauravas, in the Indian Subcontinent Seleucus I Nicator, Macedonian diadoh and founder of the Seleucid Empire Shang Yang, Chinese statesman Su Qin, Chinese politician and strategist Tian Ji, Chinese general Zhang Yi, Chinese strategist Apelles, Greek painter Cephisodotus the Elder, Greek sculptor Leochares, Greek sculptor Lysippos, Greek sculptor Praxiteles, Greek sculptor Scopas, Greek sculptor and architect Demetrius of Phalerum, Greek rhetorician Isocrates, Greek rhetorician and writer Menander, Greek playwright Onesicritus, Greek historical writer Qu Yuan, Chinese poet Simonides of Ceos, Greek lyric poet Xenophon, Greek historian and writer Anaximenes of Lampsacus, Greek rhetorician and historian.
Antisthenes, Greek philosopher Archytas, Greek philosopher Aristippus, Greek philosopher Aristotle, Greek philosopher Callisthenes, Greek historian Chanakya, Indian economist and political advisor Crates of Thebes, Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinope, Greek philosopher Epicurus, Greek philosopher Mencius, Chinese philosopher Panini, Indian philosopher and writer Plato, Greek philosopher Pyrrho, Greek philosopher Socrates, Greek Philo
Ab urbe condita
Ab urbe condita, or Anno urbis conditæ abbreviated as AUC in either case, is a convention, used in antiquity and by classical historians to refer to a given year in Ancient Rome. Ab urbe condita means "from the founding of the City," while anno urbis conditæ means "in the year since the City's founding." Therefore, the traditional year of the foundation of Rome, 753 BC, would be written AUC 1, while AD 1 would be AUC 754. The foundation of the Empire in 27 BC would be AUC 727. Usage of the term was more common during the Renaissance, when editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the false impression that the convention was used in antiquity. In reality, the dominant method of identifying years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held office that year. In late antiquity, regnal years were in use, as was the Diocletian era in Roman Egypt after AD 293, in the Byzantine Empire after AD 537, following a decree by Justinian; the traditional date for the founding of Rome, 21 April 753 BC, is due to Marcus Terentius Varro.
Varro may have used the consular list and called the year of the first consuls "ab urbe condita 245," accepting the 244-year interval from Dionysius of Halicarnassus for the kings after the foundation of Rome. The correctness of this calculation has not been confirmed. From the time of Claudius onward, this calculation superseded other contemporary calculations. Celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda. Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in honor of the anniversary of the city, in AD 48, the eight hundredth year from the founding of the city. Hadrian and Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations, in AD 121, in AD 147 and AD 148, respectively. In AD 248, Philip the Arab celebrated Rome's first millennium, together with Ludi saeculares for Rome's alleged tenth sæculum. Coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. A coin by a contender for the imperial throne, explicitly states "ear one thousand and first", an indication that the citizens of the empire had a sense of the beginning of a new era, a Sæculum Novum.
The Anno Domini year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome in AD 525, as a result of his work on calculating the date of Easter. Dionysius did not use the AUC convention, but instead based his calculations on the Diocletian era; this convention had been in use since AD 293, the year of the tetrarchy, as it became impractical to use regnal years of the current emperor. In his Easter table, the year AD 532 was equated with the 248th regnal year of Diocletian; the table counted the years starting from the presumed birth of Christ, rather than the accession of the emperor Diocletian on 20 November AD 284, or as stated by Dionysius: "sed magis elegimus ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi annorum tempora praenotare". Blackburn and Holford-Strevens review interpretations of Dionysius which place the Incarnation in 2 BC, 1 BC, or AD 1, it has been calculated that the year AD 1 corresponds to AUC 754, based on the epoch of Varro. Thus, AUC 1 = 753 BC AUC 753 = 1 BC AUC 754 = AD 1 AUC 1000 = AD 247 AUC 1229 = AD 476 AUC 2206 = AD 1453 AUC 2753 = AD 2000 AUC 2772 = AD 2019 List of Latin phrases
Republic of China (1912–1949)
The Republic of China controlled the Chinese mainland between 1912 and 1949. It was established in January 1912 after the Xinhai Revolution, which overthrew the Qing dynasty, the last imperial dynasty of China, its government moved to Taipei in December 1949 due to the Kuomintang's defeat in the Chinese Civil War. The Republic's first president, Sun Yat-sen, served only before handing over the position to Yuan Shikai, leader of the Beiyang Army, his party led by Song Jiaoren, won the parliamentary election held in December 1912. Song Jiaoren was assassinated shortly after and the Beiyang Army led by Yuan Shikai maintained full control of the Beiyang government. Between late 1915 and early 1916, Yuan Shikai tried to reinstate the monarchy before abdicating due to popular unrest. After Yuan Shikai's death in 1916, members of cliques in the Beiyang Army claimed their autonomy and clashed with each other. During this period, the authority of the Beiyang government was weakened by a restoration of the Qing dynasty.
In 1921, Sun Yat-sen's Kuomintang established a rival government in Canton City, Canton Province, together with the fledgling Communist Party of China. The economy of North China, overtaxed to support warlord adventurism, collapsed between 1927 and 1928. General Chiang Kai-shek, who became KMT leader after Sun Yat-sen's death, started the Northern Expedition military campaign in 1926 to overthrow the Beiyang government, completed in 1928. In April 1927, Chiang established a nationalist government in Nanking, massacred communists in Shanghai, which forced the CPC into armed rebellion, marking the beginning of the Chinese Civil War. There were industrialization and modernization, but conflict between the Nationalist government in Nanking, the CPC, remnant warlords, the Empire of Japan. Nation-building took a backseat to the Second Sino-Japanese War when the Imperial Japanese Army launched an offensive against China in 1937 that turned into a full-scale invasion. After the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II in 1945, the Chinese Civil War resumed in 1946 between the KMT and CPC, with both sides receiving foreign assistance due to the Cold War from the USA and USSR, respectively.
During this period, the 1946 Constitution of the Republic of China replaced the 1928 Organic Law as the Republic's fundamental law. Near the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, the Chinese Communist Party established the People's Republic of China, overthrowing the nationalist government on the Chinese mainland; the Government of the Republic of China moved from Nanking to Taipei in 1949, controlling only the Taiwan area after 1949. The official name of the state in the mainland was the "Republic of China". Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era; the ROC used alternate names throughout its existence were Republican China or Republican Era, as well as the Beiyang government, the Nationalist government.
A republic was formally established on 1 January 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution, which itself began with the Wuchang Uprising on 10 October 1911 overthrowing the Qing dynasty and ending over two thousand years of imperial rule in China. From its founding until 1949 it was based on mainland China. Central authority waxed and waned in response to warlordism, Japanese invasion, a full-scale civil war, with central authority strongest during the Nanjing Decade, when most of China came under the control of the Kuomintang under an authoritarian one-party military dictatorship. At the end of World War II in 1945, the Empire of Japan surrendered control of Taiwan and its island groups to the Allies, Taiwan was placed under the Republic of China's administrative control; the communist takeover of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War in 1949 left the ruling Kuomintang with control over only Taiwan, Kinmen and other minor islands. With the 1949 loss of mainland China in the civil war, the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and the KMT declared Taipei the provisional capital.
The Communist Party of China took over all of mainland China and founded the People's Republic of China in Beijing. In 1912, after over two thousand years of imperial rule, a republic was established to replace the monarchy; the Qing dynasty that preceded the republic experienced a century of instability throughout the 19th century, suffered from both internal rebellion and foreign imperialism. The ongoing instability led to the outburst of Boxer Rebellion in 1900, whose attacks on foreigners led to the invasion by the Eight Nation Alliance. China signed the Boxer Protocol and paid a large indemnity to the foreign powers: 450 million taels of fine silver. A program of institutional reform proved too late. Only the lack of an alternative regime prolonged its existence until 1912; the establishment of the Chinese Republic developed out of the Wuchang Uprising against the Qing government on 10 October 1911. That date is now celebrated annually as the ROC's national day known as the "Double Ten Day".
On 29 December 1911, Sun Yat-sen was elected president b