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A townhouse, town house, or town home as used in North America, Australia, South Africa and parts of Europe, is a type of terraced housing. A modern town house is one with a small footprint on multiple floors. In British usage, the term referred to the city residence of someone whose main or largest residence was a country house. A townhouse was the city residence of a noble or wealthy family, who would own one or more country houses in which they lived for much of the year. From the 18th century and their servants would move to a townhouse during the social season. In the United Kingdom, most townhouses are terraced. Only a small minority of them the largest, were detached, but aristocrats whose country houses had grounds of hundreds or thousands of acres lived in terraced houses in town. For example, the Duke of Norfolk owned Arundel Castle in the country, while his London house, Norfolk House, was a terraced house in St James's Square over 100 feet wide. In the United States and Canada, a townhouse has two connotations.

The older predates the automobile and denotes a house on a small footprint in a city, but because of its multiple floors, it has a large living space with servants' quarters. The small footprint of the townhouse allows it to be within walking or mass-transit distance of business and industrial areas of the city, yet luxurious enough for wealthy residents of the city. Townhouses are expensive where detached single-family houses are uncommon, such as in New York City, Boston, Toronto, Washington, DC, San Francisco. Rowhouses are similar and consist of several adjacent, uniform units found in older, pre-automobile urban areas such as Baltimore, Charleston and New Orleans, but now found in lower-cost housing developments in suburbs as well. A townhouse is where there is a continuous roof and foundation, a single wall divides adjacent townhouses, but some have a double wall with inches-wide air space in between on a common foundation. A rowhouse will be smaller and less luxurious than a dwelling called a townhouse.

The name townhouse or townhome was used to describe non-uniform units in suburban areas that are designed to mimic detached or semi-detached homes. Today, the term townhouse is used to describe units mimicking a detached home that are attached in a multi-unit complex; the distinction between living units called apartments and those called townhouses is that townhouses consist of multiple floors and have their own outside door as opposed to having only one level and/or having access via an interior corridor \hallway or via an exterior balcony-style walkway. Another distinction is that in most areas of the US outside of the largest cities, apartment refers to rental housing, townhouse refers to an individually owned dwelling, with no other unit beneath or above although the term townhouse-style apartment is heard for bi-level apartments. Townhouses can be "stacked"; such homes have multiple units vertically each with its own private entrance from the street or at least from the outside. They can be side by side in a row of three or more, in which case they are sometimes referred to as rowhouses.

A townhouse in a group of two could be referred to as a townhouse, but in Canada and the US, it is called a semi-detached home and in some areas of western Canada, a half-duplex. In Canada, single-family dwellings, be they any type, such as single-family detached homes, mobile homes, or townhouses, for example, are split into two categories of ownership: Condominium, where one owns the interior of the unit and a specified share of the undivided interest of the remainder of the building and land known as common elements. Freehold, where one owns the land and the dwelling without any condominium aspects; these may share the foundation as well but have narrow air spaces between and still referred to as a townhouse. Condominium townhouses, just like condominium apartments, are referred to as condos, thus referring to the type of ownership rather than to the type of dwelling. Since apartment style condos are the most common, when someone refers to a condo, many erroneously assume that it must be an apartment-style dwelling and conversely that only apartment-style dwellings can be condos.

All types of dwellings can be condos, this is therefore true of townhouses. A brownstone townhouse is a particular variety found in New York. In Asia and South Africa, the usage of the term follows the North American sense. Townhouses are found in complexes. Large complexes have high security, resort facilities such as swimming pools, gyms and playground equipment. A townhouse has a Strata Title. In population-dense Asian cities dominated by high-rise residential apartment blocks, such as Hong Kong, townhouses in private housing developments remain exclusively populated by the wealthy due to the rarity and large sizes of the units. Prominent examples in Hong Kong include Severn 8, in which a 5,067-square-foot townhouse sold for HK$285 million in 2008, or HK$57,000 per square foot, a record in Asia, The Beverly Hills, which consists of multiple rows of townhouses with some units as large as 11,000 square feet. Commonly

Triteleia grandiflora

Triteleia grandiflora is a species of flowering plant known by the common names largeflower triteleia, largeflower tripletlily and wild hyacinth. It is native to western North America from British Columbia to extreme northern California, eastward into Idaho and northern Utah, with disjunct populations occurring in Wyoming and Colorado, its habitat includes grassland, sagebrush and forests. It is a perennial herb growing from a corm, it produces three basal leaves up to 70 centimeters long by one wide. The inflorescence arises on a smooth, erect stem up to 75 centimeters tall and bears an umbel-like cluster of many flowers; each flower is a funnel-shaped bloom borne on a pedicel up to 4 or 5 centimeters long. The flower may be up to 3.5 centimeters long including the tubular throat and six tepals each just over a centimeter long. The inner set of three tepals are broader than the outer tepals; the flower corolla may be deep blue to white with a darker blue mid-vein. There are six stamens with yellow anthers.

The corm provides food for various wild rodents and livestock, Native Americans and settlers found them edible as well. Jepson Manual Treatment: var. howellii Flora of North America Washington Burke Museum Southwest Colorado Wildflowers Photo gallery

Schaller, Iowa

Schaller is a city in Sac County, United States. The population was 772 at the 2010 census; the city of Schaller, named after Phillip Schaller, was incorporated in 1882. The city had been founded in August 1879 as a station for the railroad under construction; the economy as was based on commercial support for surrounding farms. Settlers came from Germany, Canada, New York, eastern Iowa. Throughout the middle part of the twentieth century a major industry consisted of the packers of Bango and Jolly Time popcorn; the presence and size of these two companies helped Schaller become "The Popcorn Capital of the world." Popcorn is still a major area crop but the companies moved on to other locations in the 1980s. The railroad pulled up tracks in the 1970s. Transportation connections are by U. S. Route 20 and Iowa Highway 110. Corn and feeder cattle are the major products of the area. Schaller is located at 42°29′50″N 95°17′39″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.26 square miles, all of it land.

As of the census of 2010, there were 772 people, 318 households, 208 families living in the city. The population density was 612.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 341 housing units at an average density of 270.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.5% White, 0.1% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 3.0% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 9.6% of the population. There were 318 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.0% had a male householder with no wife present, 34.6% were non-families. 29.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 12% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.04. The median age in the city was 38.8 years. 27.2% of residents were under the age of 18.

The gender makeup of the city was 50.8 % female. As of the census of 2000, there were 779 people, 321 households, 216 families living in the city; the population density was 619.4 people per square mile. There were 347 housing units at an average density of 275.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.82% White, 0.13% African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 0.64% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.08% of the population. There were 321 households out of which 30.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.8% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.4% were non-families. 28.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 2.97. Age spread: 27.1% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 23.6% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, 19.8% who were 65 years of age or older.

The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 100.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. The median income for a household in the city was $33,365, the median income for a family was $40,268. Males had a median income of $26,964 versus $17,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $15,520. About 2.6% of families and 5.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.2% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. It is a part of the Schaller-Crestland Community School District; the district formed on July 1, 1993, by the merger of the Schaller Community School District and the Crestland Community School District

Aisa Senda

Aisa Senda is a Japanese singer and television presenter. She made her debut in 2000 in Taiwan as part of the girls group Sunday Girls, has concentrated her activities in Taiwan since then, she is capable of speaking both Japanese and Mandarin, had appeared in a number of commercials and television dramas. She is the vocalist of the Mandarin pop band Da Mouth, formed in November 2007. Senda was born and raised in Ginowan, Japan, where she had been attending Okinawa Actors School since the age of nine. In 2000, after the unexpected departure of Ando Yuko from Super Sunday, a popular television program in Taiwan, Senda was brought in to fill the opened spot, she and three other girls formed Sunday Girls, released their only album Xi-huan-ni which contains both Japanese and Mandarin songs. The group disbanded in 2001. Since leaving Super Sunday, Senda had appeared on a number of variety shows, as well as several commercials, she made her debut on television dramas when she was cast in Meteor Rain, the sequel of the famous drama Meteor Garden.

She joined Da Mouth in 2007 as their female vocalist, released their first album Da Mouth in November 2007. Da Mouth official site Senda Aisa's blog

Leinefelde–Treysa railway

The Leinefelde–Treysa line is a former railway line in the German states of Thuringia and Hesse, connecting the towns of Leinefelde, Spangenberg, Malsfeld and Treysa with one another. It was opened in sections between 1875 and 1880 as part of the Cannons Railway, a military strategic railway; the Leinefelde–Silberhausen section was opened on 3 October 1870 as part of the Gotha–Leinefelde railway, built as part of a Hanover–Göttingen–Gotha–south Germany link and as result ran from the eastern end of Leinefelde station. Thus, trains on the Cannons Railway, when it was opened, had to change direction at the station. On 31 October 1875, the section between Eschwege and Eschwege West was opened together with the Bebra–Eschwege-West line; the Niederhone–Treysa section followed on 15 May 1879. On 15 May 1880 this was followed by the opening of the Silberhausen–Eschwege section. Overall, the track had a complicated route with many bridges and tunnels, in order to provide a maximum grade of 1:50 so that heavy military trains could run on the line.

At the beginning of the 20th century, a second track was built for the same reason. But contrary to all planning, military trains used the rather poor grades of the Leinefelde–Kassel line. Thus, the planned strategic line was never used for this purpose, except for some diverted trains in World War II. In the 1920s, the second track was removed and the line was downgraded to a single-track branch line because it had only achieved regional significance. During the Second World War the line received no major damage, except for the Frieda viaduct, demolished in the last days of the war in 1945; the line was closed soon after at the nearby inner German border between Geismar and Schwebda and the viaduct was not rebuilt. In Hesse, the line was abandoned from the mid-1970s. First, on 26 May 1974 passenger services closed between Malsfeld and Waldkappel and freight traffic closed between Spangenberg and Waldkappel. Passenger traffic closed between Treysa and Malsfeld on 30 May 1981; the same day, the last train ran on the line between Schwebda.

At On 31 May 1985 the last passenger train ran between Eschwege Waldkappel. Next day Eschwege-West–Eschwege services closed; the transport of freight was abandoned between Eschwege and Schwebda on 1 October 1994 and between Eschwege and Eschwege West on 15 December 2002. The carriage of freight and passengers between Homberg and Oberbeisheim ended in 1981. Services closed between Malsfeld and Oberbeisheim on 31 December 1988. On 31 May 1986 freight services ended between Pfieffe and Spangenberg on 1 September 1994 freight services closed from Malsfeld. At that time, the southern curve at Malsfeld was used for operations at this time as the northern curve had been shut down earlier. Daily freight service ran between Homberg and Treysa until 25 June 2002. Freight trains could operate between Eschwege West and Waldkappel until 31 December 1991. In Thuringia, Geismar was served by passenger services until 31 December 1992. Freight operations were closed west of Dingelstädt in 1970. Passenger services operated to Küllstedt until 28 May 1994.

On 2 August 1996 passenger services were abandoned west of Silberhausen. The structures of the closed sections of the Cannons Railway are intended to be preserved; the section between Leinefelde and the former junction station of Silberhausen continues in operation as part of the Gotha–Leinefelde line. There is however no track connection to the Cannons Railway towards Eschwege anymore; the Eschwege–Eschwege-West section has been reactivated and electrified for regional services operated by the Hessian State Railway. The reopening took place on 12 December 2009. After the completion of renovation work, Eschwege West station was abandoned and replaced by two new stations at Eschwege-Niederhone and Eschwege town; the line is served by line R 7, operated by cantus Verkehrsgesellschaft. It runs via Eschwege, where trains have to reverse. Since 24 July 2010, a section of the old line between Bischhausen and Waldkappel is used as a cycle track, used to illustrate the signalling system; this includes a level crossing.

This is unique in Germany. The towns of Schwalmstadt and Homberg, the community of Frielendorf and the Schwalm-Eder district favour the reopening of the Homberg –Treysa section. Eisenbahnatlas Deutschland. Schweers + Wall. 2007. ISBN 978-3-89494-136-9. "Geismar - Schwebda". Vergessene Bahnen. Retrieved 25 December 2010. "Photographs of tunnel portals". Tunnelportale. Retrieved 25 December 2010. "1944 timetable". Retrieved 25 December 2010