Camp Dodge is a military installation in the city of Johnston, Iowa. Centrally located near the capital of Iowa, it serves as the headquarters of the Iowa National Guard. Original construction of the post began in 1907, to provide a place for the National Guard units to train. In 1917, the installation was handed over to national authorities and expanded to become a regional training center for forces to participate in the First World War; the name Camp Dodge comes from Brigadier General Grenville M. Dodge, who organized Iowa's first National Guard unit in 1856. Although not a native-born Iowan, he became a well-known figure and resided within the state for most of his adult life, he is considered a War hero for his service and served a term as a U. S. Congressman representing the state. In June 1917, the 163rd Depot Brigade was formed at Camp Dodge; the brigade was the base unit for the 88th Division, which processed new draftees and provided basic training. It appears the brigade despatched soldiers to multiple divisions, as two African American soldiers were sent to the 163rd Depot Brigade at Camp Dodge, before being posted to a front-line Pioneer Infantry Battalion in 92nd Division, the "Buffalo Soldiers Division".
The 163 Bgde was still at Dodge in April 1918. Upon the end of the war, the post was turned back over to state authorities. With the outbreak of the Second World War, Camp Dodge was again handed over to the federal government. Camp Dodge has served as a Reserve installation since the end of the Second World War. During World War II the Camp Dodge was defined as being at the town of Herrold, so many documents reference this name as its post office address. Herrold was surrounded by the camp; the U. S. Army Corps of Engineers purchased the town in 1990 to use as a training range; the nearby city of Johnston became the new camp address. Along with the numerous National Guard units located at Camp Dodge, the post is home to the Sustainment Training Center, Joint Forces Headquarters, Iowa's emergency operations center, a MEPS installation, the State Police academy; the camp is the home of a member of the Army Museum System. Swanson, Robert Domestic United States Military Facilities of the First World War 1917-1919 ISBN 978-0979108501 Camp Dodge Homepage Iowa Gold Star Military Museum Photos and Background Iowa National Guard
371st Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 371st Infantry Regiment was a segregated African American regiment, nominally a part of the 93rd Division, that served in World War I under French Army command, in World War II in the Italian Campaign as part of the 92nd Infantry Division. In both wars the unit had African American enlisted men and white officers; the regiment was organized 31 August 1917 at Camp Jackson, South Carolina as the 1st Provisional Infantry Regiment or from draftees. The regiment was commanded by Colonel Perry L. Miles. Due to a labor shortage for moving the cotton crop, arrival of draftees was delayed until October, the regiment did not complete organization until 20 November 1917. On 1 December 1917 the regiment was redesignated as the 371st Infantry Regiment and assigned to the 93rd Division. However, the division was never organized and its headquarters elements were demobilized in May 1918; the regiment moved to France in April 1918. On arrival in France, the unit was transferred into the French command, so most of its decorations are French rather than American.
The 371st Infantry was seconded, along with the 372nd Infantry Regiment, to the 157th Infantry Division of the French Army, called the "Red Hand Division". Under the command of General Mariano Goybet, the division was in need of reinforcements. Emmet J. Scott's Official History of the American Negro in the World War provides a summary of when the men were fighting with gallantry on the Western Front in the Champagne region of France for victory:"The 371st remained in line for over three months, holding first the Avocourt and the Verrières subsectors; the regiment, with its division, was taken out of line and thrown into the great September offensive in the Champagne. It took Côte 188, Bussy Ferme, Ardeuil and Trieres Ferme near Monthois, captured a number of prisoners, 47 machine guns, 8 trench engines, 3 field pieces, a munition depot, a number of railroad cars, enormous quantities of lumber and other supplies, it shot down three German airplanes by rifle and machine-gun fire during the advance.""During the fighting between September 28 and October 6, 1918, its losses---which were in the first three days---were 1,065 out of 2,384 engaged.
The regiment was the apex of the attacking salient in this great battle. The percentage of both dead and wounded among the officers was rather greater than among the enlisted men. Realizing their great responsibilities, the wounded officers continued to lead their men until they dropped from exhaustion and lack of blood; the men were devoted to their, leaders and as a result stood up against-a most gruelling fire, bringing the regiment its well deserved fame."Much of the fighting took place near Ardeuil and Sechault. The 371st was awarded the French Croix de Guerre as a unit award. Following a review of Medal of Honor recommendations, one enlisted man, Freddie Stowers, received the Congressional Medal of Honor in 1991 for actions in the assault on Côte 188. During the war, one officer received the French Légion d'Honneur, 22 officers and men received the Distinguished Service Cross, 123 officers and men received the French Croix de Guerre; the regiment returned to the US in February 1919 on the transport USS Leviathan, demobilizing at the end of the month at Camp Jackson, SC.
Corporal Freddie Stowers of the regiment's 1st Battalion was the only African American soldier from World War I awarded the Medal of Honor. His recommendation for the medal was "not processed" by higher headquarters at the time; the following order was issued to the 157th Division following the campaign in the Champagne region:P. C. October 8, 1918. "157th Division. "Staff. General Order No. 234 "In transmitting to you with legitimate pride the thanks and congratulations of the General Garnier-Duplessis, allow me, my dear friends of all ranks and French, to thank you from the bottom of my heart as a chief and a soldier for the expression of gratitude for the glory which you have lent our good 157th Division. I had full confidence in you but you have surpassed my hopes. "During these nine days of hard fighting you have progressed nine kilometers through powerful organized defenses, taken nearly 600 prisoners, 15 guns of different calibres, 20 minenwerfers, nearly 150 machine guns, secured an enormous amount of engineering material, an important supply of artillery ammunition, brought down by your fire three enemy aeroplanes.
"THE RED HAND", sign of the Division, thanks to you, became a bloody hand which took the Boche by the throat and made him cry for mercy. You have well avenged our glorious dead. Signed General Goybet A monument to the unit, near where Stowers earned the Medal of Honor, was erected in the Meuse-Argonne region, north of Sechault, it was completed after the regiment returned to the United States. During the German invasion of France in World War II, it was damaged by artillery; as of 2008, it remains in that damaged state. The 371st was activated on 15 October 1942 at Camp Joseph T. Robinson and assigned to the 92nd Infantry Division; the unit moved to Fort Huachuca, Arizona 8 May 1943. The 371st staged for overseas movement at Camp Patrick Henry, Virginia 12 September 1944, departing Hampton Roads 22 September 1944, arriving in Livorno, Italy 18 October 1944; the regiment entered the line 31 October 1944, joining other elements of the 92nd Infantr
Fort Devens is an active United States Army military installation in the towns of Ayer and Shirley, in Middlesex County and Harvard in Worcester County in the U. S. state of Massachusetts. It was named after Civil War general Charles Devens; the nearby Devens Reserve Forces Training Area is located in Lancaster. Although closed in 1996, the fort was reopened the next day as the Devens Reserve Forces Training Area; the name reverted to Fort Devens in May 2007. In 2011, the fort had a population of 306 enlisted personnel, 2,151 reservists, 348 civilians, 1,399 family members, maintained 25 ranges, 21 training areas, 15 maneuver areas on nearly 5,000 acres of land, it was home to the United States Army Base Camp Systems Integration Laboratory as well as the United States Army System Integration Laboratory. Part of the former area of the military base is now home to Federal Medical Center, Devens, a federal prison for male inmates requiring specialized or long-term medical or mental health care; the first military base on the site was established by Major Simon Willard, an English army officer, in 1656.
Willard, a founder of the town of Concord, was the commanding officer of "Willard’s Dragoons" of the Militia of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, one of the earliest organized military forces in central Massachusetts. Willard's home was situated near the Verbeck Gate of Fort Devens, was destroyed in 1676 in a Nehântick raid during King Philip's War. A memorial erected in 1934 marks the location today. During the Civil War the site was used for Camp Stevens, home to the 53rd Regiment Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry. Camp Devens was established on September 5, 1917 as a temporary cantonment for training soldiers during World War I, it became a demobilization center after the war. Three divisions were trained at Devens during the war. Robert Goddard used the post for his rocket operations in 1929; the camp was named Fort Devens the following year. A few years Fort Devens Army Airfield was established. In 1940, at the onset of World War II, Fort Devens was designated a reception center for all men in New England who would serve one year as draftees.
A massive $25 million building project was begun, including more than 1200 wooden buildings and an airfield. The 1st, 32nd, 45th Divisions trained at Devens during the war. Devens housed a prisoner of war camp for German and Italian prisoners from 1944 to 1946, it was designated as early as 1942 for detaining "enemy aliens" of Italian and Japanese birth. The 7th Infantry Regiment, 3rd Infantry Division was located at Fort Devens from 1946 to 1950. At reduced strength, the regiment was further decimated when a battalion from Fort Devens was redesignated as the Third Battalion, Eighth Cavalry Regiment, sent to Korea to join the 1st Cavalry Division; the 7th Infantry deployed to San Francisco and sailed for Japan on 20 August 1950, arriving on 16 September 1950 to marry-up with the 15th Infantry Regiment and the division headquarters. In the 1950s or 1960s the fort was home to the 56th Air Defense Artillery Brigade, part of 1st Region, Army Air Defense Command. On 15 February 1958 the 2nd Infantry Brigade was re-activated at Fort Devens, Massachusetts as the Pentomic 2nd Infantry Brigade with its own shoulder sleeve insignia.
It spent the next five years training in northern Cape Cod. The Brigade was prepared to support the Marines landing in the 1958 Lebanon crisis but did not deploy. Headquarters & Headquarters Company 1st Battle Group, 4th Infantry 2nd Battle Group, 60th Infantry 1st Battalion, 76th Artillery Company F, 34th Armor Company G, 34th Armor Troop F, 5th Cavalry Brigade Trains 2 Engineer CompaniesThe 2nd Infantry Brigade was inactivated on 19 February 1963 at Fort Devens, it was reactivated on 23 October 1963 as Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division and moved to Fort Riley, Kansas in January 1964. Fort Devens was the home of the 10th Special Forces Group, less 1st Battalion based in Germany, from 1968 until the Group's move to Fort Carson, Colorado in 1995, it was the home of the 39th Engineer Battalion until the 39th was inactivated in 1992. The 39th Engineer was reactivated in 2014 at Kentucky; the Army Security Agency Training Center & School was established at Devens in April 1951.
During the 1970s it became known as the U. S. Army Intelligence School, Devens, or USAISD, was moved to Fort Huachuca, Arizona in 1996; the 36th Medical Battalion including the 595th Medical Company and the 46th Combat Support Hospital, the 46th CSH was inactivated July 15, 1994. The 624th Military Police Company was stationed until the post closed; the U. S. Army post which resided at Fort Devens was closed in 1996 after 79 years of service; the Base Realignment and Closure process for land distribution for all parcels on the former Fort Devens allowed the Federal Bureau of Prisons, Shriver Job Corps, Massachusetts National Guard, Massachusetts Veterans and MassDevelopment to acquire the land. The bulk of the land was purchased by MassDevelopment for $17 million with the aim of turning Devens into a residential and business community. Since the closing of the military base, many of the existing buildings have been renovated or reconstructed. Veterans of the Army Security Agency have expressed interest in building a mu
African Americans are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. The term refers to descendants of enslaved black people who are from the United States. Black and African Americans constitute the third largest racial and ethnic group in the United States. Most African Americans are descendants of enslaved peoples within the boundaries of the present United States. On average, African Americans are of West/Central African and European descent, some have Native American ancestry. According to U. S. Census Bureau data, African immigrants do not self-identify as African American; the overwhelming majority of African immigrants identify instead with their own respective ethnicities. Immigrants from some Caribbean, Central American and South American nations and their descendants may or may not self-identify with the term. African-American history starts in the 16th century, with peoples from West Africa forcibly taken as slaves to Spanish America, in the 17th century with West African slaves taken to English colonies in North America.
After the founding of the United States, black people continued to be enslaved, the last four million black slaves were only liberated after the Civil War in 1865. Due to notions of white supremacy, they were treated as second-class citizens; the Naturalization Act of 1790 limited U. S. citizenship to whites only, only white men of property could vote. These circumstances were changed by Reconstruction, development of the black community, participation in the great military conflicts of the United States, the elimination of racial segregation, the civil rights movement which sought political and social freedom. In 2008, Barack Obama became the first African American to be elected President of the United States; the first African slaves arrived via Santo Domingo to the San Miguel de Gualdape colony, founded by Spanish explorer Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526. The marriage between Luisa de Abrego, a free black domestic servant from Seville and Miguel Rodríguez, a white Segovian conquistador in 1565 in St. Augustine, is the first known and recorded Christian marriage anywhere in what is now the continental United States.
The ill-fated colony was immediately disrupted by a fight over leadership, during which the slaves revolted and fled the colony to seek refuge among local Native Americans. De Ayllón and many of the colonists died shortly afterwards of an epidemic and the colony was abandoned; the settlers and the slaves who had not escaped returned to Haiti, whence. The first recorded Africans in British North America were "20 and odd negroes" who came to Jamestown, Virginia via Cape Comfort in August 1619 as indentured servants; as English settlers died from harsh conditions and more Africans were brought to work as laborers. An indentured servant would work for several years without wages; the status of indentured servants in early Virginia and Maryland was similar to slavery. Servants could be bought, sold, or leased and they could be physically beaten for disobedience or running away. Unlike slaves, they were freed after their term of service expired or was bought out, their children did not inherit their status, on their release from contract they received "a year's provision of corn, double apparel, tools necessary", a small cash payment called "freedom dues".
Africans could raise crops and cattle to purchase their freedom. They raised families, married other Africans and sometimes intermarried with Native Americans or English settlers. By the 1640s and 1650s, several African families owned farms around Jamestown and some became wealthy by colonial standards and purchased indentured servants of their own. In 1640, the Virginia General Court recorded the earliest documentation of lifetime slavery when they sentenced John Punch, a Negro, to lifetime servitude under his master Hugh Gwyn for running away. In the Spanish Florida some Spanish married or had unions with Pensacola, Creek or African women, both slave and free, their descendants created a mixed-race population of mestizos and mulattos; the Spanish encouraged slaves from the southern British colonies to come to Florida as a refuge, promising freedom in exchange for conversion to Catholicism. King Charles II of Spain issued a royal proclamation freeing all slaves who fled to Spanish Florida and accepted conversion and baptism.
Most went to the area around St. Augustine, but escaped slaves reached Pensacola. St. Augustine had mustered an all-black militia unit defending Spain as early as 1683. One of the Dutch African arrivals, Anthony Johnson, would own one of the first black "slaves", John Casor, resulting from the court ruling of a civil case; the popular conception of a race-based slave system did not develop until the 18th century. The Dutch West India Company introduced slavery in 1625 with the importation of eleven black slaves into New Amsterdam. All the colony's slaves, were freed upon its surrender to the British. Massachusetts was the first British colony to recognize slavery in 1641. In 1662, Virginia passed a law that children of enslaved women took the status of the mother, rather than that of the father, as under English common law; this principle was called partus sequitur ventrum. By an act of 1699, the colony ordered all free blacks deported defining as slaves all people of African descent who remained in the c
World War I
World War I known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. Contemporaneously described as "the war to end all wars", it led to the mobilisation of more than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, making it one of the largest wars in history, it is one of the deadliest conflicts in history, with an estimated nine million combatants and seven million civilian deaths as a direct result of the war, while resulting genocides and the 1918 influenza pandemic caused another 50 to 100 million deaths worldwide. On 28 June 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb Yugoslav nationalist, assassinated the Austro-Hungarian heir Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo, leading to the July Crisis. In response, on 23 July Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia. Serbia's reply failed to satisfy the Austrians, the two moved to a war footing. A network of interlocking alliances enlarged the crisis from a bilateral issue in the Balkans to one involving most of Europe.
By July 1914, the great powers of Europe were divided into two coalitions: the Triple Entente—consisting of France and Britain—and the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. Russia felt it necessary to back Serbia and, after Austria-Hungary shelled the Serbian capital of Belgrade on the 28th, partial mobilisation was approved. General Russian mobilisation was announced on the evening of 30 July; when Russia failed to comply, Germany declared war on 1 August in support of Austria-Hungary, with Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th. German strategy for a war on two fronts against France and Russia was to concentrate the bulk of its army in the West to defeat France within four weeks shift forces to the East before Russia could mobilise. On 2 August, Germany demanded free passage through Belgium, an essential element in achieving a quick victory over France; when this was refused, German forces invaded Belgium on 3 August and declared war on France the same day. On 12 August and France declared war on Austria-Hungary.
In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each power's colonial empire as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe; the Entente and its allies would become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary and their allies would become known as the Central Powers. The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917. In 1915, Italy opened a front in the Alps. Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans; the United States remained neutral, although by doing nothing to prevent the Allies from procuring American supplies whilst the Allied blockade prevented the Germans from doing the same the U. S. became an important supplier of war material to the Allies.
After the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U. S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops. Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918; the 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive.
This offensive was successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti after being decisively defeated by Italy in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918. World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural and social climate of the world; the war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, the United States, It
A battle honour is an award of a right by a government or sovereign to a military unit to emblazon the name of a battle or operation on its flags, uniforms or other accessories where ornamentation is possible. In European military tradition, military units may be acknowledged for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign. In Great Britain and those countries of the Commonwealth which share a common military legacy with the British, battle honours are awarded to selected military units as official acknowledgement for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign; these honours take the form of a place and a date. Theatre honours, a type of recognition in the British tradition allied to battle honours, were introduced to honour units which provided sterling service in a campaign but were not part of specific battles for which separate battle honours were awarded. Theatre honours could be listed and displayed on regimental property but not emblazoned on the colours.
Since battle honours are emblazoned on colours, artillery units, which do not have colours in the British military tradition, were awarded honour titles instead. These honour titles were permitted to be used as part of their official nomenclature, for example 13 Field Regiment. Similar honours in the same tenor include unit citations. Battle honours, theatre honours, honour titles and their ilk form a part of the wider variety of distinctions which serve to distinguish military units from each other. For the British Army, the need to adopt a system to recognise military units' battlefield accomplishments was apparent since its formation as a standing army in the part of the 17th century. Although the granting of battle honours had been in place at the time, it was not until 1784 that infantry units were authorised to bear battle honours on their colours. Before a regiment's colours were practical tools for rallying troops in the battlefield and not quite something for displaying the unit's past distinctions.
The first battle honour to be awarded in the British Army was granted to the 15th Hussars for the Battle of Emsdorf in 1760. Thereafter, other regiments received battle honours for some of their previous engagements; the earliest battle honour in the British Army is Tangier 1662–80, granted to the Tangier Horse, the oldest line cavalry regiment of the British army, who in 1969 amalgamated with the Royal Horse Guards to become The Blues and Royals. Awarded the honour was the 2nd Regiment of Foot, or the Tangier Regiment now The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment, the senior English regiment in the Union, for their protracted 23-year defence of the Colony of Tangier; the battle honour is still held by the Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment. During these early years of the British standing army, a regiment needed only to engage the enemy with musketry before it was eligible for a battle honour. However, older battle honours are carried on the standards of the Yeomen of the Guard and the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms, neither of which are part of the army, but are instead the Sovereign's Bodyguard, in the personal service of the sovereign.
The need to develop a centralised system to oversee the selection and granting of battle honours arose in the 19th century following the increase of British military engagements during the expansion of the Empire. Thus in 1882, a committee was formed to adjudicate applications of battle honour claims; this committee called the Battles Nomenclature Committee, still maintains its function in the British Army today. A battle honour may be granted to infantry/cavalry regiments or battalions, as well as ships and squadrons. Battle honours are presented in the form of a name of a country, region, or city where the unit's distinguished act took place together with the year when it occurred. Not every battle fought will automatically result in the granting of a battle honour. Conversely, a regiment or a battalion might obtain more than one battle honour over the course of a larger operation. For example, the 2nd Battalion of the Scots Guards were awarded two battle honours for their role in the Falklands War.
While in Korea, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry earned both "Kapyong" and "Korea 1951–1953". A unit does not have to defeat their adversary to earn a battle honour: the Hong Kong Volunteer Defence Corps received the battle honour "Hong Kong" despite the defeat and capture of most of the force during the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong, while the cruiser HMAS Sydney was awarded the naval engagement honour "Kormoran 1941" after being sunk with all aboard by the German raider Kormoran. Supporting corps/branches such as medical, ordnance, or transport do not receive battle honours; however and uniquely the Royal Logistic Corps has five battle honours inherited from its previous transport elements, such as the Royal Waggon Train. Commonwealth artillery does not maintain battle honours as they carry neither colours nor guidons—though their guns by tradition are afforded many of the same respects and courtesies. However, both the Royal Artillery and Royal Engineers were in 1832 granted by King William IV the right to use the Latin "Ubique", meaning everywhere, as a battle honour.
This is worn on the cap badge of both the Corps of Royal Enginee
Cross of Lorraine
The Cross of Lorraine, known as Cross of Anjou in the 16th century, is a heraldic two-barred cross, consisting of a vertical line crossed by two shorter horizontal bars. In most renditions, the horizontal bars are "graded" with the upper bar being the shorter, though variations with the bars of equal length are seen; the Lorraine name has come to signify several cross variations, including the patriarchal cross with its bars near the top. The Cross of Lorraine consists of one vertical and two horizontal bars, This cross has been referred to on the Flag of the Dominican Republic The Cross of Lorraine came from the Kingdom of Hungary to the Duchy of Lorraine. In Hungary, Béla III was the first monarch to use the two-barred cross as the symbol of royal power in the late 12th century, he adopted it from the Byzantine Empire, according to historian Pál Engel. René II, Duke of Lorraine inherited the two-barred cross as a symbol from his ancestors from the House of Anjou, his grandfather, René the Good, who used it as his personal sigil, laid claim to four kingdoms, including Hungary.
The cross was still known as the "cross of Anjou" in the 16th century. René II placed the symbol on his flag before the Battle of Nancy in January 1477. In the battle, René defeated the army of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, who had occupied the Duchy of Lorraine, regained his duchy. All coins struck; the Cross of Lorraine is an emblem of Lorraine in eastern France. Between 1871 and 1918, the north-eastern quarter of Lorraine was annexed to Germany, along with Alsace. During that period the Cross served as a rallying point for French ambitions to recover its lost provinces; this historical significance lent it considerable weight as a symbol of French patriotism. During World War II, Capitaine de corvette Thierry d'Argenlieu suggested the Cross of Lorraine as the symbol of the Free French Forces led by Charles de Gaulle as an answer to the Nazi swastika. In France, the Cross of Lorraine was the symbol of Free France during World War II, the liberation of France from Nazi Germany, Gaullism and includes several variations of a two barred cross.
The Cross was displayed on the flags of Free French warships, the fuselages of Free French aircraft. The medal of the Order of Liberation bears the Cross of Lorraine. De Gaulle himself is memorialised by a 43-metre high Cross of Lorraine in his home village of Colombey-les-Deux-Églises; the Cross of Lorraine was adopted by Gaullist political groups such as the Rally for the Republic. French Jesuit missionaries and settlers to the New World carried the Cross of Lorraine c. 1750–1810. The symbol was said to have helped the missionaries to convert the native peoples they encountered, because the two-armed cross resembled existing local imagery; the coat of arms of Hungary depicts a double cross, attributed to Byzantine influence as King Béla III of Hungary was raised in the Byzantine Empire in the 12th century, it was during his rule when the double cross became a symbol of Hungary. The'dual cross' is the consonant'gy' in ancient Hungarian runic writing which reads "egy" when it stands alone if not always, with "God" meaning.
A golden double cross with equal bars, known as the Cross of Jagiellons, was used by Grand Duke of Lithuania and King of Poland Jogaila since his conversion to Christianity in 1386, as a personal insignia and was introduced in the Coat of Arms of Lithuania. The lower bar of the cross was longer than the upper, since it originates from the Hungarian type of the double cross, it became the symbol of Jagiellon dynasty and is one of the national symbols of Lithuania, featured in the Order of the Cross of Vytis and the badge of the Lithuanian Air Force. The double-barred cross is one of the national symbols in Belarus, both as the Jagiellon Cross and as the Cross of St. Euphrosyne of Polatsk, an important religious artifact; the symbol is supposed to have Byzantine roots and is used by the Belarusian Greek Catholic Church as a symbol uniting Eastern-Byzantine and Western-Latin church traditions. The Belarusian Cross can be found on the traditional coat of arms of the Pahonia. Silver double cross, on a mountain with three peaks, forms the coat of arms of Slovak Republic.
It is considered national symbol of Slovaks, its history in present territory can be traced back to Great Moravia in 9th century. The "Cross of Lorraine" symbol appears in Unicode as U+2628 ☨ CROSS OF LORRAINE, it is not to be confused with U+2021 ‡ DOUBLE DAGGER. The cross of Lorraine was used in the Sabre and Worldspan global distribution systems as a delimiter in various input formats, the latest version of the Graphical User Interface for each system uses a different symbol: Apollo displays it as a plus sign, Worldspan as a number sign, Sabre as a yen symbol. For its defense of France in World War I, the American 79th Infantry Division was nicknamed the "Cross of Lorraine" Division; the German 79th Infantry Division of World War II used the cross of Lorraine as its insignia because its first attack was in the Lorraine region. The insignia was redesignated effective December 1, 2009, for the 79th US Army Reserve Sustainment Support Command in Los Alamitos, California; the cross is used as an emblem by the American Lung Association and related organizations through the world, as such is familiar from their Christmas Seals program.
Its use was suggested in 1902 by Paris physician Gilbert Sersiron as a symbol for the "crusade" against tuberculosis. The Scottish indie rock band Frightened Rabbit have used it as a symbol, notably on some merchandise a