65th Rifle Division
The 65th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Soviet Union's Red Army. It fought in World War II. Poirer and Connor say it was established at Chita in February 1941. Began Barbarossa with the 12th Rifle Corps, Transbaikal Military District. Fought near Leningrad and in the Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation. Became the 102nd Guards Rifle Division on 29 December 1944; the division included the following units. 38th Rifle Regiment 60th Rifle Regiment 311th Rifle Regiment 6th Guards Artillery Regiment 172nd Howitzer Artillery Regiment 167th Separate Anti-Tank Battalion 367th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Battery 23rd Reconnaissance Company Ski Battalion 74th Sapper Battalion 104th Separate Communications Battalion 54th Medical Battalion 210th Separate Chemical Defence Company 230th Motor Transport Company 163rd Field Bakery 199th Divisional Veterinary Hospital 41st Divisional Artillery Workshop 98th Field Post Office 281st Field Cash Office of the State Bank
The Soviet Army is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not abolished until 25 December 1993. Until 25 February 1946, it was known as the Red Army, established by decree on 15 January 1918 "to protect the population, territorial integrity and civil liberties in the territory of the Soviet state." The Strategic Missile Troops, Air Defense Forces and Air Forces were part of the Soviet Army in addition to the Ground Forces. At the end of World War II the Red Army had over 500 rifle divisions and about a tenth that number of tank formations, their experience of war gave the Soviets such faith in tank forces that the infantry force was cut by two-thirds. The Tank Corps of the late war period were converted to tank divisions, from 1957 the rifle divisions were converted to motor rifle divisions. MRDs had three motorized rifle regiments and a tank regiment, for a total of ten motor rifle battalions and six tank battalions.
The Land Forces Chief Command was created for the first time in March 1946. Four years it was disbanded, only to be formed again in 1955. In March 1964 the Chief Command was again disbanded but recreated in November 1967. Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov became Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces in March 1946, but was succeeded by Ivan Konev in July, who remained as such until 1950, when the position of Chief of the Soviet Ground Forces was abolished for five years, an organisational gap that "probably was associated in some manner with the Korean War". From 1945 to 1948, the Soviet Armed Forces were reduced from about 11.3 million to about 2.8 million men, a demobilisation controlled first, by increasing the number of military districts to 33 reduced to 21 in 1946. The personnel strength of the Ground Forces was reduced from 9.8 million to 2.4 million. To establish and secure the USSR's eastern European geopolitical interests, Red Army troops who liberated eastern Europe from Nazi rule, in 1945 remained in place to secure pro-Soviet régimes in Eastern Europe and to protect against attack from Europe.
Elsewhere, they may have assisted the NKVD in suppressing anti-Soviet resistance in Western Ukraine and the Baltic states. Soviet troops, including the 39th Army, remained at Port Arthur and Dalian on the northeast Chinese coast until 1955. Control was handed over to the new Chinese communist government. Soviet Army forces on USSR territory were apportioned among military districts. There were 32 of them in 1945. Sixteen districts remained from the mid-1970s to the end of the USSR. Yet, the greatest Soviet Army concentration was in the Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, which suppressed the anti-Soviet Uprising of 1953 in East Germany. East European Groups of Forces were the Northern Group of Forces in Poland, the Southern Group of Forces in Hungary, which put down the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. In 1958, Soviet troops were withdrawn from Romania; the Central Group of Forces in Czechoslovakia was established after Warsaw Pact intervention against the Prague Spring of 1968. In 1969, at the east end of the Soviet Union, the Sino-Soviet border conflict, prompted establishment of a 16th military district, the Central Asian Military District, at Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan.
In 1979, the Soviet Union entered Afghanistan, to support its Communist government, provoking a 10-year Afghan mujahideen guerrilla resistance. Throughout the Cold War, Western intelligence estimates calculated that the Soviet strength remained ca. 2.8 million to ca. 5.3 million men. To maintain said strength range, Soviet law minimally required a three-year military service obligation from every able man of military age, until 1967, when the Ground Forces reduced it to a two-year draft obligation. By the middle of the 1980s, the Ground Forces contained about 210 divisions. About three-quarters were the remainder tank divisions. There were a large number of artillery divisions, separate artillery brigades, engineer formations, other combat support formations. However, only few formations were war ready. Three readiness categories, A, B, V, after the first three letters of the Cyrillic alphabet, were in force; the Category A divisions were certified combat-ready and were equipped. B and V divisions were 50 -- 75 % and 10 -- 33 % respectively.
The internal military districts contained only one or two A divisions, with the remainder B and V series formations. Soviet planning for most of the Cold War period would have seen Armies of four to five divisions operating in Fronts made up of around four armies. In February 1979, the first of the new High Commands in the Strategic Directions were created at Ulan-Ude; these new headquarters controlled multiple Fronts, a Soviet Navy Fleet. In September 1984, three more were established to control multi-Front operations in Europe and at Baku to handle southern operations. In 1955, the Soviet Union signed the Warsaw Pact with its East European socialist allies, establishing military coordination between Soviet forces and their socialist counterparts; the Soviet Army created and directed the Eastern European armies in its image for the remainder of the Cold War, shaping them for a potential confrontation with the North Atlant
57th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 57th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army and the Soviet Army. The division was formed in late 1920 as the 24th Rifle Division of the Internal Service Troops in the closing stages of the Russian Civil War, it was transferred to the Red Army in early 1921 as the 57th Rifle Division. The division served in the Urals as a territorial division during early 1930s. Transferred to the Transbaikal in 1932, it fought in the Battles of Khalkhin Gol in mid-1939 and was reorganized as the 57th Motor Rifle Division in 1940. Having spent much of World War II on garrison duty in the Mongolian People's Republic, the division participated in the August 1945 Soviet invasion of Manchuria, but did not see combat, it was converted into a rifle division again in 1946, before being reduced to the 55th Separate Rifle Regiment in early 1947. The 24th Rifle Division of the Internal Service Troops was formed in accordance with an order of the Ural Military District VNUS on 25 October 1920 from VNUS units deployed in Vyatka and Perm Governorates.
It was subordinated to the Ural Military District VNUS, included the 69th, 70th, 71st VNUS Brigades. Between February and April 1921, separate units of the division fought in the suppression of the West Siberian revolt, a series of anti-Soviet peasant uprisings in the area of Tyumen and Petropavlovsk. Following the transfer of VNUS troops to the Red Army on 4 March, the division was redesignated as the 57th Rifle Division of Field Troops by an 18 March order of the Ural Military District; this subordinated it to the Ural Military District. On 30 November, the division became the 57th Yekaterinburg Rifle Division; the division included the 112th, 113th and 114th Rifle Regiments, which were renumbered as the 169th, 170th, 171st. In June 1922, the division transferred to the West Siberian Military District when the Ural Military District was disbanded. Between 1922 and August 1923 the 57th was commanded by Ivan Onufriyev, it became part of the Volga Military District in February 1923. On 12 June 1924, its Yekaterinburg honorific was replaced by the Ural honorific.
Between 1924 and March 1932, the division was a reduced strength territorial division. It was commanded by Nikolay Uvarov between October 1924 and 1928, Viktor Dobrovolsky between July 1928 and July 1930, by Yevgeny Danenberg from February 1931 to August 1935. In June 1931, the division provided a cadre for the formation of the 85th Rifle Division. In early March 1932, the division was transferred to the Soviet Far East and became part of the Transbaikal Group of Forces, part of the Special Red Banner Far Eastern Army. A cadre from the 169th Regiment was left behind to form the replacement 82nd Territorial Rifle Division, it was stationed except for the 170th Regiment at Sretensk. In June 1935, the Transbaikal Group of Forces was split from the army to become the Transbaikal Military District. In the late 1930s, its regiments were renumbered in an attempt to confuse foreign intelligence: the 169th Perm became the 80th, the 170th Sverdlovsk the 127th, the 171st Chelyabinsk the 293rd, the 57th Ural Artillery the 105th.
Komdiv Vyacheslav Tsvetayev took command of the division in February 1937. He was arrested in July 1938 during the Great Purge, charged with "counter-revolutionary activities" after the wounding of eleven soldiers by the explosion of an artillery shell during the division's 1938 May Day parade. In August, Colonel Ivan Galanin took command of the division; as a result of a series of border clashes with Japanese troops at Khalkhin Gol, the division was alerted for combat on 29 June 1939. A large number of its officers and vehicles were taken from its units to reinforce units involved in the fighting; the division was loaded into echelons to be sent to the front, ostensibly for a training exercise, arriving in the second echelon on 5 August. From until 18 August the 57th spent between 10 and 12 hours a day in intense training, preparing for combat; the 57th became part of the 1st Army Group, commanded by Komkor Georgy Zhukov. Under Zhukov's plan, the division formed part of the southern group of the 1st Army Group, to encircle the Japanese troops in tandem with the northern group by destroying the Japanese troops north of the Holsten River attack towards Nomonhan.
The southern group included the entire 6th Light Tank Brigade and the majority of the 8th Armored Motor and 11th Light Tank Brigades. On the 57th's left was the 82nd Rifle Division of the central group. For the attack, the division was supported by an anti-tank battalion in addition to its organic field artillery and howitzer regiments. By 20 August, it fielded 11,861 men, 10,310 rifles, 115 DP machine guns, 179 Maxim guns, 21 anti-aircraft machine guns, seven 12.7 mm DShK heavy machine guns, eight mortars, 86 grenade launchers, 36 76 mm regimental guns, 40 guns with calibers between 76 mm and 152 mm, four 76 mm anti-aircraft guns, 33 45 mm anti-tank guns, 14 tanks, 15 armored cars. On 20 August, the division attacked from positions south and southeast of Noro Heights with the 293rd Regiment on the left and the 127th Regiment on the right; the 127th broke through the defenses of the Japanese 23rd Division's 71st Infantry Regiment to the northeast towards Height 757, while the 293rd destroyed the Japanese covering units and advanced to the forward line of the main Japanese position, but was unsuccessful in its attempts to capture it.
The 80th Regiment advanced in the second wave on the 127th's right, reaching the fringe of its objective, the sector of Heights 780 and 791 by 19:00. Negligible Japanese forces were left in the gap between the 127th Regiments; the 57th advanced about 12 kilom
Transbaikal, Trans-Baikal, Transbaikalia, or Dauria is a mountainous region to the east of or "beyond" Lake Baikal in Russia. The steppe and wetland landscapes of Dauria are protected by the Daurian Nature Reserve, which forms part of a World Heritage Site named "The Landscapes of Dauria"; the alternative name, Dauria, is derived from the ethnonym of the Daur people. It stretches for 1,000 km from north to south from the Patomskoye Plateau and North Baikal Plateau to the Russian state border; the Transbaikal region covers more than 1,000 km from west to east from Baikal to the meridian of the confluence of the Shilka and Argun Rivers. The ancient proto-Mongol Slab Grave Culture occurred around Lake Baikal in the Transbaikal territory. In Imperial Russia, Dauria was itself an oblast with its capital at Nerchinsk at Chita and became part of the short lived Far Eastern Republic between 1920 and 1922, it is divided into Buryatia and Zabaykalsky Krai and makes up nearly all of the territory of these two federal subjects.
The region has given its name to various animal species including Daurian hedgehog, the following birds: Asian brown flycatcher, Daurian jackdaw, Daurian partridge, Daurian redstart, Daurian starling, Daurian shrike and the red-rumped swallow. The Mongolian wild ass is regionally extinct from the region; the common name of the famous Dahurian larch as well as that of the Dahurian buckthorn are derived from the same source. Oktyabrsky village, Amur Oblast, near the Russia-China border is a large site of uranium mining and processing facilities. Part of the area is protected by the Dauria Nature Reserve. Kropotkin, Peter. "Transbaikalia". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 27. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 169–170. WWF Russia
103rd Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 103rd Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army, formed three times. It was first formed in 1939, it was fought in the Yelnya Offensive. After being converted back to a rifle division it was destroyed in the Battle of Vyazma; the division was destroyed during the Second Battle of Kharkov. It was reformed a third time in the Far East in summer 1942 and participated in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria; the division was formed at Voroshilovsk in August and September 1939 from the 35th Rifle Regiment of the 74th Rifle Division. The division was converted to a motorized division in part of the 26th Mechanized Corps. On 8 July the division became the 103rd Tank Division as a result of the reorganization of Red Army mechanized forces. During July and August, it fought in the Yelnya Offensive as part of the corps, now subordinated to the 24th Army. On 28 August, it became a rifle division again. In October 1941, it was surrounded and destroyed in the Spas-Demensky District, trapped in the Vyazma Pocket.
However, the division was only disbanded on 27 December, despite coming out of the encirclement with only thirty men. The division was reformed on 9 January 1942 from the 463rd Rifle Division at Samarkand; the 103rd was composed of the 583rd and 688th Rifle Regiments. In early March, the division was relocated to Starobilsk with the 28th Army and fought in the Second Battle of Kharkov during May 1942. Due to supply shortages the division was not provided with food from 28 April to 2 May. On 19 May, it became part of 6th Army but was surrounded and destroyed at Izyum between 25 and 27 May; the division was disbanded on 30 June 1942. The division was reformed a third time on 21 July 1942 in the Transbaikal Military District and served there for the duration of the war, it was with the 2nd Rifle Corps in Transbaikal Front in January 1945. During August and September 1945, it fought in the Soviet invasion of Manchuria. For its actions, the division was awarded the honorific "Khingan", it was disbanded in 1946 in the Transbaikal-Amur Military District.
Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306. Poirer and Connor, Red Army Order of Battle
European Russia is the western part of the Russian Federation, part of Eastern Europe. With a population of 110 million people, European Russia has about 77% of Russia's population, but covers less than 25% of Russia's territory. European Russia includes the two largest cities in Russia; the boundaries between continents are exclusively determined by geography, with the one exception being that the eastern boundary of Europe is considered, by convention, to run along the Ural Mountains, the Ural River, the Caucasus Mountains, the Turkish Straits. The southern part of Russia has some small areas that lie geographically south of the Caucasus Mountain range, therefore are geographically in Asia; the other, part of the Russian Federation forms part of northern Asia, is known as North Asia called Asian Russia or Siberia. Europe forms a subcontinent within Eurasia, making all of Russia a part of the Eurasian continent. Russia is not proportionately populated between its larger Asian portion, which contains about 23% of the country's population, its smaller European portion, which contains about 77%.
The European portion contains about 110 million people out of Russia's total population of about 144 million in an area covering nearly 4,000,000 km2. The eastern portion of Russia encompassing Siberia, is part of Asia and makes up more than 75% of the territory with 22% of the country's population at 2.5 people per kilometre2. Some theories say that some early Eastern Slavs arrived in modern-day western Russia sometime during the middle of the first millennium AD; the Eastern Slavic tribe of the Vyatichis was native to the land around the Oka river. Finno-Ugric and Turkish tribes were present in the area; the western region of Central Russia was inhabited by the Eastern Slavic tribe of the Severians. The population of European Russia was composed of Slavic, Finno-Ugric, Caucasian, Baltic, Khazarian and Norse peoples. One of the first Rus' regions according to the Sofia First Chronicle was Veliky Novgorod in 859. In late 8th and early-to-mid-9th centuries AD the Rus' Khaganate was formed in modern western Russia.
The region was a place of operations for Varangians, eastern Scandinavian adventurers and pirates. From the late 9th to the mid-13th century a large section of today's European Russia was part of Kievan Rus'; the lands of Rus' Khaganate and Kievan Rus' were important trade routes and connected Scandinavia, Byzantine Empire, Rus' people and Volga Bulgaria with Khazaria and Persia. According to old Scandinavian sources among the 12 biggest cities of Kievan Rus' or Ancient Rus' were Novgorod, Polotsk, Smolensk and Rostov. Through trade and cultural contact with Byzantine Empire, the Slavic culture of the Rus' adopted the Eastern Orthodox religion. Many sources say that Ryazan, Moscow and Kiev were destroyed by the Mongol Empire. After the Mongol invasion the Muscovite Rus' arose, over all this time, western Russia and the various Rus' regions had strong cultural contacts with the Byzantine Empire, while the Slavic culture was cultivated all the time; the elements of East Slavic paganism and Christianity overlapped each other and sometimes produced double faith in Muscovite Rus'.
In fourteenth century Muscovite Russia served as the intermediary in the trade between Europe and Persia as well as Turkey. During all this time, Russian culture had not only strong cultural links and exchanges with Central Europe and Asia, but with its many ethnic minorities which exist until today in Russia, like Tatars, Finno-Ugrics and Chuvashs. While Russia evolved over periods of time with a balanced European influence, it was tsar Peter the Great who wanted to reform Russia and bring it up to a true Western standards and way of life. Peter the Great was able to change Russian society resistance existed among peasants, the traditionalists and Old Believers within the Orthodox Church. With the Soviet Union, Russia was cut off from Western culture. In the nineties, the Russian political elites hoped to integrate Russia into the West; the Russian culture was shaped for centuries by the Orthodox faith, Slavic traditions, the Cyrillic script, the geographical location between Europe and Asia.
Western Russia has French, Polish and German influences, from 1500-1945. The administrative districts of the Russian Federation do not line up with European Russia, but they are decent approximations, depending on how Europe is defined. There are two major trends, one to use administrative divisions north of the mouth of the Ural River and one to draw a line of falseness from the Ural River, through the town of Yekaterinburg; the following administrative districts are overwhelmingly European: North Asia Caucasus Russian Far East Siberia
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century. It became the largest and most prestigious command in the IJA. Many of its personnel, such as Chiefs of staff Seishirō Itagaki and Hideki Tōjō were promoted to high positions in both the military and civil government in the Empire of Japan and it was responsible for the creation of the Japanese-dominated Empire of Manchuria. In August 1945, the army group, around 713,000 men at the time, was defeated by and surrendered to Soviet troops as a result of the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation. Following the Russo-Japanese War, Japan obtained the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. "Kwantung" means a guarded pass, east of which lies Manchuria. The Kwantung Garrison was established in 1906 to defend this territory, was composed of an infantry division and a heavy siege artillery battalion, supplemented with six independent garrison battalions as railway guards deployed along the South Manchurian Railway Zone, for a total troop strength of 100,000 men.
It was headquartered in Port Arthur, known as "Ryojun" in Japanese. After a reorganization in 1919, the Kwantung Garrison was renamed the Kwantung Army. In the politicized Imperial Japanese Army of the 1920s and 1930s, the Kwantung Army was a stronghold of the radical "Imperial Way Faction", many of its senior leaders overtly advocated political change in Japan through the violent overthrow of the civilian government to bring about a Shōwa Restoration, with a reorganization of society and the economy along totalitarian state fascist lines, they advocated a more aggressive, expansionist foreign policy regarding the Asian mainland. Members or former members of the Kwantung Army were active in numerous coup d'état attempts against the civilian government, culminating with the February 26 Incident of 1936. Although the Kwantung Army was nominally subordinate to the Imperial General Headquarters and the senior staff at the Army General Staff, its leadership acted in direct violation of the orders from the mainland Japan without suffering any consequence.
Conspirators within the junior officer corps of the Kwantung Army plotted and carried out the assassination of Manchurian warlord Chang Tsolin in the Huanggutun Incident of 1928. Afterwards, the Kwantung Army leadership engineered the Mukden Incident and the subsequent invasion of Manchuria in 1931 in a massive act of insubordination against the express orders of the political and military leadership based in Tokyo. Presented with the fait accompli, Imperial General Headquarters had little choice but to follow up on the actions of the Kwantung Army with reinforcements in the subsequent Pacification of Manchukuo; the success of the campaign meant that the insubordination of the Kwantung Army was rewarded rather than punished. With the foundation of Manchukuo in 1932, the Kwantung Army played a controlling role in the political administration of the new state as well as in its defense. With the Kwantung Army administering all aspects of the politics and economic development of the new state, this made the Kwantung Army commanding officer equivalent to a Governor-general, with the authority to approve or countermand any command from the nominal emperor of Manchukuo, Puyi.
After the campaign to secure Manchukuo, the Kwantung Army continued to fight in numerous border skirmishes with China as part of its efforts to create a Japanese-dominated buffer zone in northern China. The Kwantung Army fought in the opening phase of the Second Sino-Japanese War in Operation Nekka, various actions in Inner Mongolia to extend Japanese domination over portions of northern China and Inner Mongolia; when war broke out in the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in July 1937, its forces participated in Battle of Beiping-Tianjin and Operation Chahar. Kwantung forces supported the war in China from time to time. However, the much vaunted reputation of the Kwantung Army was challenged in battle against the Soviet Union's Red Army at the Battle of Lake Khasan in 1938 and subsequent Battle of Nomonhan in 1939, during which time it sustained heavy casualties. After the Nomonhan incident, the Kwantung Army was purged of its more insubordinate elements, as well as proponents of the Hokushin-ron doctrine who urged that Japan concentrate its expansionist efforts on Siberia rather southward towards China and Southeast Asia.
The Kwantung Army was augmented over the next few years, up to a strength of 700,000 troops by 1941, its headquarters was transferred to the new Manchukuo capital of Hsinking. The Kwantung Army oversaw the creation and equipping of an auxiliary force, the Manchukuo Imperial Army. During this time, Prince Tsuneyoshi Takeda worked as liaison officer between the Imperial house and the Kwantung Army. Although a source of constant unrest during the 1930s, the Kwantung Army remained remarkably obedient during the 1940s; as combat spread south into central China and southern China in the Second Sino-Japanese War, with the outbreak of the Pacific War, Manchukuo was a backwater to the conflict. However, as the war situation began to deteriorate for the Imperial Japanese Army on all fronts, the large, well-trained, well-equipped Kwantung Army could no longer be held in strategic reserve. Many of its front line units were systematically stripped of their best units and equipment, which were sent south against the forces of the United States in the Pacific Islands or the Philippines.
Other units were sent south into China for Operation Ichi-Go. By 1945, the Kwantung Army cons