Kheperkare Nakhtnebef, better known by his hellenized name Nectanebo I, was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, founder of the last native dynasty of Egypt, the thirtieth. Nectanebo was an army general from Sebennytos, son of an important military officer named Djedhor and of a lady whose name is only recorded, mu. A stele found at Hermopolis provides some evidence that he came to power by overthrowing, putting to death, the last pharaoh of the 29th Dynasty Nepherites II, it has been suggested. Nectanebo carried out the coronation ceremony in c. 379/8 BCE in both Sais and Memphis, shifted the capital from Mendes to Sebennytos. The relationships between Nectanebo and the pharaohs of the previous dynasty are not clear, he showed little regard for both Nepherites II and his father Achoris, calling the former inept and the latter an usurper. He seemed to have had a higher regard for Nepherites I, believed to be Nectanebo's father or grandfather, although it is now believed that this view was due to a misinterpretation of the Demotic Chronicle.
However, it has been suggested that both Achoris and Nectanebo may have been Nepherites I's relatives in some way. Nectanebo had two known sons: Teos, his appointed successor, Tjahapimu. Nectanebo was a great builder and restorer, to an extent not seen in Egypt for centuries, he ordered work on many of the temples across the country. On the sacred island of Philae near Aswan, he began the temple of Isis, which would become one of the most important religious sites in ancient Egypt, by erecting its vestibule. Nectanebo began the First Pylon in the Precinct of Amun-Re at Karnak, it is believed that the earliest known mammisi, found at Dendera, was built by him; the cult of sacred animals, which became prominent between the two Persian occupation periods, was supported by Nectanebo as evidenced by archaeological findings at Hermopolis, Hermopolis Parva, Saft el-Hinna and Mendes. Further works ordered by the pharaoh have been found in religious buildings at Memphis, Tanis and El Kab. Nectanebo was generous towards the priesthood.
A decree dated to his first year and discovered on a stele at Naucratis, required that 10 percent of taxes collected both from imports and from local production in this city were to be used for the temple of Neith at Sais. A twin of this stele was discovered in the now-submerged city of Heracleion; the aforementioned stele from Hermopolis, placed before a pylon of Ramesses II, lists the donations made by Nectanebo to the local deities, other benefits were granted to the priesthood of Horus at Edfu. Nectanebo's prodigality showed his devotion to the gods and at the same time financially supported the largest holders of wealth of the country and for expenditure on the defence of the country. In 374/3 BCE Nectanebo had to face a Persian attempt to retake Egypt, still considered by the Achaemenid king Artaxerxes II nothing more than a rebel satrapy. After a six-year preparation and applying pressure on Athens to recall the Greek general Chabrias, Artaxerxes dispatched a great army led by the Athenian general Iphicrates and the Persian Pharnabazus.
It has been recorded that the army was composed of over 200,000 troops including Persian soldiers and Greek mercenaries and around 500 ships. Fortifications on the Pelusiac branch of the Nile ordered by Nectanebo forced the enemy fleet to seek another way to sail up the Nile; the fleet managed to find its way up the less-defended Mendesian branch. At this point, the mutual distrust that had arisen between Iphicrates and Pharnabazus prevented the enemy from reaching Memphis; the annual Nile flood and the Egyptian defenders' resolve to defend their territory turned what had appeared as certain defeat for Nectanebo I and his troops into a complete victory. From 368 BCE many western satrapies of the Achaemenid Empire started to rebel against Artaxerxes II, so Nectanebo provided financial support to the rebelling satraps and re-established ties with both Sparta and Athens. Nectanebo died during his 19th year as ruler, his tomb and mummy have never been found. Towards the end of his reign to remedy the dynastic problems that plagued his predecessors, Nectanebo restored the long-lost practice of the co-regency, associating his son Teos to the throne.
However, shortly after Teos' accession, his brother Tjahapimu betrayed him and managed to put his own son Nakhthorheb onto the Egyptian throne. de Meulenaere, Herman. "La famille royale des Nectanébo". Zeitschrift für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde. 90: 90–93. Nectanebo I
The Javanese calendar is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar; the Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of the Republic of Indonesia and civil society, while the Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and the Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays. The Javanese calendar is used by the main ethnicities of Java island—that is, the Javanese and Sundanese people—primarily as a cultural icon and identifier, as a maintained tradition of antiquity; the Javanese calendar is used for cultural and spiritual purposes. The current system of the Javanese calendar was inaugurated by Sultan Agung of Mataram in the Gregorian year 1633 CE. Prior to this, the Javanese had used the Hindu calendar, which begins in 78 CE and uses the solar cycle for calculating time. Sultan Agung's calendar retained the Saka calendar year system of counting, but differs by using the same lunar year measurement system as the Islamic calendar, rather than the solar year.
The Javanese calendar is referred to by its Latin name Anno Javanico or AJ. The Javanese calendar contains multiple, overlapping measurements of times, called "cycles"; these include: the native five-day week, called Pasaran the common Gregorian and Islamic seven-day week the Solar month, called Mangsa the Lunar month, called Wulan the lunar year, or Tahun the octo-ennia cycles, or Windu the 120-year cycle of 15 Windu, called Kurup Days in the Javanese calendar, like the Islamic calendar, begin at sunset. Traditionally, Javanese people do not divide the night into hours, but rather into phases; the division of a day and night are: The native Javanese system groups days into a five-day week called Pasaran, unlike most calendars that uses a seven-day week. The name, pasaran, is derived from the root word pasar, but still today, Javanese villagers gather communally at local markets to meet, engage in commerce, buy and sell farm produce, cooked foods, home industry crafted items and so on. John Crawfurd suggested that the length of the weekly cycle is related to the number of fingers on the hand, that itinerant merchants would rotate their visits to different villages according to a five-day "roster".
The days of the cycle each have two names, as the Javanese language has distinct vocabulary associated with two different registers of politeness: ngoko and krama. The krama names for the days, second in the list, are much less common. ꦊꦒꦶ – ꦩꦤꦶꦱ꧀ ꦥꦲꦶꦁ – ꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ ꦥꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦥꦼꦠꦏ꧀ ꦮꦒꦺ – ꦕꦼꦩꦺꦁ ꦏ꧀ꦭꦶꦮꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦲꦱꦶꦃ The origin of the names is unclear, their etymology remains obscure. The names may be derived from indigenous gods, like the European and Asian names for days of the week. An ancient Javanese manuscript illustrates the week with five human figures: a man seizing a suppliant by the hair, a woman holding a horn to receive an offering, a man pointing a drawn sword at another, a woman holding agricultural produce, a man holding a spear leading a bull. Additionally, Javanese consider these days' names to have a mystical relation to colors and cardinal direction: Legi: white and East Pahing: red and South Pon: yellow and West Wage: black and North Kliwon: blurred colors/focus and'center'. Most Markets no longer operate under this traditional Pasaran cycle, instead pragmatically remaining open every day of the Gregorian week.
However many markets in Java still retain traditional names that indicated that once the markets only operated on certain Pasaran days, such as Pasar Legi, or Pasar Kliwon. Some markets in small or medium size locations will be much busier on the Pasaran day than on the other days. On the market's name day itinerate sellers appear selling such things as livestock and other products that are either less purchased or are more expensive; this allows a smaller number of these merchants to service a much larger area much as in bygone days. Javanese astrological belief dictates that an individual’s characteristics and destiny are attributable to the combination of the Pasaran day and the "common" weekday of the Islamic calendar on that person's birthday. Javanese people find great interest in the astrological interpretations of this combination, called the Wetonan cycle; the seven-day-long week cycle is derived from the Islamic calendar, adopted following the spread of Islam throughout the Indonesian archipelago.
The names of the days of the week in Javanese are derived from their Arabic counterparts, namely: These two-week systems occur concurrently. This combination forms the Wetonan cycle; the Wetonan cycle superimposes the five-day Pasaran cycle with the seven-day week cycle. Each Wetonan cycle lasts for 35 days. An example of Wetonan cycle: From the example above, the Weton for Tuesday May 6, 2008 would be read as Selasa Wage; the Wetonan cycle is important for divinatory systems, important celebrations, rites of passage. Commemorations and events are held on days considered to be auspicious. An prominent example, still taught in primary schools, is that the Weton for the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945 took place on Jumat Legi. Therefore, Jumat Legi is considered an important night for pilgrimage. There are taboos
Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt
The Thirtieth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the fifth Dynasty of the Late Period of ancient Egypt. It was founded after the overthrow of Nepherites II in 380 BC by Nectanebo I, was disestablished upon the invasion of Egypt by the Achaemenid emperor Artaxerxes III in 343 BC; this is the final native dynasty of ancient Egypt. Nectanebo I had gained control of all of Egypt by November of 380 BC, but spent much of his reign defending his kingdom from Persian reconquest with the occasional help of Sparta or Athens. In 365 BC, Nectanebo made his son Teos co-king and heir, until his death in 363 BC father and son reigned together. After his father's death, Teos invaded the Persian territories of modern Syria and Israel and was beginning to meet with some successes when he lost his throne due the machinations of his own brother Tjahapimu. Tjahepimu took advantage of Teos' unpopularity within Egypt by declaring his son—and Teos' nephew, Nectanebo II—king; the Egyptian army rallied around Nectanebo which forced Teos to flee to the court of the king of Persia.
Nectanebo II's reign was dominated by the efforts of the Persian rulers to reconquer Egypt, which they considered a satrapy in revolt. For the first ten years, Nectanebo avoided the Persian reconquest because Artaxerxes III was forced to consolidate his control of the realm. Artaxerxes attempted an unsuccessful invasion of Egypt in the winter of 351/350 BC. Although Nectanebo gave support to these revolts, Artaxerxes would suppress these rebellions and was once again able to invade Egypt in 343 BC; this second invasion proved successful, Nectanebo was forced to withdraw from his defenses in the Nile Delta to Memphis, where he saw that his cause was lost. He thereupon fled south to Nubia, where he is assumed to have found refuge at the court of King Nastasen of Napata. Nectanebo, may have managed to maintain some form of independent rule in the south of Egypt for 2 more years since a document from Edfu is dated to his eighteenth year. Although a shadowy figure named Khababash proclaimed himself king and led a rebellion against the Persians from about 338 to 335 BC, Nectanebo has been considered the last native pharaoh of Egypt.
His flight marked the end of Egypt as an independent entity