Rostov-on-Don is a port city and the administrative centre of Rostov Oblast and the Southern Federal District of Russia. It lies in the southeastern part of the East European Plain on the Don River, 32 kilometers from the Sea of Azov; the southwestern suburbs of the city abut the Don River delta. The population is over one million people. From ancient times, the area around the mouth of the Don River has held cultural and commercial importance. Ancient indigenous inhabitants included the Scythian and Savromat tribes, it was the site of Tanais, an ancient Greek colony, Fort Tana, under the Genoese and Fort Azak in the time of the Ottoman Empire. In 1749, a custom house was established on the Temernik River, a tributary of the Don, by edict of Empress Elizabeth, the daughter of Peter the Great, in order to control trade with Turkey, it was co-located with a fortress named for Dimitry of Rostov, a metropolitan bishop of the old northern town of Rostov the Great. Azov, a town closer to the Sea of Azov on the Don lost its commercial importance in the region to the new fortress.
In 1756, the "Russian commercial and trading company of Constantinople" was founded at the "merchants' settlement" on the high bank of the Don. Towards the end of the eighteenth century, with the incorporation of Ottoman Black Sea territories into the Russian Empire, the settlement lost much of its militarily strategic importance as a frontier post. In 1796, the settlement was chartered and in 1797, it became the seat of Rostovsky Uyezd within Novorossiysk Governorate. In 1806, it was renamed Rostov-on-Don. During the 19th century, due to its river connections with Russia's interior, Rostov developed into a major trade centre and communications hub. A railway connection with Kharkiv was completed in 1870, with further links following in 1871 to Voronezh and in 1875 to Vladikavkaz. Concurrent with improvements in communications, heavy industry developed. Coal from the Donets Basin and iron ore from Krivoy Rog supported the establishment of an iron foundry in 1846. In 1859, the production of pumps and steam boilers began.
Industrial growth was accompanied by a rapid increase in population, with 119,500 residents registered in Rostov by the end of the nineteenth century along with 140 industrial businesses. The harbour was one of the largest trade hubs in southern Russia for the export of wheat and iron ore. In 1779, Rostov-on-Don became associated with a settlement of Armenian refugees from the Crimea at Nakhichevan-on-Don; the two settlements were separated by a field of wheat. In 1928, the two towns were merged; the former town border lies beneath the Teatralnaya Square of central Rostov-on-Don. By 1928, following the incorporation of the hitherto neighbouring city of Nakhichevan-on-Don, Rostov had become the third largest city in Russia. In the early 20th century, epidemics of cholera during the summer months were not uncommon. During the Russian Civil War, the Whites and the Reds contested Rostov-on-Don the most industrialized city of South Russia. By 1928, the regional government had moved from the old Cossack capital of Novocherkassk to Rostov-on-Don.
In the Soviet years, the Bolsheviks demolished two of Rostov-on-Don's principal landmarks: St. Alexander Nevsky Cathedral and St. George Cathedral. During World War II, German forces occupied Rostov-on-Don, at first for ten days from November 21, 1941 to November 29, 1941 after attacks by the German First Panzer Army in the Battle of Rostov and for seven months from July 23, 1942 to February 14, 1943; the town was of strategic importance as a railway junction and a river port accessing the Caucasus, a region rich in oil and minerals. It took ten years to restore the city from the damage during World War II. On August 11 and 12, 1942 in Rostov-on-Don 27,000 Jews were massacred by the German military at a site called Zmievskaya Balka. In 2018, Rostov-on-Don hosted several matches of the FIFA World Cup. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Rostov-na-Donu Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, this administrative unit has urban okrug status.
Rostov-on-Don is divided into eight city districts: The 2010 census recorded the population of Rostov-on-Don at 1,089,261 making it the tenth most populous city in Russia. Albert Parry, born in 1901 in Rostov-on-Don, wrote of the summers of his childhood: There were sultry days of brassy sun, but cool evenings on the balconies facing the Don River, with the soft glow of charcoal in the samovar, with the ripe cherries crushed by your spoon against the bottom and sides of your glass of scalding tea. Rostov-on-Don lies in a humid continental climate; the winter is moderately cold, with an average February temperature of −3.1 °C. The lowest recorded temperature of −31.9 °C occurred in January 1940. Summers are humid; the city's highest recorded temperature of +40.1 °C was reported on 1 August 2010. The mean annual precipitation is 643 millimeters, the average wind speed is 2.7 m/s, the average air humidity is 72%. In December 1996, Rostov-on-Don adopted a coat of arms, a flag and a mayoral decoration as the symbols of the town.
The first coat of arms of Rostov-on-Don was approved by the Tsar. In 1904, some changes were made. One lasting oil painting of the coat-of-arms is kept in the regional local history museum but its accuracy and authenticity is uncertain. In June 1996, the Rostov-on-Don City Duma adopted a variant of the coat-of-arms in which a tower represents th
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
Andrey Andreyevich Vlasov or Wlassow was a Russian Red Army general. During World War II, he fought in the Battle of Moscow and was captured attempting to lift the siege of Leningrad. After being captured, he headed the Russian Liberation Army. At the war's end, he changed sides again and ordered the ROA to aid the Prague uprising against the Germans, he and the ROA tried to escape to the Western Front, but were captured by Soviet forces. Vlasov was hanged. Born in Lomakino, Nizhny Novgorod Governorate, Russian Empire, Vlasov was a student at a Russian Orthodox seminary, he quit the study of divinity after the Russian Revolution studying agricultural sciences instead, in 1919 joined the Red Army fighting in the southern theatre in Ukraine, the Caucasus, the Crimea. He distinguished himself as an officer and rose through the ranks of the Red Army. Vlasov joined the Communist Party in 1930. Sent to China, he acted as a military adviser to Chiang Kai-shek from 1938 to November 1939. Upon his return, Vlasov served in several assignments before being given command of the 99th Rifle Division.
After just nine months under Vlasov's leadership, an inspection by Semyon Timoshenko, the division was recognized as one of the best divisions in the Army in 1940. Timoshenko presented Vlasov with an inscribed gold watch, as he "found the 99th the best of all"; the historian John Erickson says of Vlasov at this point that "was an up-and-coming man". In 1940, Vlasov was promoted to major general, on June 22, 1941, when the Germans and their allies invaded the Soviet Union, Vlasov was commanding the 4th Mechanized Corps. Shortly after the invasion began, Vlasov's corps retook Przemyśl; as a lieutenant general, he escaped encirclement. He played an important role in the defense of Moscow, as his 20th Army counterattacked and retook Solnechnogorsk. Vlasov's picture was printed in the newspaper Pravda as that of one of the "defenders of Moscow". Described by some historians as "charismatic", Vlasov was decorated on January 24, 1942, with the Order of the Red Banner for his efforts in the defence of Moscow.
Vlasov was ordered to relieve the ailing commander Klykov after the Second Shock Army had been encircled. After this success, Vlasov was put in command of the 2nd Shock Army of the Volkhov Front and ordered to lead the attempt to lift the Siege of Leningrad—the Lyuban-Chudovo Offensive Operation of January–April 1942. On January 7, 1942, Vlasov's army had spearheaded the Lyuban Offensive Operation to break the Leningrad encirclement. Planned as a combined operation between the Volkhov and Leningrad Fronts on a 30 km frontage, other armies of the Leningrad Front were supposed to participate at scheduled intervals in this operation. Crossing the Volkhov River, Vlasov's army was successful in breaking through the German 18th Army's lines and penetrated 70–74 km deep inside German rear area. However, the other armies failed to exploit Vlasov's advances and provide the required support, Vlasov's army became stranded. Permission to retreat was refused. With the counter-offensive in May 1942, the Second Shock Army was allowed to retreat, but by now, too weakened, it was surrounded and in June 1942 annihilated during the final breakout at Myasnoi Bor.
After Vlasov's army was surrounded, he himself was offered an escape by aeroplane. The general hid in German-occupied territory. Vlasov's opponent and captor, Nazi general Georg Lindemann, interrogated him about the surrounding of his army and details of battles "had Vlasov imprisoned in occupied Vinnytsia." Vlasov claimed that during his ten days in hiding he affirmed his anti-Bolshevism, believing Joseph Stalin was the greatest enemy of the Russian people, there is evidence that suggests Vlasov may have changed sides in a bid to give his countrymen a better life than the one they had under Stalin. His critics, including Marshal Kirill Meretskov and most Soviet historians, argued that Vlasov adopted a pro-Nazi German stance in prison out of opportunism and survival, fearing Stalinist retribution for losing his last battle and his army. In 2016, in his habilitation thesis, Russian historian Kirill Alexandrov analyzed the careers of 180 Soviet generals and officers who joined the Vlasov army.
He concluded that most of them experienced atrocities committed by the NKVD during the Great Purge and previous purges in the Red Army, which made them disillusioned with the leadership of Stalin and motivated them to defect to the Nazis. Alexandrov's work was reported to the FSB by Russian nationalists as "inciting hatred" but his university, regardless of the political pressure, voted in favor of its scientific value. While in prison, Vlasov met Captain Wilfried Strik-Strikfeldt, a Baltic German, attempting to foster a Russian Liberation Movement. Strik-Strikfeldt had circulated memos to this effect in the Wehrmacht. Strik-Strikfeldt, a participant in the White movement during the Russian civil war, persuaded Vlasov to become involved in aiding the German advance against the rule of Joseph Stalin and Bolshevism. With Lieutenant Colonel Vladimir Boyarsky, Vlasov wrote a memo shortly after his capture to the German
Pyatigorsk Circassian: Psykhwabe is a city in Stavropol Krai located on the Podkumok River, about 20 kilometers from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about 45 kilometers from Kislovodsk. Since January 19, 2010, it has been the administrative center of the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. Population: 142,511 ; the name is derived from the fused Russian words "пять гор" and the city is so called because of the five peaks of the Beshtau of the Caucasian mountain range overlooking the city. It was founded in 1780, has been a health spa with mineral springs since 1803. Pyatigorsk is one of the oldest spa resorts in Russia; the health resort provides unique medical resources, its underground wealth supplies 50 different mineral springs, medical mud taken from Lake Tambukan located 10 km from Pyatigorsk, the mild climate of the area. It is one of 116 historical towns of the Russian Federation. Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov was shot in a duel at Pyatigorsk on July 27, 1841.
There is a museum in the city devoted to his memory. The Zionist activist Joseph Trumpeldor was born in Pyatigorsk; the Circassian or Adyghe name is Psykhwabe. The writings of the 14th-century Arabian traveler Ibn Battuta included the earliest known mention of the mineral springs. Peter the Great fostered the earliest scientific study of them, but the information collected on his expedition has not survived. Interest revived at the end of the 18th century with the foundation of the first Russian settlement, erected at Mt. Mashuk in 1780; the value of the Caucasian mineral waters led to the construction of a resort in 1803, studies of their medical properties began thereafter: on April 24, Alexander I signed a decree which made the mineral waters state property. Many settlements developed near the springs: first Goryachevodsk at the bottom of Mt. Mashuk Kislovodsk and Zheleznovodsk. During World War II the German Wehrmacht temporarily occupied Pyatigorsk; the Einsatzkommando 12 of Einsatzgruppe D had its headquarters in Pyatigorsk in 1942.
The German occupation resulted in the killing of many Jewish inhabitants of the region. The city is situated on a small plateau, 512 meters above sea level, at the foot of Beshtau and three other outliers of the Caucasus Mountains, which protect it on the north; the snow-covered summits of Mount Elbrus are visible to the south. The climate of Pyatigorsk falls within humid continental classification under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system and is characterized by absence of sharp fluctuations of annual and daily temperatures. Summers are warm with the average July temperature of +21 °C while winters, lasting two to three months, are cold, with the average January temperature of −4 °C. Spring is cool, with a sharp transition by the summer, a warm and long fall. There are an average of ninety-eight sunny days in a year. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two urban-type settlements and five rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk is incorporated as Pyatigorsk Urban Okrug. The industry of Pyatigorsk is oriented towards service of the health resort. There is food industry, machine industry and metal working. In 1991, the Pyatigorsk health resort had ten sanatoria, four boarding houses and five sanatoria-preventoria; the number of people who stayed at the health resort within a year totalled about 170,000. The state memorial estate of Mikhail Lermontov was founded in 1973, it unites all of the Lermontov memorial places in the region: the place where he fought his duel and was killed, a necropolis, Lermontov's small house, Verzilin's houses, the house of Alexander Alyabyev, the Lermontov square, monument. The Aeolian harp is a small stone pavilion in the classical style, constructed by the brothers Bernardacci in 1828. Diana's grotto was built in honor of the first ascent of Mount Elbrus. Pyatigorsk is well known in the Caucasus region for its excellent restaurants and nightlife, as well as for its large marketplace.
A major thoroughfare is known to locals as "Broadway", which runs through the center of the city, on which most of the best restaurants and attractions are located. Broadway is a popular spot for people watching; the influence of the Caucasus region is felt here most noticeably in the music and cuisine, which incorporate aspects of many former Soviet republics such as Armenia. Pyatigorsk features prominently in The Kindly Ones. Asteroid 2192 Pyatigoriya discovered in 1972 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Smirnova is named after the city. Pyatigorsk is twinned with: Dubuque, United States Kochi, India Panagyurishte, Bulgaria Trikala, Greece Hévíz, Hungary Schwerte, Germany Правительство Ставропольского края. Постановление №63-п от 4 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц С
Yessentuki is a city in Stavropol Krai, located at the base of the Caucasus Mountains. The city serves as a railway station in the Mineralnye Vody—Kislovodsk branch, is located 43 kilometers southwest of Mineralnye Vody and 17 kilometers west of Pyatigorsk, it is considered the cultural capital of Russia's Greek population and today towards ten percent of its population is of Greek descent. Population: 100,996 . In 1798, the Russian military and border redoubt of Yessentuksky was laid on the right bank of the Bolshoy Yessentuchok River, near its confluence with the Podkumok River. After the construction of the Kislovodsk fortress in 1803, the redoubt was abolished, only the Cossack post was kept on its site; the mineral waters of Yessentuki were first probed in 1810 by the Moscow doctor Fyodor Gaaz. Gaaz found two small wells with salty water in the valley of the stream of Kislusha, about 4 kilometers northeast of the Yessentuksky post. A detailed study of Bugunta mineral waters was made in 1823 by the Russian doctor and pharmacologist A. P. Nelyubin, who found twenty more mineral springs on the slopes of the mountain he referred to as Shchelochnaya.
In 1825, General Yermolov founded the stanitsa of Yessentukskaya on the Bugunta River 3.5 kilometers northeast of the former Yessentuksky post. In 1839, water from springs ##23-26 was led to the common pool, where the first two baths of the wooden bathhouse were built at the expense of the Cossack Regiment Management. Since 1840, springs ##4 and 17 have come into use and become popular. Yessentuki was recognized as one of the best health resorts for treatment of the digestive organs. In 1846, Prince Mikhail Vorontsov, the namestnik of Caucasus, ordered to extend the territory of the stanitsa of Yessentukskaya to the northeast to approach the springs. Since Buguntinskiye mineral waters were referred to as Yessentukskiye. In 1847, some grounds adjacent to the springs were transferred to the newly established state Management of Waters in Pyatigorsk. In the late 1840s, bottling of Yessentuki waters and their dispatch to other cities of the country began. By the early 1870s, regular sale of the water was carried out in most of the large Russian cities.
Construction of the Rostov-on-Don–Mineralnye Vody railway in 1875 and the Mineralnye Vody–Kislovodsk highway contributed to increase in the number of guests coming to Yessentuki for treatment. In 1883, the resort was visited by about 5,000 people. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, medical establishments and summer residences were intensively built. In 1902, a seventy-bed sanatorium for the poor, the first one within the Caucasian Mineral Water system, was opened. In 1905, drilling of holes resulted in discovery of new springs. In 1917, the resort area was separated from the stanitsa of Yessentukskaya and was granted town status. During the Russian Civil War, resort facilities of Yessentuki fell into decay. Restoration work began only in 1920. In 1922, the clinical branch of Pyatigorsk Balneal Institute was opened. In 1925, the health resort treated the total of about 13,000 patients. During the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945, the health resort was damaged by Nazi occupation from August 10, 1942 to January 11, 1943 and was restored at the end of the 1940s.
In 1991, Yessentuki provided treatment for more than 217,000 patients. In 1991, the health resort operated twenty-five sanatoria, including ten belonging to the trade unions, it provided outpatient treatment and board and treatment authorization. Service of guests involved such facilities as a resort polyclinic with aerosun rooms and climatic pavilions. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of krai significance of Yessentuki—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Yessentuki is incorporated as Yessentuki Urban Okrug. Of all mineral springs of Yessentuki, about twenty are of medical value. Sodium carbonic hydrocarbonate-chloride water of springs #4 and #17, which have made the health resort popular, are the most famous and therapeutically valuable; the hot springs similar to the waters of springs #4 and #17 in their structure have been led to the surface in the vicinities of the village of Novoblagodarnoye.
The water of springs #4 and #17 and their analogues are used for peroral treatment. Carbonic hydrogen-sulphide water of holes #1 and #2, as well as calcium-sodium hydrosulphuric sulphate-hydrocarbonate water of the Gaazo-Ponomarevsky spring are used for baths, lavages and other balneother
Kazanlak (Bulgarian: Казанлъ̀к, Kazanlǎk, Thracian and Greek Σευθόπολις is a Bulgarian town in Stara Zagora Province, located in the middle of the plain of the same name, at the foot of the Balkan mountain range, at the eastern end of the Rose Valley. It is the administrative centre of the homonymous Kazanlak Municipality; the town is among the 15 biggest industrial centres in Bulgaria, with a population of 44,760 people as of Dec 2017. It is the center of rose oil extraction in Bulgaria and the oil-producing rose of Kazanlak is one of the most recognizable national symbols; the oldest settlement in the area of the modern-day city dates back to the Neolithic era. During the 4th-3rd centuries BCE the lands on the upper Tundzha river were within the dominion of the Thracian ruler Seuthes III and took an important place in the historical development of Thrace during the Hellenistic era; the Thracian city of Seuthopolis was uncovered near Kazanlak and studied at the time of the construction of the Koprinka Reservoir.
In the 4th century BCE, near the ancient Thracian capital of Seuthopolis and close to the city, a magnificent Thracian tomb was built. Consisting of a vaulted brickwork "beehive" tomb, it contains, among other things, painted murals representing a Thracian couple at a ritual funeral feast; the tomb was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1979. In the Middle Ages the valley became an administrative center of the Krun region where the Bulgarian boyar Aldimir ruled. After 1370 Kazanlak was under Ottoman dominion, its modern name is derived from the Turkish Kazanlık. The modern city dates back to the beginning of the 15th century, it was founded as a military fortress to protect the Shipka Pass and developed as a city of craftsmen. More than 50 handcrafts developed such as tanning, goldsmithing, frieze weaving, cooperage and, of course, rose cultivation; the oil-producing rose, imported from central Asia via Persia and Turkey, found all the necessary conditions to thrive – proper temperature, high moisture and light, cinnamon-forest soils.
Kazanlak rose oil has won gold medals at expositions in Paris, Philadelphia, Antwerp and Milan. After Bulgarian independence the handcrafts declined due to the loss of the markets in the huge Ottoman Empire; the textile and military industries were developed. The Bulgarian climate is temperate, with average temperatures from 0 °C to 1.5 °C in January, 21 °C in July. The average altitude is 350 m. Spring temperatures rise comparatively early and are above 5 °C and above 10 °C but sometimes there are some cold spring periods; the summer temperatures are moderate and the average summer rainfall is rather high at the beginning of summer. During the second half of the summer and the beginning of the autumn, there are continuous drops in rainfall; until the middle of November, the average autumn temperature is above 5 °C, above 10 °C until the end of October. The winter is mild, with comparatively low snowfall, short-lasting snow-cover and low minimum temperatures; the highest rainfall is in June, the lowest in February and March.
The general wind direction is from north-east. The town of Kazanlak and the surrounding region is situated in the western part of the Kazanlak Valley. There are various soil types maroon soils which are suitable for growing oleaginous cultures and herbs; the Kazanlak Valley was formed during the Quaternary Period with the rise of the Balkan and Sredna Gora Mountains and the submergence of the Fore-Balkan fields. The fault character of the Valley is evidenced by the hot mineral springs near the village of Ovoshtnik and the town of Pavel Banya. Morphologically, the Kazanlak Valley is divided into three areas; the western area is the broadest one and has a lot of hills due to the numerous alluvials, formed by the rivers flowing through the Balkan Mountains. Although the average altitude is 350 m, here it reaches up to 500 m; the central area is narrower and lower, the relief of the eastern area is much more complex. Soil cover is related to the relief, flora of the region and the economical activity of the man.
The varied Bulgarian natural environment has produced about 20 soil subtypes. This region is characterised by cinnamon-forest soil; the spreading of the accumulative river materials along the Tundzha river and the Eninska river has formed alluvial soil types and subtypes. The draining and the intended geological base together with the drought-resistant and thermophilic forest vegetation are the reason for the spreading of the forest soils; the arable lands related to this soil type are inclined and that leads to the degradable effect of the plane and ravine erosion. The alluvial soils are high-productive – they are represented by arable lands of I, II and III category, they cover two-thirds of the searched territory and this is an obstruction to the town growth. The lands are planted with roses and perennial plants. Low-productive and degraded lands are located only north-east of Kazanlak. Part of them are covered with pastures; this region is not rich in mineral resources of industrial importance but there are several non-metalliferous minerals of local importance.
There is a clay deposit for brick manufacturing in Manastirska Niva locality two km west of Kazanlak. A greisen-pit for broken stone, paving stones, kerbs is located 7 km east of the town in Kara Dere locality. Sand and felt are extracted from the pits near the vil
Battle of Kiev (1941)
The First Battle of Kiev was the German name for the operation that resulted in a large encirclement of Soviet troops in the vicinity of Kiev during World War II. This encirclement is considered the largest encirclement in the history of warfare; the operation ran from 7 August to 26 September 1941 as part of Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union. In Soviet military history, it is referred to as the Kiev Strategic Defensive Operation, with somewhat different dating of 7 July – 26 September 1941. Much of the Southwestern Front of the Red Army was encircled but small groups of Red Army troops managed to escape the pocket, days after the German panzers met east of the city, including the headquarters of Marshal Semyon Budyonny, Marshal Semyon Timoshenko and Commissar Nikita Khrushchev. Kirponos was killed while trying to break out; the battle was an unprecedented defeat for the Red Army, exceeding the Battle of Białystok–Minsk of June–July 1941. The encirclement trapped 452,700 soldiers, 2,642 guns and mortars and 64 tanks, of which scarcely 15,000 escaped from the encirclement by 2 October.
The Southwestern Front suffered 700,544 casualties, including 616,304 killed, captured or missing during the battle. The 5th, 37th, 26th, 21st and the 38th armies, consisting of 43 divisions, were annihilated and the 40th Army suffered many losses. Like the Western Front before it, the Southwestern Front had to be recreated from scratch. After the rapid progress of Army Group Centre through the central sector of the Eastern front, a huge salient developed around its junction with Army Group South by late July 1941. On 7-8 July 1941 the German forces managed to breakthrough the fortified Stalin Line in the southeast portion of Zhytomyr Oblast, which ran along the 1939 Soviet border. By 11 July 1941 the Axis ground forces reached the Dnieper tributary Irpin River; the initial attempt to enter the city right away was thwarted by troops of the Kiev ukrep-raion and counter offensive of 5th and 6th armies. Following that the advance on Kiev was halted and main effort shifted towards the Korosten ukrep-raion where was concentrated the Soviet 5th Army.
At the same time the 1st Panzer Army was forced to transition to defense due to counteroffensive of the Soviet 26th Army. A substantial Soviet force, nearly the entire Southwestern Front, positioned in and around Kiev was located in the salient. By end of July the Soviet front lost some of its units due to critical situation of the Southern Front caused by the German 17th army. While lacking mobility and armor due to high losses in tanks at the Battle of Uman on 3 August 1941, they nonetheless posed a significant threat to the German advance and were the largest single concentration of Soviet troops on the Eastern Front at that time. Both Soviet 6th and 12th armies were encircled at Uman where some 102,000 Red Army soldiers and officers were taken prisoners. On 30 July 1941, the German forces resumed their advance onto Kiev with the German 6th army attacking positions between the Soviet 26th army and the Kiev ukrep-raion troops. On 7 August 1941 it was halted again by the Soviet 5th, 37th, 26th and supported by the Pinsk Naval Flotilla.
With a help of local population around the city of Kiev along the 45 km frontline segment were dug anti-tanks ditches and installed other obstacles, established 750 pillboxes, planted 100,000 of mines. Some 35,000 soldiers were mobilized from local population along with some partisan detachments and couple of armored trains. On 19 July Hitler issued Directive No. 33 which would cancel the assault on Moscow in favor of driving south to complete the encirclement of Soviet forces surrounded in Kiev. However, on 12 August 1941, Supplement to Directive No. 34 was issued, it represented a compromise between Hitler, convinced the correct strategy was to clear the salient occupied by Soviet forces on right flank of Army Group Center in the vicinity of Kiev before resuming the drive to Moscow, Halder and Guderian, who advocated an advance on Moscow as soon as possible. The compromise required 2nd and 3rd Panzer Groups of Army Group Centre, which were redeploying in order to aid Army Group North and Army Group South be returned to Army Group Centre, together with the 4th Panzer Group of Army Group North, once their objectives were achieved.
The three Panzer Groups, under the control of Army Group Center, would lead the advance on Moscow. Halder, chief of staff of the OKH, Bock, commander of Army Group Center, were satisfied by the compromise, but soon their optimism faded as the operational realities of the plan proved too challenging. On 18 August, OKH submitted a strategic survey to Hitler regarding the continuation of operations in the East; the paper made the case for the drive to Moscow, arguing once again that Army Groups North and South were strong enough to accomplish their objectives without any assistance from Army Group Center. It pointed out that there was enough time left before winter to conduct only a single decisive operation against Moscow. On 20 August, Hitler rejected the proposal based on the idea that the most important objective was to deprive the Soviets of their industrial areas. On 21 August Jodl of OKW issued a directive, which summarized Hitler's instructions, to Brauchitsch commander of the Army; the paper reiterated that the capture of Moscow before the onset of winter was not a primary objective.
Rather, that the most important missions before the onset of winter were to seize the Crimea, the industrial and coal region of the Don.