Charge of the Light Brigade
The Charge of the Light Brigade was a charge of British light cavalry led by Lord Cardigan against Russian forces during the Battle of Balaclava on 25 October 1854 in the Crimean War. British commander Lord Raglan had intended to send the Light Brigade to prevent the Russians from removing captured guns from overrun Turkish positions, a task for which the light cavalry were well-suited. However, there was miscommunication in the chain of command, the Light Brigade was instead sent on a frontal assault against a different artillery battery, one well-prepared with excellent fields of defensive fire; the Light Brigade reached the battery under withering direct fire and scattered some of the gunners, but they were forced to retreat and the assault ended with high British casualties and no decisive gains. The events were the subject of Alfred, Lord Tennyson's narrative poem "The Charge of the Light Brigade", published just six weeks after the event, its lines emphasise the valour of the cavalry in bravely carrying out their orders, regardless of the nearly inevitable outcome.
Blame has remained controversial for the miscommunication, as the order was vague and Louis Edward Nolan delivered the written orders with some verbal interpretation died in the first minute of the assault. The charge was made by the Light Brigade of the British cavalry, which consisted of the 4th and 13th Light Dragoons, 17th Lancers, the 8th and 11th Hussars, under the command of Major General James Brudenell, 7th Earl of Cardigan. Present that day was the Heavy Brigade, commanded by Major General James Yorke Scarlett, a past Commanding Officer of the 5th Dragoon Guards; the Heavy Brigade was made up of the 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards, the 5th Dragoon Guards, the 6th Inniskilling Dragoons and the Scots Greys. The two brigades were the only British cavalry force at the battle; the Light Brigade were the British light cavalry force. It mounted fast horses which were unarmoured; the men were armed with sabres. Optimized for maximum mobility and speed, they were intended for skirmishing, they were ideal for cutting down infantry and artillery units as they attempted to retreat.
The Heavy Brigade under James Scarlett was the British heavy cavalry force. It mounted heavy chargers; the men were armed with cavalry swords for close combat. They were intended as the primary British shock force, leading frontal charges in order to break enemy lines. Overall command of the British cavalry resided with Lieutenant General George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan. Cardigan and Lucan were brothers-in-law. Lucan received an order from the army commander Lord Raglan stating: "Lord Raglan wishes the cavalry to advance to the front, follow the enemy, try to prevent the enemy carrying away the guns. Troop horse artillery may accompany. French cavalry is on your left. Immediate." Raglan wanted the light cavalry to prevent the Russians from withdrawing the naval guns from the redoubts they had captured on the reverse side of the Causeway Heights, the hill forming the south side of the valley. This was an optimum task for the Light Brigade, as their superior speed would ensure the Russians would be forced to either abandon the cumbersome guns or be cut down en masse while they attempted to flee with them.
Raglan could see. However, the lie of the land around Lucan and the cavalry prevented him from seeing the Russians' efforts to remove the guns from the redoubts and retreat; the order was carried by Captain Louis Edward Nolan. Nolan carried the further oral instruction; when Lucan asked what guns were referred to, Nolan is said to have indicated with a wide sweep of his arm—not the causeway redoubts—but the mass of Russian guns in a redoubt at the end of the valley, around a mile away. His reasons for the misdirection are unknown. In response to the order, Lucan instructed Cardigan to lead his command of about 670 troopers of the Light Brigade straight into the valley between the Fedyukhin Heights and the Causeway Heights. In his poem, "The Charge of the Light Brigade", Tennyson dubbed this hollow "The Valley of Death"; the opposing Russian forces were commanded by Pavel Liprandi and included 20 battalions of infantry supported by over 50 artillery pieces. These forces were deployed at the opposite end of the valley.
Lucan himself was to follow with the Heavy Brigade. Although the Heavy Brigade was better armoured and intended for frontal assaults on infantry positions, neither force was remotely equipped for a frontal assault on a dug-in and alerted artillery battery—much less one with an excellent line of sight over a mile in length and supported on two sides by artillery batteries providing enfilading fire from elevated ground; the semi-suicidal nature of this charge was evident to the troopers of the Light Brigade, but if there were any objection to the orders, it was not recorded. The Light Brigade set off down the valley with Cardigan in front, leading the charge on his horse Ronald. At once, Nolan rushed across the front, passing in front of Cardigan, it may be that he realised that the charge was aimed at the wrong target and was attempting to stop or turn the brigade, but he was killed by an artillery shell and the cavalry continued on its course. Captain Godfrey Morgan was close by and saw what happened: The first shell burst in the air about 100 yards in front of us.
The next one exploded on touching the ground. He uttered a wild yell as his ho
Hunchun is a county-level city in the Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture, far eastern Jilin province. It borders North Korea and Russia, has over 250,000 inhabitants, covers 5,145 square kilometers, it was capital of Balhae/Bohai Kingdom between 785-793 as "Dongyang". The city's name Hunchun comes from Huncun in Manchu language.. The city and the village Fangchuan is located near the point of junction of the borders of China and North Korea. Hunchun has four subdistricts, four towns, five townships. Subdistricts: Xin'an Subdistrict, Jinghe Subdistrict, Henan Subdistrict, Jinhai Subdistrict Towns: Chunhua, Banshi, Ying'an Townships: Hadamen Township, Machuanzi Township, Mihong Township, Sanjiazi Manchu Ethnic Township, Yangbaozi Manchu Ethnic Township Since the early 1990s, the Chinese government invested a lot in transforming Hunchun into a regional economic center, thanks in large part to the influence of the former Jilin governor Wang Zhongyu, whose work with Zhu Rongji allowed him to become the first head of China's State Economic and Trade Commission.
On 9 March 1992 the Chinese parliament approved to set up Hunchun Border Economic Cooperation Zone. The national government and Jilin provincial government have invested in succession over four billion yuan in Hunchun through the 1990s. On 16 March 2013, a joint agreement to export textiles to North Korea was announced; the textiles would be exported back to China. Hunchun Border Economic Cooperation ZoneHunchun Border Economic Cooperation Zone was approved to be national-level border economic cooperation zone in 1992, with a planning area of 24 km2. In 2002 and 2001, Hunchun Export Processing Zone and Hunchun Sino-Russia Trade Zone was set up in it. Being located in the junction of China and Korea, it enjoys a strategic location; the infrastructure is available. The city focuses on the development of sea food processing, electronic product manufacture, bio-pharmacy, textile industry and other industries. Hunchun Export Processing ZoneHunchun Export Processing Zone is located in 5 km2 area in Hunchun Border Economic Cooperation Zone.
Its planned area is 2.44 km2. It enjoys good infrastructure and policies. In the early 1990s, Jilin province government constructed a railway and improved the highway to Hunchun; the Tumen River Bridge connects between the North Korean town of Wonjeong. The bridge was built during the Japanese occupation in 1938. In 2010 the bridge was renovated as part of an agreement between North Korea and China to modernize the Rason port in North Korea. In addition, a new railway line was constructed which links Hunchun and Makhalino in Russia and began operating in February 2000. Hunchun port is 63 km from Zarubino port towns of Russia; the Jilin–Hunchun intercity railway, a 250-km/h high-speed passenger rail line from Jilin to Hunchun via Tumen, began construction work in January 2011, was scheduled and finished at the end of September 2015. The railway has been described as "Dongbei's most beautiful railway" and "the fastest way to Vladivostok". Reflecting the border location of the city, the train station has its sign in four languages: Chinese, Korean and English
5th Guards Tank Division
The 5th Guards Tank Division was an armored division of the Soviet Ground Forces and Russian Ground Forces, active from 1945 to 2009, in two different formations. The 5th Guards Stalingrad-Kiev Red Banner Tank Division was formed in September 1945 at Sherlovaya Gora, Chita Oblast, from the 5th Guards Tank Corps. In mid 1957 it became the 122nd Guards Motor Rifle Division; the second formation drew its heritage from an illustrious Soviet World War II cavalry formation, the 5th Guards Cavalry Corps. After the end of World War II, the corps relocated from Ploiești in Romania, where it was part of the Southern Group of Forces, to Novocherkassk in Rostov Oblast, by the fall of 1945; the corps was reorganised as the 5th Guards Cavalry Division on 6 May 1946, part of the North Caucasus Military District. Its two cavalry divisions, the 11th Guards and 12th Guards, became regiments with the same numbers in the new division. A third regiment, the 7th Guards Cavalry Regiment, was renumbered from the 37th Guards Cavalry Regiment.
On 6 September 1951, the division was awarded the honorific "named for E. A. Shchadenko", in honor of Soviet cavalry commander Yefim Shchadenko. On 18 November 1954 18th Guards Heavy Tank Division was formed from 5th Guards Cavalry Division. With the beginning of the Nikita Khrushchev era, the Strategic Rocket Forces were emphasised at the expense of the Ground Forces, the Ground Forces were reduced and reorganized. On 5 March 1962, the division dropped the designation "Heavy" and became the 18th Guards Tank Division. Between 1 and 2 June 1962, the division was involved in the Novocherkassk massacre, the suppression of a strike caused by food shortages. On 11 January 1965, the division was renumbered the 5th Guards Tank Division to reflect its World War II title. In April 1966, the division was transferred to Kyakhta, on the Mongolian–Russian border, to reinforce the Transbaikal Military District in the light of deteriorating relations with the People's Republic of China. On 22 February 1968, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Star.
By May 1970, the division was part of the 29th Army. The division was expanded into the 48th Separate Guards Army Corps, as an experiment in rapid reaction units along with the Belorussian Military District's 120th Guards Motor Rifle Division, from 1982 to 1989; the three tank regiments and single motor rifle regiment of the division were expanded into two tank brigades and two motor rifle brigades, the 1319th Air Assault Regiment and 373rd Separate Helicopter Regiment, both newly formed, were added to the corps. The 57th Army Corps was upgraded in status to Army level in 2003; the 29th Army was subsequently disbanded. Adam Geibel wrote that 5th "Don" Guards Tank Division, stationed in Buryatia, had received ‘a few’ of the initial group of 150 T-90s produced. On 1 June 2009, the division became the 37th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade, as part of the 2008 Russian military reform; the brigade included more than 200 tracked vehicles and more than 100 wheeled vehicles in 2013. Elements of the brigade fought in the War in Donbass and were located in the Northern operational area in February 2015.
The 37th's troops fought in the Battle of Debaltseve during this time, where their heavy equipment and weaponry was crucial to the defeat of Ukrainian forces in the battle. In September 2016, a conscript from the brigade was run over by a Kamaz truck while sleeping during an exercise; the division's second formation included the following units: 108th Tank Regiment 140th Guards Tank Regiment 160th Guards Tank Regiment 311th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment 861st Self-Propelled Artillery Regiment 940th Anti-aircraft Rocket Regiment Alyohin, Roman. Воздушно-десантные войска: история российского десанта. Moscow: Eksmo. ISBN 9785699332137. Baron, Samuel H.. Bloody Saturday in the Soviet Union: Novocherkassk, 1962. Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. ISBN 9780804740937. Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306
38th parallel north
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude, 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane. It crosses Europe, the Mediterranean Sea, the Pacific Ocean, North America, the Atlantic Ocean; the 38th parallel north formed the border between South Korea prior to the Korean War. At this latitude the sun is visible for 14 hours, 48 minutes during the summer solstice and 9 hours, 32 minutes during the winter solstice. Starting at the Prime Meridian heading eastward, the 38th parallel north passes through: Japan had occupied the Korean peninsula between 1910 and 1945; when Japan surrendered in August 1945, the 38th parallel was established as the boundary between Soviet and American occupation zones. This parallel divided the Korean peninsula in the middle. In 1948, this parallel became the boundary between the Democratic People's Republic of Korea and the Republic of Korea, both of which claim to be the government of the whole of Korea. On 25 June 1950, after a series of cross-border raids and gunfire from both the Northern and the Southern sides, the North Korean Army crossed the parallel and invaded South Korea.
This sparked a United Nations resolution against the aggression and the Korean War, with United Nations troops helping to defend South Korea. After the Armistice agreement was signed on July 27, 1953, a new line was established to separate North Korea and South Korea; this Military Demarcation Line is surrounded by a Demilitarized Zone. It crosses the 38th parallel, from the southwest to the northeast; the Demarcation Line is confused with 38th parallel, but as can be seen in the image of the map, the two are not the same. 37th parallel north 38th parallel structures 39th parallel north Circle of latitude Oberdorfer, Don. The Two Koreas: A Contemporary History. 38th parallel at the Encyclopædia Britannica
Battle of Lake Khasan
The Battle of Lake Khasan known as the Changkufeng Incident in China and Japan, was an attempted military incursion by Manchukuo, a Japanese puppet state, into the territory claimed and controlled by the Soviet Union. This incursion was founded in the belief of the Japanese side, that the Soviet Union misinterpreted the demarcation of the boundary based on the Treaty of Peking between Imperial Russia and Qing China and that the demarcation markers were tampered with. Japanese forces occupied the disputed area but withdrew after heavy fighting and a diplomatic settlement. For most of the first half of the twentieth century, there was considerable tension between the Russian and Japanese governments, along their common borders in what became North East China; the Chinese Eastern Railway was a railway in northeastern China. It connected the Russian Far East; the southern branch of the CER, known in the West as the South Manchuria Railway, became the locus and partial casus belli for the Russo-Japanese War and subsequent incidents, leading to the Second Sino-Japanese War and Soviet-Japanese border conflicts.
Larger incidents included the Sino-Soviet conflict of 1929 and the Mukden Incident between Japan and China in 1931. The Battle of Lake Khasan was fought between two powers; the confrontation was triggered when the Soviet Far East Army and Soviet State Security Border Guard reinforced its Khasan border with Manchuria. This was prompted in part by the defection one month before, of Soviet General G. S. Lyushkov, in charge of all NKVD forces in the Soviet Far East at Hunchun, in the Tumen River Area, he provided the Japanese with intelligence on the poor state of Soviet Far Eastern forces and the purge of army officers. On 6 July 1938, the Japanese Kwantung Army decoded a message sent by the Soviet commander in the Posyet region to Soviet headquarters in Khabarovsk; the message recommended that Soviet soldiers be allowed to secure unoccupied high ground west of Lake Khasan, most notably the disputed Changkufeng Heights, because it would be advantageous for the Soviets to occupy terrain which overlooked the Korean port-city of Rajin, as well as strategic railways linking Korea to Manchuria.
In the next two weeks, small groups of Soviet border troops moved into the area and began fortifying the mountain with emplacements, observation trenches and communication facilities. At first, the Japanese Korean Army, assigned to defend the area, disregarded the Soviet advance. However, the Kwantung Army, whose administrative jurisdiction overlapped Changkufeng, pushed the Korean Army to take more action, because it was suspicious of Soviet intentions. Following this, the Korean Army took the matter to Tokyo, recommending that a formal protest be sent to the Soviet Union; the conflict started on 15 July, when the Japanese attaché in Moscow demanded the removal of Soviet border troops from the Bezymyannaya and Zaozyornaya Hills to the west of Lake Khasan in the south of Primorye not far from Vladivostok, claiming this territory by the Soviet–Korea border. The Japanese 19th Division along with some Manchukuo units took on the Soviet 39th Rifle Corps under Grigori Shtern. One of the Japanese Army Commanders at the battle was Colonel Kotoku Sato, the commander of the 75th Infantry Regiment.
Lieutenant General Suetaka Kamezo gave Sato an order: "You are to mete out a firm and thorough counterattack without fail, once you gather that the enemy is advancing in the slightest". The hidden meaning of this was. On 31 July, Sato's regiment launched a night sortie on the fortified hill. In the Changkufeng sector, 1,114 Japanese engaged a Soviet garrison of 300, eliminating them and knocking out 10 tanks, with casualties of 34 killed and 99 wounded. In the Shachofeng sector, 379 Japanese surprised and routed another 300 Soviet troops, while knocking out 7 tanks, for 11 killed and 34 wounded. Thousands more Japanese soldiers from the 19th Division arrived, dug in, requested reinforcements. High Command rejected the request, as they knew General Suetaka would use these forces to assault vulnerable Soviet positions, escalating the incident. Japanese troops defended the disputed area. In 1933, the Japanese had designed and built a "Rinji Soko Ressha"; the train was deployed at "2nd Armoured Train Unit" in Manchuria and participated in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Changkufeng conflict against the Soviets, transporting thousands of Japanese troops to and from the battlefield, displaying to the west the capability of an Asian nation to implement western ideas and doctrine concerning rapid infantry deployment and transport.
On 31 July, People's Commissar for Defence Kliment Voroshilov ordered combat readiness for 1st Coastal Army and the Pacific Fleet. The Soviets gathered 354 tanks and assault guns at Lake Khasan, including 257 T-26 tanks, 3 ST-26 bridge-laying tanks, 81 BT-7 light tanks and 13 SU-5-2 self-propelled guns; the chief of the Far East Front, Vasily Blücher, arrived at the front line on 2 August 1938. Under his command, additional forces were moved up and from August 2–9, the Japanese forces at Changkufeng were attacked; such was the disparity of forces that one Japanese artillery commander observed that the
Soviet invasion of Manchuria
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation or the Manchurian Operation, began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo. It was the last campaign of the Second World War, the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War, which resumed hostilities between the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan after six years of peace. Soviet gains on the continent were Manchukuo and northern Korea; the Soviet entry into the war and the defeat of the Kwantung Army was a significant factor in the Japanese government's decision to surrender unconditionally, as it made apparent the Soviet Union had no intention of acting as a third party in negotiating an end to hostilities on conditional terms. Since 1983, the operation has sometimes been called Operation August Storm after U. S. Army historian David Glantz used this title for a paper on the subject; as agreed with the Allies at the Tehran Conference in November 1943 and the Yalta Conference in February 1945, the Soviet Union entered World War II's Pacific Theater within three months of the end of the war in Europe.
The invasion began on 9 August 1945 three months after the German surrender on May 8. Although the commencement of the invasion fell between the American atomic bombing of Hiroshima, on 6 August, only hours before the Nagasaki bombing on 9 August, the timing of the invasion had been planned well in advance and was determined by the timing of the agreements at Tehran and Yalta, the long-term buildup of Soviet forces in the Far East since Tehran, the date of the German surrender some three months earlier. At 11pm Trans-Baikal time on 8 August 1945, Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov informed Japanese ambassador Naotake Satō that the Soviet Union had declared war on Japan, that from 9 August the Soviet government would consider itself to be at war with Japan. At one minute past midnight Trans-Baikal time on 9 August 1945, the Soviets commenced their invasion on three fronts to the east and north of Manchuria: the Khingan–Mukden Offensive Operation. Though the battle extended beyond the borders traditionally known as Manchuria—that is, the traditional lands of the Manchus—the coordinated and integrated invasions of Japan's northern territories has been called the Battle of Manchuria.
It has been referred to as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation. The Far East Command, under Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Vasilevsky, had a plan to conquer Manchuria, simple but huge in scale, calling for a massive pincer movement over all of Manchuria; this was to be performed by the Transbaikal Front from the west and by the 1st Far Eastern Front from the east. The only Soviet equivalent of a theater command that operated during the war, Far East Command, consisted of three Red Army fronts; the Transbaikal Front, under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, included: 17th Army 36th Army 39th Army 53rd Army 6th Guards Tank Army Soviet Mongolian Cavalry Mechanized Group under Issa Pliyev 12th Air Army. The Transbaikal Front was to form the western half of the Soviet pincer movement, attacking across the Inner Mongolian desert and over the Greater Khingan mountains; these forces had as their objectives firstly to secure Mukden to meet troops of the 1st Far Eastern Front at the Changchun area in south central Manchuria, in doing so finish the double envelopment.
Amassing over one thousand tanks and self-propelled guns, the 6th Guards Tank Army was to serve as an armored spearhead, leading the Front's advance and capturing objectives 350 km inside Manchuria by the fifth day of the invasion. The 36th Army was attacking from the west, but with the objective of meeting forces of the 2nd Far Eastern Front at Harbin and Tsitsihar; the 1st Far Eastern Front, under Marshal Kirill Meretskov, included: 1st Red Banner Army 5th Army 25th Army 35th Army 10th Mechanized Corps 9th Air Army. The 1st Far Eastern Front was to form the eastern half of the pincer movement; this attack involved the 1st Red Banner Army, the 5th Army and the 10th Mechanized Corps striking towards Mudanjiang. Once that city was captured, this force was to advance towards the cities of Jilin and Harbin, its final objective was to link up with the forces of the Transbaikal Front at Changchun and Jilin thus closing the double envelopment movement. As a secondary objective, the 1st Far Eastern Front was to prevent Japanese forces from escaping to Korea, invade the Korean Peninsula up to the 38th parallel, establishing in the process what became North Korea.
This secondary objective was to be carried out by the 25th Army. Meanwhile, the 35th Army was tasked with capturing the cities of Boli and Mishan; the 2nd Far Eastern Front, under General Maksim Purkayev, included: 2nd Red Banner Army 15th Army 16th Army 5th Separate Rifle Corps Chuguevsk Operational Group Amur Military Flotilla 10th Air Army. The 2nd Far Eastern Front was deployed
25th Cavalry Division (Soviet Union)
The 25th Cavalry Division was a mounted division of the Red Army that served for just over a year in the Great Patriotic War. It was formed in the summer of 1941 and served in the region south and west of Leningrad during the following months against the advance of Army Group North during Operation Barbarossa, it survived a German armored counterattack before being pulled back into the reserves in September. In January 1942, it was assigned to the Mobile Group of 2nd Shock Army to take part in the Lyuban Offensive Operation; this offensive aimed to destroy the German forces besieging Leningrad. The 25th Cavalry was disbanded, its survivors were used to help rebuild the badly depleted 19th Guards Rifle Division, while the 25th's commanding officer took over the latter division; the 25th Cavalry Division began forming on July 1941 at Pskov in the Leningrad Military District. It was given the number of a pre-war cavalry division, disbanded in the same District in 1940; when formed, its basic order of battle was as follows: 98th Cavalry Regiment 100th Cavalry Regiment 104th Cavalry RegimentThe division was commanded by Kombrig Nikolai Ivanovich Gusev.
This officer would have his rank modernized as Major General on November 9 and would remain in command until January 20, 1942. Gusev would go on to command several Soviet armies during the remainder of the War, rising to the rank of Colonel General on May 5, 1945; the 25th was immediately assigned to the 34th Army. When Army Group North paused in its advance on Leningrad in early August, Northwestern Front was ordered by the STAVKA to mount a counterstroke to retake the city of Staraya Russa which would be led by 34th Army; the orders included the following:"6. With the 34th Army's assault from the Lovat River line, dispatch the 25th Cavalry Division along the Dedovichi and Dno axis to operate in separate squadrons against the enemy rear area." This attack was planned for August 12, but was preempted by the renewal of the German drive on August 10, so achieved mixed results. The 25th, operating in a mobile group with the 163rd and 202nd Motorized Divisions, advanced 40km westward through the German defenses and reached the Dno - Staraya Russa rail line by August 14.
This enveloped the German X Army Corps in the latter city and threatened the rear of the panzer group advancing on Novgorod. 16th Army was forced to intervene with the LVI Panzer Corps, which by August 25 had driven 34th Army back to the Lovat line with 30 percent losses. However, this delayed the German advance on Leningrad by ten days. In September the division was moved to the reserves of Northwestern Front for rebuilding, where it would remain into December. In that month it was assigned to 52nd Army in Volkhov Front. On January 20, 1942, General Gusev was assigned to take command of 2nd Shock Army's 13th Cavalry Corps, to which the 25th was soon subordinated. Lt. Col. David Markovich Barinov, Gusev's chief of staff, took command of the division the next day, he would remain in this post until it was disbanded. Meanwhile, Volkhov Front began its Lyuban Offensive across the Volkhov River on January 6, before its full forces, most its artillery, was in place; as a result the attackers were slow to make gains, at heavy cost.
It was not until the night of January 23-24 that the Front commander, Gen. K. A. Meretskov, was able to convince himself that 2nd Shock Army had torn enough of a hole in the German defenses that he could commit the 13th Corps, plus a rifle division of 59th Army, into the gap. German counterattacks at once began trying to close it, while on the one hand the mobile group was in a position to do harm in the German rear, its 30,000 troops represented a target for destruction should the gap be closed. Over the following weeks more Soviet forces were fed into the pocket, but a counterattack by German 18th Army succeeded in closing the gap on March 20. A week a new gap was opened near the village of Miasnoi Bor, but it was only 3-5 km wide; the Red Army forces in the salient continued to operate under these circumstances through April and into May. On May 12, Soviet intelligence indicated that 18th Army was about to attack again to cut the corridor. In light of this, orders came from the STAVKA to begin a phased withdrawal from the salient on May 14.
During June and July individual men and small parties of the 25th Cavalry, by now dismounted, made their way through the thinly-held German lines. The division was disbanded on July 15, its survivors were combined with those of the 19th Guards Rifle Division to begin that division's rebuilding. On July 27, Lt. Col. Barinov was promoted to colonel and took command of 19th Guards, whose commander had been listed as missing in action two days earlier. Main Personnel Directorate of the Ministry of Defense of the Soviet Union. Командование корпусного и дивизионного звена советских вооруженных сил периода Великой Отечественной войны 1941 – 1945 гг. Moscow: Frunze Military Academy. Pp. 306, 354 Nikolai Ivanovich Gusev David Markovich Barinov HSU David Markovich Barinov