61st Cavalry Division (Soviet Union)
The 61st Cavalry Division was a cavalry division of the Red Army that served in the first years of the Great Patriotic War. It was formed in September – October, 1941, saw its first actions to the south of Stalingrad during the German siege of that city in the autumn of 1942; when the Soviet counteroffensive, Operation Uranus, began in November the 61st formed a significant part of the mobile forces of its 51st Army. After the positions of Romanian 4th Army were broken through the division took part in the exploitation to the southwest, but became overextended and vulnerable to the mobile German reinforcements arriving to attempt a breakthrough to their Sixth Army; the 61st suffered such severe losses that it had to be withdrawn to the reserves in December, was disbanded. The 61st Cavalry Division began forming in 1941 in the Central Asia Military District, it was recruited from men of several Central Asian nationalities. It received its first commanding officer, Colonel Nikolai Gadalin, on September 25.
When formed, by the middle of the next month, its basic order of battle was as follows: 213th Cavalry Regiment 219th Cavalry Regiment 222nd Cavalry Regiment 13th Horse Artillery BattalionIn November the division was assigned to 4th Cavalry Corps, it would remain in that Corps as long as they both existed. The 3rd formation of this Corps had been serving in the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran, it was assigned three new divisions: the 61st, 63rd and 81st Cavalry. In May, 1942, the division came under the command of Colonel Vasily Baumshtein in June, was handed over to Colonel Anatolii Stavenkov, who would remain in command until the end of February, 1943; the division crossed the Caspian Sea by ship to Astrakhan. At Olya the ships were unloaded by barges. 4th Cavalry Corps, which by now consisted of only the 61st and 81st Divisions, was assigned to 51st Army in Southwestern Front, south of Stalingrad, in October, 1942. In orders issued by Gen. G. K. Zhukov on October 15 to the front commander, Gen. A.
I. Yeryomenko, the latter was to:"Concentrate 61st Cavalry Division in the Solodnikov region and 81st Cavalry Division in the Chernyi Yar region to protect the crossings over the Volga River." This attempt to relieve 62nd Army, along with several others in October and early November, had no success. At the start of the decisive Soviet counteroffensive on November 19 the 61st was part of the 51st Army mobile group that exploited into the breakthrough of the Romanian Army lines towards the southwest; this mobile group had the 4th Mechanized Corps in the lead, with the 4th Cavalry Corps guarding its left flank. 4th Mechanized ran into trouble from Romanian guns and mechanical breakdowns, so the cavalry was unable to join the exploitation until 2200 hrs. on November 20. Once they did so, they followed in the wake of the tanks to Plodovitoe. At this point, the 61st diverged to liberate the town of 18 km southwest; the town fell to the 61st, assisted by elements of 4th Mechanized, on the following day, during which time the two cavalry divisions captured 5,000 Romanian troops between them.
While the 81st moved southwest towards Aksai, the 61st was directed southward west of Lake Barmantsak to reach the rear of the Romanian 4th Infantry Division, holding up the advance of 91st Rifle Division on 51st Army's left wing. The Soviet cavalry was anxiously awaiting the arrival of the 126th Rifle Division, which would be needed if the outer encirclement front was to have any holding power against the remnants of 4th Panzer Army and other German counterattack forces. On the 22nd, while en route to its next objective, the village of Korobkin, the 61st engaged elements of the Romanian 8th Cavalry Division in a battle near Kitov State Farm, 20km north of the village. Stavenkov's cavalrymen drove their Romanian counterparts back 4km to the village of Vodianaia; the following day, the division was cooperating with the 91st and 302nd Rifle Divisions, plus two battalions of 76th Fortified Region, to liberate the town of Sadovoe, outflanking the Romanian 4th by capturing the Umantsevo region, 10km southwest of the town.
The coordinated attacks by 61st Cavalry and 302nd Rifle Division forced the regiment of Romanian 8th Cavalry to withdraw 18km south of Aksai, leaving the bulk of its artillery behind. The division took the town of Umantsevo on the 23rd, following which it was ordered to rejoin the 81st Cavalry and push southwards into the broad region between Aksai and Sadovaia, which were 45km apart. On November 24 the re-united 4th Cavalry Corps made the greatest advance of the forces of Stalingrad Front on that day, unhinging the meager Romanian defenses along the Aksai River, with 126th Rifle Division advancing gamely in the rear. Overnight on November 24-25, 4th Cavalry received orders from the Army commander, Maj. Gen. Nikolai Trufanov:"to advance along the Gromoslavka, Verkhne-Iablochnyi, Kotelnikovo march-route with 81st Cavalry Division and capture Kotelnikovo by 27 November, in cooperation with 61st Cavalry Division attacking toward Kotelnikovo from the east." This order required the cavalry, in tandem with 126th Rifle Division, to traverse 90 to 95km in three days and capture an important rail center and road junction by attacking from three sides.
Unknown to the Soviet command, on November 25 the remnants of 4th Panzer Army had been reorganized as Armeegruppe Hoth, incorporating the remnants of 4th Romanian Army, to buy time until mobile reinforcements could arrive by rail from the West and from Army Group A in the Caucasus. Within hours of departing Umantsevo on the 25th, 61st Cavalry encountered trouble. Upon reaching the village of Sharnutovskii, about ha
Battle of Debrecen
The Battle of Debrecen, called by the Red Army the Debrecen Offensive Operation, was a battle taking place 6–29 October 1944 on the Eastern Front during World War II. The offensive was conducted by the 2nd Ukrainian Front under Marshal Rodion Malinovsky, it was opposed by General Maximilian Fretter-Pico's German Sixth Army and the allied Hungarian VII Army Corps of Army Group South Ukraine The Axis units were forced to retreat some 160 kilometers, while opposing the 2nd Ukrainian Front which had Debrecen in Hungary as its strategic objective. On 23 August 1944, Germany's former ally, Romania had declared war on its ally Hungary; the subsequent drive of Soviet General Fedor Tolbukhin's 3rd Ukrainian Front into Romania destroyed any semblance of an organised defensive line. On 8 September, another former German ally, declared war on Germany. By this time, aided by the 2nd Ukrainian Front under Malinovsky had destroyed thirteen Axis divisions, taking over 100,000 prisoners. Both Malinovsky and Tolbukhin were promoted to Marshal of the Soviet Union for this on 10 and 12 September respectively.
These developments had opened up a 650 kilometer gap in Friessner's Army Group. On 24 September 1944, Friessner's Army Group South Ukraine was redesignated Army Group South. General Fretter-Pico's Sixth Army formed the nucleus of Friessner's force, along with the Hungarian Second Army; the German-Hungarian force was designated Armeegruppe Fretter-Pico. Meanwhile, the Soviet forces were worn down by the Iasi-Chisinau Strategic Offensive Operation and the Belgrade Offensive, had to contend with logistical difficulties caused by the different railway gauge used in Romania. Fearing encirclement, commander of Army Group South Ukraine Generaloberst Johannes Friessner requested Hitler's permission to withdraw. Hitler promised additional forces for Friessner's army group. Hitler ordered Friessner to start a new offensive with the goal of a destruction of two of Malinovsky's Armies, the 27th Army and the 6th Guards Tank Army. In addition, he was ordered to retake two vital passes in the Southern Carpathians.
On 14 September 1944, Malinovsky, in conjunction with the 3rd Ukrainian Front, launched the Belgrade Offensive. Friessner had been concentrating troops for his own planned offensive, Malinovsky's 2nd Ukrainian Front ran into heavy resistance. After a week of fruitless attacks, Malinovsky called off his offensive and ordered the exhausted 6th Guards Tank Army, along with Cavalry Mechanized Group commanded by Pliyev, 4th Guards Cavalry Corps, 6th Guards Cavalry Corps, with 389 tanks and assault guns, Cavalry Tank Group General Major Sergei Ilyich Gorshkov's 5th Guards Cavalry Corps with the 23rd Tank Corps attached, to the area near Oradea. By the end of September 1944, both Malinovsky and Friessner had received new orders. Malinovsky was now ordered to attack towards Budapest from the salient to the south around Arad, he was to use the 46th and 1st Romanian Armies with the Cavalry Mechanized Group Pliyev as the exploitation force in case of a successful breakthrough. The remainder of Malinovsky's forces, including the 6th Guards Tank Army, 53rd Army, Cavalry Tank Group Gorshkov, were to attack from the north, near Oradea, towards Debrecen.
The plan was for the two spearheads to encircle the German forces. Meanwhile, Friessner's orders included an attack from Oradea with Armeegruppe Fretter-Pico; the 2nd Ukrainian Front operation began on 6 October 1944, with Malinovsky's southern pincer attacking near Arad, slicing through the Hungarian Third Army. The spearhead of the southern 2nd Ukrainian Front pincer, followed by the Cavalry Mechanized Group Pliyev, had advanced sixty kilometres within the first 24 hours; the attack by the northern 2nd Ukrainian Front pincer ran into difficulty colliding with the 1st Panzer Division and 23rd Panzer Divisions of the German III Panzer Corps. By the end of the day, the northern pincer had advanced only ten kilometres. Reacting Fretter-Pico ordered the 76th Infantry Division into the forward line near Oradea; this freed up the 23rd Panzer Division to move south to counter the breakthrough near Arad. The German Panzer Division Feldherrnhalle 1, refitting at Mezőkövesd, was moved into action to guard potential crossing points on the Tisza River against the advancing 2nd Ukrainian Front units.
By the evening of 7 October 1944, the 2nd Ukrainian Front southern pincer had advanced further towards the Tisza River. Meanwhile, the northern pincer was still stalled near Oradea. In this area the German-Hungarian forces had managed to halt several flanking attempts by the 6th Guards Tank Army. By 10 October, Malinovsky's troops occupied several bridgeheads on the western bank of the Tisza River, elements of the 46th Army and the 18th Tank Corps were driving on Kecskemét, only 70 kilometres from Budapest. Malinovsky, however had to redistribute some of these forces to support the advance of Pliyev's group on the other side of the Tisza; the remaining 2nd Ukrainian Front troops of this spearhead were attacked by the Hungarian cavalry and German anti-aircraft troops and forced to retreat to the Tisza on 11 October. The same day, Hungarian counter-attacks against the 2nd Ukrainian Front's 243rd Rifle Division at the Mindszent bridgehead became so dire that the Romanian VII Corps was rushed to Mindszent to reinforce the bridgehead's defense.
Subsequently, the Romanian 2nd and 4th Infantry Divisions took over 2nd Ukrainian Front bridgeheads on the Tisza below Szolnok. The bridgehead of the 4th Division was attacked on 19 October by the Hungarian 1st Cavalry and 1st Infantry Divisions, which the 4th Division held back until hit on t
30th Mechanized Brigade (Ukraine)
The 30th Konstanty Ostrogski Mechanized Brigade is a formation of the Ukrainian Ground Forces. The full name of the unit is 30th Independent Mechanized Brigade "Konstanty Ostrogski". Between September 1 and October 1, 1941, the 83rd Cavalry Division was formed in the city of Samarkand, Uzbekistan; the division consisted of the following units: 215th Cavalry Regiment 226th Cavalry Regiment 231st Cavalry Regiment Separate Chemical SquadronFrom September 5, 1941, the commanding officer of the division was Lieutenant General Selivanov. On November 7, 1941, the division was sent to the Volga Military District where it was assigned to the newly forming Cavalry mechanized group of the 61st Army; until December 28, 1941, the division was fortifying near the station of Lysi Gory Saratov Oblast. The first battle that the division took part in was near the city of Ryazhsk, Ryazan Oblast as part of the Cavalry mechanized group of the 61st Army as part of the Bryansk Front and the Soviet winter counter offensive in front of Moscow.
In January 1942 the division was assigned to the 7th Cavalry Corps and was assigned to be a Mobile Group in the Moscow Defense Zone for the 61st Army. The division remained with the 7th Cavalry Corps for the rest of 1942 and when the Corps was redesignated as the 6th Guards Cavalry Corps in January 1943 the division became the 13th Guards Cavalry Division on 19 January 1943; the division was under the command of General Major Pyotr Zubov. The 13th Guards Cavalry Division fought at Dubno in 1944, as well as at the Battle of Debrecen and was with 6th Guards Cavalry Corps of the 2nd Ukrainian Front in May 1945. Feskov et al. trace the unit's history. At the beginning of June, the division relocated to Novohrad-Volynskyi. On 1 August 1945, the division was converted into the 11th Guards Mechanized Division. During November and December 1956, the division fought in the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956. 44 soldiers of the division were killed during the campaign in Hungary. The division moved back to Novohrad-Volynskyi in January 1957.
On 4 June 1957 it became the 30th Guards Tank Division, part of the 8th Tank Army. In 1960, the division's 58th Separate Tank Training Battalion was disbanded. On 19 February 1962 the 335th Separate Missile Battalion and the 108th Separate Equipment Maintenance and Recovery Battalion were activated. In 1968 the 151st Separate Guards Sapper Battalion became the 151st Separate Guards Engineer-Sapper Battalion; the 1043rd Separate Material Supply Battalion was created from the motor transport battalion in 1980. During the Cold War, the division was maintained at 25% strength. In November 1990, the division was equipped with 224 T-72 main battle tanks; the 30th Guards Tank Division, along with the rest of the 8th Tank Army and the Carpathian Military District, became part of the Ukrainian Ground Forces according to the order of Ukraine About Armed Forces of Ukraine from December 6, 1991. In February 1992, all units of the division pledged their allegiance to Ukraine, it was still designated a tank division as of Decree N 350/93.
On October 20, 1999, the division was awarded the Novohrad-Volynskyi designation. On July 30, 2004, the division was reformed into a brigade; the brigade is the only mechanized brigade that does not have any conscripts. It is a part of Joint Rapid Reaction Forces. Over a hundred soldiers from the brigade have served in peacekeeping missions in Sierra Leone, Lebanon and Kosovo. A battalion of the brigade was part of POLUKRBAT in the 2006 rotation; as of October 12, 2007, the 2nd Mechanized Battalion of the brigade is deployed in Kosovo as part of the POLUKRBAT. The current commander of the brigade served as a commander of the 5th Separate Mechanized brigade in Iraq. In 2015 the brigade took part in the Battle of Debaltseve during the War in Donbass. On 18 November 2015 the Soviet decorations of brigade's full name were removed, leaving the full name of 30th Separate Guards Mechanized Novohrad-Volynskyi Rivne Brigade. On 22 August 2016, its Guards title was removed; as part of Ukrainian Independence Day celebrations on August 24, 2018, the brigade received the new honorific "Konstanty Ostrogski".
In 1960, the division included the following units. 276th Tank Regiment 282nd Guards Tank Regiment 325th Tank Regiment 319th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment 855th Guards Artillery Regiment 937th Guards Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment 54th Separate Guards Reconnaissance Battalion 151st Separate Guards Sapper Battalion 214th Separate Guards Communications Battalion 197th Separate Chemical Defence Company 112th Separate Medical-Sanitary Company Separate Motor Transport Battalion 276th Armor Regiment 325th Armor Regiment 282nd Guards Armor Regiment 319th Mechanized Regiment 855th Guards Artillery Regiment 937th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment 214th Separate Guards Signal Battalion 54th Separate Guards Reconnaissance Battalion 151st Separate Guards Combat Engineer Battalion 108th Separate Maintenance Battalion 1043rd Separate Combat Service Support Battalion 112th Separate Medical Battalion 404th Separate Chemical Battalion As of 2017 the brigade's structure is as follows: 30th Mechanized Brigade, Novohrad-Volynskyi Headquarters & Headquarters Company 1st Mechanized Battalion 2nd Mechanized Battalion 3rd Mechanized Battalion Tank Battalion 2nd Motorized Infantry Battalion "Horyn" Brigade Artillery Group Headquarters & Target Acquisition Battery Self-propelled Artillery Battalion Self-propelled Artillery Battalion Rocket Artillery Battalion Anti-tank Artillery Battalion Anti-Aircraft Missile Artillery Battalion Engineer Battalion Maintenance Batta
7th Guards Mountain Air Assault Division
The 7th Guards Mountain Air Assault Division is an elite guards division of the Russian Airborne Troops. The 7th Guards Airborne Division was formed in September 1948 based on 322nd Guards Rifle Regiment which fought in Eastern Europe in World War II. In October 1948 the division was relocated to Lithuania. During the Cold War period, the division served in the suppression of the Hungarian and Czech revolutions. On August 1993, the division was relocated to Russia, it took part in various counter-insurgency operations in the Caucasus region. On 1 December 2006 it was renamed as 7th Guards Mountain Air Assault Division. In 2014 the division's 247th Guards Air Assault Regiment took part in the War in Donbass in Ukraine. There were two separately formed 7th Guards Airborne Divisions in the Red Army and Soviet Ground Forces/Soviet Airborne Troops; the first division was formed during the Second World War at Ramenskoye in December 1942. It fought at Demyansk, Korsun, on the Dnieper River, at Targul Frumos and Budapest.
It ended the war with 4th Guards Army of the 3rd Ukrainian Front in May 1945. As part of a postwar military reorganization, this division was retitled the 115th Guards Rifle Division in June 1945; the second formation of the 7th Guards Airborne Division was started in September 1948 based on 322nd Guards Rifle Regiment. The first formation of the division was formed during the Second World War at Ramenskoye in December 1942, it fought at Demyansk, Korsun, on the Dnieper River, at Targul Frumos and Budapest. On May 8, 1945, the divisional commander, Major General Dmitrii Aristarkhovich Drichkin, set up his headquarters in the village of Erlauf, some 60 miles west of Vienna and 50 miles east of Linz. Anxious to meet the Allies, he sent out scouts. At midnight, he met Major General Stanley Eric Reinhart, commander of the U. S. 65th Infantry Division. For the duration of their presence on the Danube river, both commanders continued to cooperate in an unusually effective manner. Twenty years public affairs officer Captain John J. Pullen described their first cordial encounter for the National Observer.
For the 50th anniversary, Erlauf erected a Soviet-sponsored memorial. It features a local girl, linking arms with a GI on her right, a Soviet soldier on her left. To this day, an enlarged photo and a small exhibit mark the spot where this historic encounter took place: A life-size Major General Reinhart, smiling at General Drichkin, as they compare their watches one minute past midnight, on 9 May 1945, the moment the unconditional surrender of Germany became effective; as part of a postwar military reorganization at the end of June 1945, the first formation of the 7th Guards Airborne Division was retitled as the 115th Guards Rifle Division. The 22nd Guards Tank Division was activated on 4 June 1957 in Novomoskovsk, Dnepropetrovsk Oblast, from the 115th Guards Rifle Division; the baptism of fire of the second formation division's predecessor regiment took place in 1945, fighting around Lake Balaton under the 37th Guards Rifle Corps, 9th Guards Army, 3rd Ukrainian Front. On 26 April 1945, the 322nd Guards Rifle Regiment of the 103rd Guards Rifle Division was awarded the Order of Kutuzov, second class, for exemplary performance.
In commemoration, the division's official day is 26 April, by an order of the Defense Minister of the USSR. At the end of the war, the 322nd Guards Rifle Regiment was in the city of Czechoslovakia. During the war, the regiment was thanked on six occasions by the Supreme Commander. In all 2,065 of its soldiers and officers were decorated for valor and heroism by the Soviet Union; the 7th Guards Airborne Division was established on 15 October 1948 on the basis of the 322nd Guards Air Landing Regiment of the 103rd Guards Airborne Division at Polotsk in the Belorussian Military District, becoming part of the 8th Guards Airborne Corps. The division was relocated to the cities of Kaunas and Marijampole, Lithuanian SSR. Personnel from these bases took part in actions against Lithuanian partisans. Units in this premier division of airborne troops have mastered the landing of Antonov An-8, An-12, An-22, Il-76 aircraft, tested a number of new parachute systems, all generations of BMD, 2S9 Nona artillery systems.
In 1956, the division was involved in "Operation Whirlwind", the suppression of the Hungarian revolution. On 3 November 1956, the 108th Parachute Regiment landed at the Tököl airbase in Il-12 and Li-2 aircraft and disabling six antiaircraft batteries positioning themselves to defend the base. On 4 November 1956 the regimental staff, together with fighters from the 119th Parachute Regiment, entered the city of Budapest and took part in street fighting until the city was secured on 7 November. In 1968, the division participated in Operation Danube to suppress the Prague Spring uprising; the 108th Regiment distinguished itself in the most dangerous and difficult missions, for which about two hundred of its personnel received high government awards. On 23 June 1969, troops of the 108th Airborne Regiment were tasked to fly from Kaunas to Ryazan, where they were to demonstrate their vehicle assault landing skills to the Minister of Defence of the USSR, Andrei Grechko; the group of three An-12 aircraft took off early in the morning, reaching a cruising altitude of 3,000 metres.
Approaching the city of Kaluga, a plane carrying the staff of a company and battalion command collided with an Ilyushin Il-14 passenger plane, at 3000 meters without clearance, with the loss of all aboard. The division was involved in many major exercises and maneuvers, such as "Shield-76", "Neman", "West-81", "West-84" and "Watch-86", in the latter three exerc
32nd Guards Tank Division
The 32nd Guards Tank Division was a tank formation of the Soviet Army/Soviet Ground Forces. Its predecessor, the 9th Guards Airborne Division, was a Red Army Airborne division of World War II. On 19 June 1945, it became the 116th Guards Rifle Division. In 1946, it became the 14th Guards Mechanized Division. In 1957, it became the 14th Guards Motorized Rifle Division. In 1982, it became the 32nd Guards Tank Division, disbanded in June 1989; the 9th Guards Airborne Division was formed on 15 December 1942 in the Moscow Military District from the 204th and 211th Airborne Brigades and the 1st Maneuver Airborne Brigade of 1st Airborne Corps. In February 1943, it became part of the 1st Shock Army. Beginning on 12 March 1943, the division fought in the Staraya Russa Offensive Operation. After the end of the Starayarussa Operation, the division was transferred to Reserve of the Supreme High Command and in May was transferred to the 5th Guards Army of the Steppe Front. During July and August, the 9th Guards Airborne fought in the Battle of Kursk.
They were distinguished during the defence of Prokhorovka, where they repulsed German counterattacks by the Leibstandarte. As part of the 33rd Guards Rifle Corps, the division participated in the Belgorod-Khar'kov Offensive Operation. In September 1943, it fought in the Chernigov-Poltava Offensive. On 22 September, in conjunction with the 95th Rifle Division and the 84th Rifle Division, the division crossed the Vorskla River and stormed Poltava. For its participation in the capture of Poltava, the division was given the title "Poltava". At the end of September, the division captured Kremenchuk. On 6 December, the division participated in the capture of Oleksandriia. On 22 March 1944, the 9th Guards Airborne crossed the Southern Bug in the area of Ivanovka, it participated in the capture of Pervomaisk and crossed the Dniester on the night of 13 April, capturing Grigoriopol. For their actions in the capture of Pervomaisk, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. During the Lvov–Sandomierz Offensive, the division repulsed German counterattacks, although its commanding officer, Ivan Pichugin, was killed on 4 August, in the area of Mielec and defending the Sandomierz bridgehead.
In the Sandomierz–Silesian Offensive, the 9th Guards Airborne broke through German defences and on 14 January 1945 crossed the Nida. On 21 January it captured Rosenberg and on 24 January crossed the Oder. For its actions in Poland, it was awarded the Order of Suvorov 2nd class on 19 February 1945. During February and March, the 9th Guards Airborne participated in the Lower Silesian Offensive and the Upper Silesian Offensive. On 20 April, during the Berlin Offensive, the division stormed Spremberg. In early May, it repulsed a German counterattack near Schwepnitz; the 9th Guards Airborne ended the war in Prague. On 4 June, it was awarded the Order of Kutuzov 2nd class for its actions during the capture of Dresden. On 13 June, the 9th Guards Airborne Division became the 116th Guards Rifle Division. In 1946, it became the 14th Guards Mechanized Division. On 20 April 1957, it became the 14th Guards Motorized Rifle Division at Juterborg, part of the 18th Guards Army; the 236th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment transferred to the 82nd Motor Rifle Division in April 1958 and was replaced by that division's 69th Motor Rifle Regiment.
In June 1964, the division became part of the 20th Guards Army. The division participated in Operation Danube in 1968 as part of the 1st Guards Tank Army; the 330th Tank Regiment inherited the honors of the 343rd Guards Tank Regiment in 1975 and became the 343rd Guards Tank Regiment. In 1976, the division became the first GSFG unit to receive the new T-64A tank. On 14 September 1982, it became the 32nd Guards Tank Division, its 216th Guards Motor Rifle Regiment became the 287th Guards Tank Regiment and the 223rd Guards Motor Rifle Regiment became the 288th Guards Tank Regiment. On 28 August 1988, the 640th Separate Missile Battalion was disbanded and absorbed by the newly formed 464th Missile Brigade. In May 1989, the 69th Motor Rifle Regiment transferred to the 35th Motor Rifle Division; the 1009th Anti-Aircraft Missile Brigade was transferred to the 47th Guards Tank Division. The division was disbanded in June 1989 after withdrawal from Jüterbog to Krivoy Rog. Colonel M. V. Grachev Colonel Konstantin Nikolaevich Vindushin Major General Alexander Mikhailovich Sazonov Major General Ivan Pichugin Colonel Fedor Afanasiev Colonel Pavel Shumeev Colonel EM Golub 23rd Guards Airborne Regiment 26th Guards Airborne Regiment 28th Guards Airborne Regiment 7th Guards Airborne Artillery Regiment Zaloga, Steven.
T-64 Battle Tank: The Cold War's Most Secret Tank. Oxford: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781472806307
106th Guards Airborne Division
The 106th Guards Tula Red Banner Order of Kutuzov Airborne Division, more referred to as the Tula Division, is one of the four airborne divisions of the Russian Airborne Troops, the VDV. Based in the city of Tula, to the south of Moscow, it is administratively located within the Western Military District; the Division was founded in January 1944 as the 16th Guards Airborne Division, from until the end of the Second World War fought in Hungary and Czechoslovakia with 38th Guards Rifle Corps of 9th Guards Army. It became the 106th Guards Rifle Division in December 1944, as all the original VDV divisions and brigades were being reconstituted as Guards Rifle formations; the Division's honorifics are'Red Banner, Order of Kutuzov', though an early Western writer reported them as'Dneipr-Transbaikal' incorrectly, at one point in its history. On 7 June 1946, the 106th Guards Rifle Division was converted to an airborne division at Tula, part of the new 38th Guards Airborne Corps. On 1 October 1948, the division's 347th Guards Air Landing Regiment was used to form the 11th Guards Airborne Division.
It was replaced by the new 51st Guards Air Landing Regiment, which became an airborne unit in 1949. On 5 May 1955, the 137th Guards Airborne Regiment joined the division from the disbanded 11th Guards Airborne Division. On 6 January 1959, the 110th Separate Military-Transport Aviation Squadron was formed with the division, equipped with ten Antonov An-2 transports. On 15 August 1960, the 205th Guards Artillery Regiment became the 845th Separate Guards Artillery Battalion. At the same time, the 351st Guards Airborne Regiment transferred to the 105th Guards Airborne Division and was replaced by the 105th's 331st Guards Airborne Regiment. On 27 April 1962, the 845th Separate Guards Artillery Battalion became the 1182nd Guards Artillery Regiment; as the attention of the Soviet leadership began to shift towards their ability to project force overseas, the need for a deployable force to spearhead large-scale operations became apparent and the VDV was once again built up as such an air assault force.
The Tula Division, from that point until the present day, was to be one of the most frequently-used elements of it. Two of its regiments took part in the Soviet–Afghan War; as nationalist unrest grew in the southern republics of the USSR throughout the end of the 1980s, the division was deployed to Baku, Azerbaijan, in 1988 and to Fergana, Uzbekistan, in 1990. Throughout this time the division was commanded by General Alexander Lebed. In 1991, an attempted coup against the Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev took place in Moscow; as the coup faltered, the plotters lost the initiative while support for Boris Yeltsin, the President of the Russian SFSR, the plotters called in reinforcements from the Tula Division, in the form of a battalion from the 137th Guards Airborne Regiment. When they arrived, Lebed stated that he had orders to secure the Parliament building, where Yeltsin's supporters were barricaded, he did not, give the order for his men, equipped with BMD armoured vehicles, to launch an attack.
This may have been because at that point in the coup, the Tamanskaya Division was in the process of switching its own allegiance from the plotters to the parliamentarians, but whatever Lebed's rationale, the episode helped to boost his own public profile immensely. Following the failure of the coup and the dissolution of the Soviet Union, in 1992, he was appointed commander of the Russian 14th Army in Moldova; the 119th Guards Airborne Regiment joined the division from the 7th Guards Airborne Division in August 1993, replacing the 331st Guards Airborne Regiment, transferred to the 98th Guards Airborne Division. In 1994, the Russian Army was ordered into the breakaway southern republic of Chechnya by Yeltsin President of the Russian Federation, after the refusal of the separatist government to surrender to Moscow's authority, beginning the First Chechen War. Battalions of the Tula Division were attached to'Group West', they took part, in December that year, in the first Battle of Grozny, helping to capture the city's central railway station, which had proved to be one of the most difficult and costly strategic points in Grozny for the Russians to capture.
In March 1995, the battalions were transferred to the command of'Group North' and continued fighting, notably around Argun. In May, they withdrew from Chechnya; the division's losses in the first war are unclear: 36 of its soldiers have been confirmed killed in action, but the number missing in action is around 200. The Second Chechen War began in 1999. With Moscow determined to avoid a repeat of the quagmire that the first war had become, the Russian force committed in 1999 was larger, better equipped and better organised; the Tula Division's contribution to that force was 119th Parachute Landing Regiments. Its losses in this war were still considerable but less than in the first: 67 of its soldiers were reported either killed or missing in action. For its actions in the second campaign, the Tula Division was awarded the MoD Pennant. In 2001, after the September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States, paratroopers from the division were sent to Afghanistan to evacuate the staff of the Russian embassy in Kabul, so as to ensure their safety in the face of the American military campaign in support of the Northern Alliance's advance towards the city.
On 26 April 2004, the Tula Division celebrated its 60th anniversary. In August 2014 the division's 137th Guards Airborne Regiment had participated in the War in Donbass. On 13 August 2015, the division was given the honorific name "Tula". Modern Rus
Alexander Ilyich Dutov was one of the leaders of the Cossack counterrevolution in the Urals, lieutenant general. Dutov was born in Kazalinsk in Syr-Darya Oblast, he graduated from Nikolayev Cavalry School and Nikolayev Engineering Institute, now Military engineering-technical university, General Staff Academy. He was assistant commander of the Cossack regiment during World War I. After the February Revolution, Dutov was appointed head of the All-Russian Cossack Army Union chairman of the counterrevolutionary All-Russian Cossack Congress, Chief of the Army Administration and ataman of the Orenburg Cossack Army. In November 1917, Dutov raised a revolt against the Soviet authorities in Orenburg. In June 1918, with the help of the Czech Legion, organized a struggle for complete termination of the Soviet authority in the Urals, he was in charge of the Orenburg Independent Army in Aleksandr Kolchak's army. In 1919, he tried to convince General Grigory Semyonov to join him as a stronger force to fight the Red Army.
Semyonov refused despite a significant diplomatic effort from Governor Vasile Balabanov claiming he was governor only since the provisional government in Saint Petersburg collapsed in the revolution. After his army's defeat by Red Army, Dutov led his Orenburg Army in the Starving March during winter of 1919–1920 to Semirechye, from there in March–May 1920 to China. At that time, General Dutov helped a number of Russian leaders, including Vasile Balabanov, the administrator of Semirechye, to escape to China. Dutov was assassinated in Suiding, China, by the Bolshevik agent Мahmud Khadzhamirov in February 1921. Russian Civil War White Movement