MusicBrainz is a project that aims to create an open data music database, similar to the freedb project. MusicBrainz was founded in response to the restrictions placed on the Compact Disc Database, a database for software applications to look up audio CD information on the Internet. MusicBrainz has expanded its goals to reach beyond a compact disc metadata storehouse to become a structured open online database for music. MusicBrainz captures information about artists, their recorded works, the relationships between them. Recorded works entries capture at a minimum the album title, track titles, the length of each track; these entries are maintained by volunteer editors. Recorded works can store information about the release date and country, the CD ID, cover art, acoustic fingerprint, free-form annotation text and other metadata; as of 21 September 2018, MusicBrainz contained information about 1.4 million artists, 2 million releases, 19 million recordings. End-users can use software that communicates with MusicBrainz to add metadata tags to their digital media files, such as FLAC, MP3, Ogg Vorbis or AAC.
MusicBrainz allows contributors to upload cover art images of releases to the database. Internet Archive provides the bandwidth and legal protection for hosting the images, while MusicBrainz stores metadata and provides public access through the web and via an API for third parties to use; as with other contributions, the MusicBrainz community is in charge of maintaining and reviewing the data. Cover art is provided for items on sale at Amazon.com and some other online resources, but CAA is now preferred because it gives the community more control and flexibility for managing the images. Besides collecting metadata about music, MusicBrainz allows looking up recordings by their acoustic fingerprint. A separate application, such as MusicBrainz Picard, must be used for this. In 2000, MusicBrainz started using Relatable's patented TRM for acoustic fingerprint matching; this feature allowed the database to grow quickly. However, by 2005 TRM was showing scalability issues as the number of tracks in the database had reached into the millions.
This issue was resolved in May 2006 when MusicBrainz partnered with MusicIP, replacing TRM with MusicDNS. TRMs were phased out and replaced by MusicDNS in November 2008. In October 2009 MusicIP was acquired by AmpliFIND; some time after the acquisition, the MusicDNS service began having intermittent problems. Since the future of the free identification service was uncertain, a replacement for it was sought; the Chromaprint acoustic fingerprinting algorithm, the basis for AcoustID identification service, was started in February 2010 by a long-time MusicBrainz contributor Lukáš Lalinský. While AcoustID and Chromaprint are not MusicBrainz projects, they are tied with each other and both are open source. Chromaprint works by analyzing the first two minutes of a track, detecting the strength in each of 12 pitch classes, storing these 8 times per second. Additional post-processing is applied to compress this fingerprint while retaining patterns; the AcoustID search server searches from the database of fingerprints by similarity and returns the AcoustID identifier along with MusicBrainz recording identifiers if known.
Since 2003, MusicBrainz's core data are in the public domain, additional content, including moderation data, is placed under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-SA-2.0 license. The relational database management system is PostgreSQL; the server software is covered by the GNU General Public License. The MusicBrainz client software library, libmusicbrainz, is licensed under the GNU Lesser General Public License, which allows use of the code by proprietary software products. In December 2004, the MusicBrainz project was turned over to the MetaBrainz Foundation, a non-profit group, by its creator Robert Kaye. On 20 January 2006, the first commercial venture to use MusicBrainz data was the Barcelona, Spain-based Linkara in their Linkara Música service. On 28 June 2007, BBC announced that it has licensed MusicBrainz's live data feed to augment their music Web pages; the BBC online music editors will join the MusicBrainz community to contribute their knowledge to the database. On 28 July 2008, the beta of the new BBC Music site was launched, which publishes a page for each MusicBrainz artist.
Amarok – KDE audio player Banshee – multi-platform audio player Beets – automatic CLI music tagger/organiser for Unix-like systems Clementine – multi-platform audio player CDex – Microsoft Windows CD ripper Demlo – a dynamic and extensible music manager using a CLI iEatBrainz – Mac OS X deprecated foo_musicbrainz component for foobar2000 – Music Library/Audio Player Jaikoz – Java mass tag editor Max – Mac OS X CD ripper and audio transcoder Mp3tag – Windows metadata editor and music organizer MusicBrainz Picard – cross-platform album-oriented tag editor MusicBrainz Tagger – deprecated Microsoft Windows tag editor puddletag – a tag editor for PyQt under the GPLv3 Rhythmbox music player – an audio player for Unix-like systems Sound Juicer – GNOME CD ripper Zortam Mp3 Media Studio – Windows music organizer and ID3 Tag Editor. Freedb clients can access MusicBrainz data through the freedb protocol by using the MusicBrainz to FreeDB gateway service, mb2freedb. List of online music databases Making Metadata: The Case of Mus
Geraardsbergen is a city and municipality located in the Denderstreek and in the Flemish Ardennes, the hilly southern part of the Belgian province of East Flanders. The municipality comprises the city of Geraardsbergen proper and the following towns: Goeferdinge, Idegem, Nederboelare, Onkerzele, Overboelare, Smeerebbe-Vloerzegem, Waarbeke and Zarlardinge. On January 1, 2006 Geraardsbergen had a total population of 31,380; the total area is 79.71 km² which gives a population density of 394 inhabitants per km². The current mayor of Geraardsbergen is Guido De Padt, from the Open VLD party. Geraardsbergen is one of the oldest cities in Belgium, it came into existence close to the settlement of Hunnegem and in 1068 was one of the first communities in Western Europe to be granted city status. The city was destroyed in 1381 by Walter IV of his troops. According to legend, during the siege local people threw some of their left over food over the city wall to show that they had sufficient food to survive a long siege.
This bravado notwithstanding, the city was still captured by Enghien's troops. Every year the city organizes the krakelingenworp carnival on top of the hill at Oudenberg to celebrate this historical event. On 29 May 1815, shortly before the Battle of Waterloo, Wellington and Blücher reviewed the Allied cavalry here; some 6,000 troops were paraded in meadows on the banks of the Dender between Geraardsbergen and Jedeghem. Manneken Pis, the oldest such statue, older than the more famous one in Brussels; the wall, a steep street paved with cobblestones, climbed every year by cyclists during the Tour of Flanders. Boelare Castle, seat of the former feudal domain Land of Boelare. Overboelare Airfield, small glider airfield with a Douglas C-54A Skymaster as gate guard. Geraardsbergen is known for a type of sweet pastry; this is made with matten cheese curd. The mattentaart was granted Protected Geographical Indication status by the European Union in 2006, indicating they can only be made in Geraardsbergen or in the nearby municipality of Lierde.
Daniël van Geraardsbergen William of Moerbeke, first translator of Aristotle's works into Latin Guillebert de Mets and scribe Gabriël Grupello, Flemish Baroque sculptor Frans Rens, Flemish scholar, active in the Flemish Movement Robert de Foy, Belgian magistrate, head of the Belgian State Security Service Frans Van Coetsem, Belgian-born linguist and university teachers Cyriel Delannoit, European champion 1948 Paul Van den Berghe, Belgium Bishop in the Roman Catholic Church Ferdi Van Den Haute, cyclist Guido De Padt, politician Marie-Christine Deurbroeck, long-distance runner Michaël Borremans and filmmaker Alain Van Den Bossche, cyclist Dean Delannoit, singer Official website Sightseeing in Geraardsbergen The historical city Geraardsbergen
Kevin Kayirangwa known by the mononym Kevin or Kevin K, is the winner of Idool 2011, in season 4 of the Belgian version of Pop Idol. His first album, Thank You, on Sony BMG released in 2011, reached No. 2 in the Ultratop Belgian Flemish Singles Charts. In May 2012, he joined Dennis De Neyer, a co-contestant of Kevin in the same series and Dean Delannoit, a winner of Idool 2007 season 3 winner to form the Belgian Flemish boyband 3M8S. Kayirangwa is of Rwandan descent. *Did not appear in the official Belgian Ultratop 50 charts, but rather in the bubbling under Ultratip charts. Other singles2011: "More to Me" 2013: "Only 1"
Dean Delannoit most known by the mononym Dean is the winner of Idool 2007, in season 3 of the Belgian version of Pop Idol. His first album, So Many Ways, released in 2007, spent 11 weeks in the #1 spot in the Belgian charts. In May 2012, he joined Kevin Kayirangwa and Dennis De Neyer (a contestant in the same series to form the Belgian Flemish boyband 3M8S. Workshop 1: "Let's Work Together" Workshop 2: "Snow" My Idol: "She Moves in Her Own Way" Rolling Stones and The Beatles: "Start Me Up" Dutch Songs: "Iedereen Is Van De Wereld" My Birth Year: "Keep on Rocking in the Free World" French Songs: "Une Belle Histoire" Big Band: "Ain't That a Kick in the Head" Unplugged: "You Don't Know"; the album topped the Ultratop Belgian Flemish Singles Chart, after the title track had reached #2 on the Ultratop Belgian Flemish Singles Chart. In 2010, he was co-host of the Belgian version of the Belenlux edition of My Camp Rock titled My Rock Camp Benelux alongside host Sita Vermeulen; the show aired on the local Disney Channel.
The winners of the show were Mayleen. In 2011, he took part in another reality television show, Disney's Friends for Change Games as part of 9-member Red Team, called the World Wildlife Fund with their captain and leader Mitchel Musso, his red team won. Delannoit was the only member from Europe in Team Red. All the eight other teammates were Americans: Mitchel Musso, Jake T. Austin, Kelsey Chow, Davis Cleveland, Roshon Fegan, Carlon Jeffery and Doc Shaw. Starting May 2012, he is a member of the boyband 3M8S; the band includes besides Dean, Idool 2011 winner Kevin Kayirangwa and 2011 contestant Dennis De Neyer, who had finished 5th-6th on the 2011 show. He is smaller cousin to the Belgian boxer Cyrille Delannoit *Did not appear in the official Belgian Ultratop 50 charts, but rather in the bubbling under Ultratip charts. 2012: "De allermooiste tijd van het jaar"
A boy band is loosely defined as a vocal group consisting of young male singers in their teenage years or in their twenties at the time of formation, singing love songs marketed towards young women. Being vocal groups, most boy band members do not play musical instruments, either in recording sessions or on stage, making the term something of a misnomer. However, exceptions do exist. Many boy bands dance as well as sing giving choreographed performances; some such bands form on their own. They can evolve out of church choral or gospel music groups, but are created by talent managers or record producers who hold auditions. Due to this and their general commercial orientation towards a female audience of preteens, teenyboppers, or teens, the term may be used with negative connotations in music journalism. Boy bands are similar in concept to girl groups. Boy bands' popularity peaked four times: in the 1960s, in the 1990s and early 2000s when acts such as the Backstreet Boys, *NSYNC, A1 and Westlife, among others, dominated the top of the Billboard and pop charts, in the early 2010s with the emergence of new boy bands such as JLS, Big Time Rush and One Direction, in the late 2010s with pop groups such as BTS and 5 Seconds of Summer.
The earliest forerunner of boy band music began in the late 19th century as a cappella barbershop quartets. They were a group of males and sang in four-part harmonies. Barbershop quartets were popular into the earlier part of the 20th century. A revival of the male vocal group took place in the late 1940s and 1950s with the use of doo-wop music. Doo-wop bands sang about topics such as love and other themes used in pop music; the earliest traces of boy bands were in the mid-1950s. African American vocal group The Ink Spots was one of the first of what would now be called boy bands; the term boy band was not established until the late 1980s as before that they were called male vocal groups or "hep harmony singing groups". Although described as a rock band, the highest-selling band in history The Beatles are considered by a number or journalists "the first" or "the original" boyband, "before anyone had thought of the term." The Liverpool quartet known as The Beatles were not only the quintessential rock band, but many considered John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Star to be the original boy band -- in the early 1960s when young girls would scream at the top of their lungs and pass out upon first sight of the “Fab Four.
The Beatles inspired the decision to produce the 1966 television series The Monkees, which spawned the music group of the same name, formed by the four starring actors. The rock and pop band started a career in music after their songs from the TV series released as records resulted successful. Although the term "boy band" was not used yet, the earliest predecessors of this format were groups such as the Jackson 5 and the Osmonds which helped form the template for boy bands; the Jackson 5 were a siblings group. For instance, their music featured close harmonies from soul music and catchy pop hooks influenced as much as they were by Motown and acts like the Supremes; the group incorporated choreographed dance moves to their performances. All members of the band sang, a common convention of a boy band, as opposed to having a front man and the rest on instruments. A siblings group, The Osmonds first started singing barbershop music for local audiences, before being hired to perform at Disneyland early in their career.
Their appearance in a televised Disney special earned them additional TV spots, such as The Andy Williams Show and The Jerry Lewis Show. Other antecedents exist throughout the history of pop music; the genre has been copied into cultures other than the Anglo-American. The Puerto Rican boy band Menudo, appealing to young Latina audiences, was founded in 1977. Menudo had a convention unique among boy bands: when a member turned 16, became too tall, or their voice changed, they were replaced; the members of Menudo were aged 12–16. The Bay City Rollers were a Scottish pop band; the British Hit Singles & Albums noted that they were "tartan teen sensations from Edinburgh", were "the first of many acts heralded as the'Biggest Group since The Beatles' and one of the most screamed-at teeny-bopper acts of the 1970s". For a brief but fervent period, they were worldwide teen idols; the group were one of the first bands, like The Monkees before them, to take the formula shown by The Beatles and apply it to a teen market.
The group achieved the same amount of success but for a limited period of time. At the peak of their popularity in the UK, comparisons were being made to The Beatles. By this time, Bay City Roller fans had a distinctive style of dress, the main elements of which were ankle-length tartan trousers and tartan scarves, the group using the benefit of merchandise and promotion. In the US, the Cleveland-based power pop group Raspberries was interpreted as a "teen act", although all the band members played their own music. Vocalist Eric Carmen commented, "It was not hip for people to like us, because their little sister liked us."Boston group New Edition was formed in 1978 and reached their height of popularity in the 1980s, meaning they are credited for starting the boy-band trend though the term "boy band" did not exist until the 1990s. Maurice Starr was influenced by New Edition and popularized it with his protégé New Kids on the Block, the first commercial
Eurovision Song Contest 2014
The Eurovision Song Contest 2014 was the 59th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Copenhagen, following Emmelie de Forest's win at the 2013 contest in Malmö, Sweden with the song "Only Teardrops"; this was the third time that Denmark hosted the contest, the most recent previous occasion being in 2001. The two semi-finals took place on 6 and 8 May 2014, the final on 10 May 2014; the shows were presented by Nikolaj Koppel and Pilou Asbæk. The show organisers from Copenhagen all in all spent 112 million Danish kroner on the contest; the host broadcaster, DR, chose the B&W Hallerne as the host venue after considering several bids from cities and venues across Denmark. Thirty-seven countries participated. Overall, there were two fewer countries competing compared to the previous year, making thirty-seven participants, the smallest number since 2006. Bulgaria, Croatia and Serbia announced their withdrawal from the 2014 Contest. San Marino and Montenegro both qualified for the final for the first time.
The winner was Conchita Wurst with the song "Rise Like a Phoenix", written by Charley Mason, Joey Patulka, Ali Zuckowski, Julian Maas for Austria. This was Austria's first win in the competition since 1966. Jokes made about Wurst had sparked controversy, whilst Russia were booed several times during the contest. Netherlands and Sweden finished second and third with the former achieving their best result since their victory in the 1975 Contest. Armenia finished fourth, which equals their best result to date, while Hungary finished fifth, achieving its best result since its fourth place in 1994. Of the "Big Five", only Ruth Lorenzo of Spain achieved a place in the top ten, while Italy got its worst result ending at 21st place. A new record of 195 million viewers for the Eurovision Song Contest was reported; the official compilation album of the 2014 Contest was released by Universal Music Group on 14 April 2014, featured all 37 songs from the contest, including the official #JoinUs theme performed during the interval act of the grand final.
The host broadcaster, DR, the EBU won the International TV Award at the Ondas Awards for their production of the contest. On 2 September 2013, Danish public broadcaster DR announced that it had chosen Copenhagen as the host city for the 2014 contest; the contest was held at the former shipyard Refshaleøen, in the B&W Hallerne, with the social networking hashtag "#JoinUs" as the motto. The location had been refurbished to accommodate the event, with the surrounding area transformed into "Eurovision Island"—an Olympic Park-inspired complex housing the event venue, press centre, other amenities; the mayor of Copenhagen, Frank Jensen, declared in late August that the city would contribute to the budget with 40 million. He announced that the aim was to make the Eurovision 2014 into the greenest contest to date since Copenhagen had been elected European Green Capital for 2014. Five cities had been considered as host city of the contest, including Herning and Copenhagen, both favourites to be the next host.
The Parken Stadium, located in Copenhagen, which hosted the 2001 contest and Jyske Bank Boxen in Herning, which hosted the Dansk Melodi Grand Prix 2013 final, were the first venues to join the bidding phase. Fredericia and Aalborg entered the phase with the Messe C and Gigantium venues, respectively; the fifth city to join the phase was Horsens, with the venue being the courtyard of the former Horsens State Prison. In the event that Horsens had been chosen to host the contest, the courtyard would have been covered by a permanent glass roof; the contest was provisionally set to take place on 13, 15 and 17 May 2014, the dates were brought forward a week in order to accommodate the candidate cities. On 17 June 2013, the municipality executive of Aalborg decided not to bid for hosting the contest due to the city's lack of sufficient hotel capacity. While DR required the host city to have at least 3,000 hotel rooms, the city of Aalborg had only 1,600 hotel rooms, more than half of, booked for other events taking place at the same time as the Eurovision Song Contest.
On 18 June 2013, DR announced that formal bids on hosting the contest had been received by the municipalities of Copenhagen and Horsens, that the Municipality of Fredericia had confirmed its intention to place a formal bid, too. On 19 June 2013, the deadline for placing bids on hosting the contest, it was reported that Wonderful Copenhagen, the official convention and visitors bureau of the Greater Copenhagen area, had proposed three different venues in its bid on hosting the contest: The Parken Stadium, a large tent on the grounds of DR Byen and the B&W Hallerne. On 25 June 2013, the Municipality of Fredericia announced that the Triangle Region had withdrawn its bid on hosting the contest, due to the lack of a suitable venue. DR required the hosting venue to have no pillars blocking any views and an interior height of at least 16 metres. However, no venues in the region met those requirements and, Fredericia was no longer in the running for becoming host city of the 2014 Eurovision Song Contest.
On 28 June 2013, Anders Hørsholt, CEO of Parken Sport & Entertainment, stated that the Parken Stadium was no longer in the running for hosting the contest due to several football matches having been scheduled to take place at the stadium in the weeks leading up to the contest. Key Host venue The competition consisted of two semi-finals and a final, a format, in use since 2008
Pop music is a genre of popular music that originated in its modern form in the United States and United Kingdom during the mid-1950s. The terms "popular music" and "pop music" are used interchangeably, although the former describes all music, popular and includes many diverse styles. "Pop" and "rock" were synonymous terms until the late 1960s, when they became differentiated from each other. Although much of the music that appears on record charts is seen as pop music, the genre is distinguished from chart music. Pop music is eclectic, borrows elements from other styles such as urban, rock and country. Identifying factors include short to medium-length songs written in a basic format, as well as common use of repeated choruses, melodic tunes, hooks. David Hatch and Stephen Millward define pop music as "a body of music, distinguishable from popular and folk musics". According to Pete Seeger, pop music is "professional music which draws upon both folk music and fine arts music". Although pop music is seen as just the singles charts, it is not the sum of all chart music.
The music charts contain songs from a variety of sources, including classical, jazz and novelty songs. As a genre, pop music is seen to develop separately. Therefore, the term "pop music" may be used to describe a distinct genre, designed to appeal to all characterized as "instant singles-based music aimed at teenagers" in contrast to rock music as "album-based music for adults". Pop music continuously evolves along with the term's definition. According to music writer Bill Lamb, popular music is defined as "the music since industrialization in the 1800s, most in line with the tastes and interests of the urban middle class." The term "pop song" was first used in 1926, in the sense of a piece of music "having popular appeal". Hatch and Millward indicate that many events in the history of recording in the 1920s can be seen as the birth of the modern pop music industry, including in country and hillbilly music. According to the website of The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, the term "pop music" "originated in Britain in the mid-1950s as a description for rock and roll and the new youth music styles that it influenced".
The Oxford Dictionary of Music states that while pop's "earlier meaning meant concerts appealing to a wide audience since the late 1950s, pop has had the special meaning of non-classical mus in the form of songs, performed by such artists as the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, ABBA, etc." Grove Music Online states that " in the early 1960s,'pop music' competed terminologically with beat music, while in the US its coverage overlapped with that of'rock and roll'". From about 1967, the term “pop music” was used in opposition to the term rock music, a division that gave generic significance to both terms. While rock aspired to authenticity and an expansion of the possibilities of popular music, pop was more commercial and accessible. According to British musicologist Simon Frith, pop music is produced "as a matter of enterprise not art", is "designed to appeal to everyone" but "doesn't come from any particular place or mark off any particular taste". Frith adds that it is "not driven by any significant ambition except profit and commercial reward and, in musical terms, it is conservative".
It is, "provided from on high rather than being made from below... Pop is not a do-it-yourself music but is professionally produced and packaged". According to Frith, characteristics of pop music include an aim of appealing to a general audience, rather than to a particular sub-culture or ideology, an emphasis on craftsmanship rather than formal "artistic" qualities. Music scholar Timothy Warner said it has an emphasis on recording and technology, rather than live performance; the main medium of pop music is the song between two and a half and three and a half minutes in length marked by a consistent and noticeable rhythmic element, a mainstream style and a simple traditional structure. Common variants include the verse-chorus form and the thirty-two-bar form, with a focus on melodies and catchy hooks, a chorus that contrasts melodically and harmonically with the verse; the beat and the melodies tend to be simple, with limited harmonic accompaniment. The lyrics of modern pop songs focus on simple themes – love and romantic relationships – although there are notable exceptions.
Harmony and chord progressions in pop music are "that of classical European tonality, only more simple-minded." Clichés include the barbershop quartet-style blues scale-influenced harmony. There was a lessening of the influence of traditional views of the circle of fifths between the mid-1950s and the late 1970s, including less predominance for the dominant function. Throughout its development, pop music has absorbed influences from other genres of popular music. Early pop music drew on the sentimental ballad for its form, gained its use of vocal harmonies from gospel and soul music, instrumentation from jazz and rock music, orchestration from classical music, tempo from dance music, backing from electronic music, rhythmic elements from hip-hop music, spoken passages from rap. In the 1960s, the majority of mainstream pop music fell in two categories: guitar and bass groups or singers