An album is a collection of audio recordings issued as a collection on compact disc, audio tape, or another medium. Albums of recorded music were developed in the early 20th century as individual 78-rpm records collected in a bound book resembling a photograph album. Vinyl LPs are still issued, though album sales in the 21st-century have focused on CD and MP3 formats; the audio cassette was a format used alongside vinyl from the 1970s into the first decade of the 2000s. An album may be recorded in a recording studio, in a concert venue, at home, in the field, or a mix of places; the time frame for recording an album varies between a few hours to several years. This process requires several takes with different parts recorded separately, brought or "mixed" together. Recordings that are done in one take without overdubbing are termed "live" when done in a studio. Studios are built to absorb sound, eliminating reverberation, so as to assist in mixing different takes. Recordings, including live, may contain sound effects, voice adjustments, etc..
With modern recording technology, musicians can be recorded in separate rooms or at separate times while listening to the other parts using headphones. Album covers and liner notes are used, sometimes additional information is provided, such as analysis of the recording, lyrics or librettos; the term "album" was applied to a collection of various items housed in a book format. In musical usage the word was used for collections of short pieces of printed music from the early nineteenth century. Collections of related 78rpm records were bundled in book-like albums; when long-playing records were introduced, a collection of pieces on a single record was called an album. An album, in ancient Rome, was a board chalked or painted white, on which decrees and other public notices were inscribed in black, it was from this that in medieval and modern times album came to denote a book of blank pages in which verses, sketches and the like are collected. Which in turn led to the modern meaning of an album as a collection of audio recordings issued as a single item.
In the early nineteenth century "album" was used in the titles of some classical music sets, such as Schumann's Album for the Young Opus 68, a set of 43 short pieces. When 78rpm records came out, the popular 10-inch disc could only hold about three minutes of sound per side, so all popular recordings were limited to around three minutes in length. Classical-music and spoken-word items were released on the longer 12-inch 78s, about 4–5 minutes per side. For example, in 1924, George Gershwin recorded a drastically shortened version of the seventeen-minute Rhapsody in Blue with Paul Whiteman and His Orchestra, it ran for 8m 59s. Deutsche Grammophon had produced an album for its complete recording of the opera Carmen in 1908. German record company Odeon released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky in 1909 on 4 double-sided discs in a specially designed package; this practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. By about 1910, bound collections of empty sleeves with a paperboard or leather cover, similar to a photograph album, were sold as record albums that customers could use to store their records.
These albums came in both 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf and protecting them. In the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78 rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled albums with artwork on the front cover and liner notes on the back or inside cover. Most albums included three or four records, with two sides each, making six or eight compositions per album; the 12-inch LP record, or 33 1⁄3 rpm microgroove vinyl record, is a gramophone record format introduced by Columbia Records in 1948. A single LP record had the same or similar number of tunes as a typical album of 78s, it was adopted by the record industry as a standard format for the "album". Apart from minor refinements and the important addition of stereophonic sound capability, it has remained the standard format for vinyl albums.
The term "album" was extended to other recording media such as Compact audio cassette, compact disc, MiniDisc, digital albums, as they were introduced. As part of a trend of shifting sales in the music industry, some observers feel that the early 21st century experienced the death of the album. While an album may contain as many or as few tracks as required, in the United States, The Recording Academy's rules for Grammy Awards state that an album must comprise a minimum total playing time of 15 minutes with at least five distinct tracks or a minimum total playing time of 30 minutes with no minimum track requirement. In the United Kingdom, the criteria for the UK Albums Chart is that a recording counts as an "album" i
An expatriate is a person temporarily or permanently residing in a country other than their native country. In common usage, the term refers to professionals, skilled workers, or artists taking positions outside their home country, either independently or sent abroad by their employers, who can be companies, governments, or non-governmental organisations. Migrant workers, they earn more than they would at home, less than local employees. However, the term'expatriate' is used for retirees and others who have chosen to live outside their native country, it has referred to exiles. The word expatriate comes from the Latin terms patria. Dictionary definitions for the current meaning of the word include: Expatriate:'A person who lives outside their native country', or'living in a foreign land'; these contrast with definitions of other words with a similar meaning, such as: Migrant:'A person who moves from one place to another in order to find work or better living conditions', or'one that migrates: such as a: a person who moves in order to find work in harvesting crops'.
The varying use of these terms for different groups of foreigners can thus be seen as implying nuances about wealth, intended length of stay, perceived motives for moving and race. This has caused controversy, with many asserting that the traditional use of the word has had racist connotations. For example, a British national working in Spain or Portugal is referred to as an'expatriate', whereas a Spanish or Portuguese national working in Britain is referred to as an'immigrant', thus indicating Anglocentrism. An older usage of the word expatriate was to refer to an exile. Alternatively, when used as a verb, expatriation can mean the act of someone renouncing allegiance to their native country, as in the preamble to the United States Expatriation Act of 1868 which says,'the right of expatriation is a natural and inherent right of all people, indispensable to the enjoyment of the rights of life and the pursuit of happiness.'Some neologisms have been coined, including: flexpatriate, an employee who travels internationally for business.
Since antiquity, people have gone to live in foreign countries, whether as diplomats, merchants or missionaries. The numbers of such travellers grew markedly after the 15th century with the dawn of the European colonial period. In the 19th century, travel became easier by way of train. People could more choose to live for several years in a foreign country, or be sent there by employers; the table below aims to show significant examples of expatriate communities which have developed since that time: During the 1930s, Nazi Germany revoked the citizenship of many opponents, such as Albert Einstein, Oskar Maria Graf, Willy Brandt and Thomas Mann expatriating entire families. After World War II, decolonisation accelerated. However, lifestyles which had developed among European colonials continued to some degree in expatriate communities. Remnants of the old British Empire, for example, can still be seen in the form of gated communities staffed by domestic workers. Social clubs which have survived include the Royal Selangor.
Homesick palates are catered for by specialist food shops, drinkers can still order a gin and tonic, a pink gin, or a Singapore Sling. Although pith helmets are confined to military ceremonies, civilians still wear white dinner jackets or Red Sea rig on occasion; the use of curry powder has long since spread to the metropole. From the 1950s, scheduled flights on jet airliners further increased the speed of international travel; this enabled a hypermobility which led to the jet set, to global nomads and the concept of a perpetual traveler. In recent years, terrorist attacks against Westerners have at times curtailed the party lifestyle of some expatriate communities in the Middle East; the number of expatriates in the world is difficult to determine, since there is no governmental census. The international market research and consulting company Finaccord estimated the number to be 56.8 million in 2017. That would resemble the population of Italy. In 2013, the United Nations estimated that 232 million people, or 3.2 per cent of the world population, lived outside their home country.
Many multinational corporations send employees to foreign countries to work in branch offices or subsidiaries. Expatriate employees allow a parent company to more control its foreign subsidiaries, they can improve global coordination. A 2007 study found the key drivers for expatriates to pursue international careers were: breadth of responsibilities, nature of the international environment, high levels of autonomy of international posts and cultural differences. However, expatriate professionals and independent expatriate hires are more expensive than local employees. Expatriate salaries are augmented with allowances to compensate for a higher cost of living or hardships associated with a foreign posting. Other expenses may need to be paid, such as health care, housing, or fees at an international school. There is th
K-pop is a genre of popular music originating in South Korea. While the modern form of K-pop can be traced back to the early 90s, the term itself has been popularized since the 2000s, replacing the term Gayo, which refers to domestic pop music in South Korea. Although it indicates "popular music" within South Korea, the term is used in a narrower sense to describe a modern form of South Korean pop, influenced by styles and genres from around the world, such as experimental, jazz, hip hop, R&B, electronic dance, folk and classical on top of its traditional Korean music roots; the more modern form of the genre emerged with the formation of one of the earliest K-pop groups, Seo Taiji and Boys, in 1992. Their experimentation with different styles and genres of music and integration of foreign musical elements helped reshape and modernize South Korea's contemporary music scene. Modern K-pop "idol" culture began with the boy band H. O. T. in 1996, as K-pop grew into a subculture that amassed enormous fandoms of teenagers and young adults.
After a slump in early K-pop, from 2003 TVXQ and BoA started a new generation of K-pop idols that broke the music genre into the neighboring Japanese market and continue to popularize K-pop internationally today. With the advent of online social networking services and Korean TV shows, the current spread of K-pop and Korean entertainment, known as the Korean Wave, is seen not only in East Asia and Southeast Asia, but in India, Latin America, North Africa, Southern Africa, the Middle East and throughout the Western world, gaining a widespread global audience. Although K-pop refers to South Korean popular music, some consider it to be an all-encompassing genre exhibiting a wide spectrum of musical and visual elements; the French Institut national de l'audiovisuel defines K-pop as a "fusion of synthesized music, sharp dance routines and fashionable, colorful outfits". Songs consist of one or a mixture of pop, hip hop, R&B and electronic music genres. Management agencies in South Korea offer binding contracts to potential artists, sometimes at a young age.
Trainees live together in a regulated environment and spend many hours a day learning music, foreign languages and other skills in preparation for their debut. This "robotic" system of training is criticized by Western media outlets. In 2012, The Wall Street Journal reported that the cost of training one Korean idol under SM Entertainment averaged US$3 million. K-pop is a cultural product that features “values and meanings that go beyond their commercial value.” It is characterized by a mixture of modern Western sounds and African-American influences with a Korean aspect of performance. It has been remarked. For some, the transnational values of K-pop are responsible for its success. A commentator at the University of California has said that "contemporary Korean pop culture is built on transnational flows taking place across and outside national and institutional boundaries." Some examples of the transnational values inherent in K-pop that may appeal to those from different ethnic and religious backgrounds include a dedication to high-quality output and presentation of idols, as well as their work ethic and polite social demeanour, made possible by the training period.
Modern K-pop is marked by its use of English phrases. Jin Dal Yong of Popular Music and Society wrote that the usage may be influenced by "Korean-Americans and/or Koreans who studied in the U. S. take full advantage of their English fluency and cultural resources that are not found among those who were raised and educated in Korea." Korean pop music from singers or groups who are Korean-American such as Fly to the Sky, g.o.d, Yoo Seung-jun, Drunken Tiger has both American style and English lyrics. These Korean-American singers' music has a different style from common Korean music, which attracts the interest of young people. Foreign songwriters and producers are employed to work on songs for K-pop idols, such as will.i.am and Sean Garrett. Foreign musicians, including rappers such as Akon, Kanye West and Snoop Dogg, have featured on K-pop songs; the entertainment companies help to expand K-pop to other parts of the world through a number of different methods. Singers need to use English since the companies want to occupy markets in the other parts of Asia, which enables them to open the Western market in the end.
Most of the K-pop singers learn English because it is a common language in the world of music, but some singers learn other foreign languages such as Japanese to approach the Japanese market. Increasing numbers of K-pop bands use English names rather than Korean ones; this allows artists to be marketed to a wider audience around the world. However, the use of English has not guaranteed the popularity of K-pop in the North American market. For some commentators, the reason for this is because the genre can be seen as a distilled version of Western music, making it difficult for K-pop to find acceptance in these markets. Furthermore, Western audiences tend to place emphasis on authenticity and individual expression in music, which the idol system can be seen as suppressing. According to Elaine W. Chun's research though hybridity appears more and more in K-pop, sometimes may make fans admire K-pop stars more because it is fresh
Ssajib is the fourth album by South Korean singer PSY. The album was released on July 26, 2006 through his own label Yamazone Music and distributed by YBM Seoul Records; the album contains 14 songs. All tracks written by PSY. AlbumSingles
Remake & Mix 18 Beon
Remake & Mix 18 Beon is the first remix and cover album by South Korean singer Psy. The album was released on July 23, 2005; the album contains 16 songs
In music, sampling is the reuse of a portion or sample of a sound recording in another recording. Samples may comprise rhythm, speech, or other sounds, they are integrated using hardware or software such as digital audio workstations. A process similar to sampling originated in the 1940s with musique concrète, experimental music created by splicing and looping tape; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by the creators of the Fairlight CMI, an influential early sampler that became a staple of 1980s pop music. The 1988 release of the first Akai MPC, an affordable sampler with an intuitive interface, made sampling accessible to a wider audience. Sampling is a foundation of hip hop music, with producers sampling funk and soul records drum breaks, which could be rapped over. Musicians have created albums assembled from samples, such as DJ Shadow's 1996 album Endtroducing; the practice has influenced all genres of music and is important to electronic music, hip hop and pop. Sampling without permission can infringe copyright.
The process of acquiring permission for a sample is known as clearance, which can be a complex and costly process. Landmark legal cases, such as Grand Upright Music, Ltd. v. Warner Bros. Records Inc in 1991, changed how samples are used; as the court ruled that unlicensed sampling constitutes copyright infringement, samples from well known sources are now prohibitively expensive. In the 1940s, Pierre Schaeffer developed musique concrète, an experimental form of music created by recording sounds to tape, splicing them, manipulating them to create sound collages, he created pieces using recordings of sounds including the human body and kitchen utensils. The method involved the creation of tape loops, splicing lengths of tape end to end, by which a sound could be played indefinitely. Schaeffer developed a tape recorder, the Phonogene, which played loops at twelve different pitches triggered by a keyboard. Composers including John Cage, Edgar Varèse, Karheinz Stockhausen and Iannis Xenakis experimented with musique concrète, Bebe and Louis Barron used it to create the first electronic film soundtrack, for the 1956 science fiction film Forbidden Planet.
It was brought to a mainstream audience by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop, which used these early sampling techniques to produce soundtracks for shows including Doctor Who. In the 1960s, Jamaican dub reggae producers such as King Tubby and Lee "Scratch" Perry began using pre-recorded samples of reggae rhythms to produce riddim tracks, which were deejayed over. Jamaican immigrants introduced dub sampling techniques to American hip hop music in the 1970s; the term sampling was coined by in the late 1970s by Kim Ryrie and Peter Vogel to describe a feature of their Fairlight CMI synthesizer. Designers of early samplers used the term to describe the technical process of the instruments, rather than to describe how users would use the feature. While developing the Fairlight, Vogel sampled around a second of a piano piece from a radio broadcast, discovered that he could imitate a real piano by playing the sample back at different pitches, he recalled in 2005: It sounded remarkably like a piano, a real piano.
This had never been done before... By today's standards it was a pretty awful piano sound, but at the time it was a million times more like a piano than anything any synthesiser had churned out. So I realised that we didn't have to bother with all the synthesis stuff. Just take the sounds, whack them in the memory and away you go. Compared to samplers, the Fairlight offered limited control over samples, it allowed control over pitch and envelope, could only record a few seconds of sound. However, its ability to sample and play back acoustic sounds became its most popular feature. Though the concept of reusing recordings in larger recordings was not new, the Fairlight's built-in sequencer and design made the process simple. According to the Guardian, the Fairlight was the "first world-changing sampler". Though it was it was unaffordable for most hobbyists, early users included Kate Bush, Peter Gabriel, Thomas Dolby, Duran Duran, Herbie Hancock, Todd Rundgren and Ebn Ozn. An early pulse-code modulation digital sampler was Toshiba's LMD-649, created in 1981 by engineer Kenji Murata for Japanese electronic music band Yellow Magic Orchestra, who used it for extensive sampling and looping in their 1981 album Technodelic.
The LMD-649 played and recorded PCM samples at 12-bit audio depth and 50 kHz sampling rate, stored in 128 KB of dynamic RAM. The success of the Fairlight inspired competitors, improving the technology and driving down prices dramatically. Early competitors included the E-mu Emulator and the Akai S950. Drum machines such as the Oberheim DMX and Linn LM-1 began incorporating samples of drum kits rather than generating sounds from circuits; the designers of early samplers anticipated that users would sample short sounds, such as drum hits or individual notes, to use as "building blocks" for compositions. However and producers began sampling longer passages of music. In the words of Greg Milner, author of Perfecting Sound Forever, "They didn't just want the sound of John Bonham's kick drum, they wanted to loop and repeat the whole of'When the Levee Breaks'." Roger Linn, designer of the LM-1 and MPC, said: "It was a pleasant surprise. After sixty years of recording, there are so many. Why reinvent the wheel?"In response to demand, samplers such as E-mu's SP-1200 were developed to allow users to store longer samples.
In 1988, Akai released the first MPC sampler, which allowed artists to assign samples to separate pads and trigger them independently to playing a keyboard or drum kit. It h
"Axel F" is the electronic instrumental theme from the 1984 film Beverly Hills Cop performed by Harold Faltermeyer. It was an international number 1 hit in 1985; the title comes from Axel Foley, in the film. It is composed in the key of F minor. Faltermeyer recorded the song using five instruments: a Roland Jupiter-8 provided the distinctive "supersaw" lead sound, a Moog modular synthesizer 15 provided the bass, a Roland JX-3P provided chord stabs, a Yamaha DX7 was used for bell and vibraphone sounds and a LinnDrum was used for drum programming. According to Faltermeyer, the initial reaction to his premiere presentation of the cues to the film's producers and director didn't result in an immediate approval. In addition to the Beverly Hills Cop soundtrack, the song appears on Faltermeyer's 1988 album Harold F. as a bonus track. Faltermeyer was against including it, but MCA insisted as it was his most recognizable track. Harold Faltermeyer – synthesizers, drum programming 12" maxi"Axel F" — 7:00 "Axel F" — 7:09 "Shoot Out" — 2:4412" maxi"Axel F" — 7:09 "Shoot Out" — 2:447" single"Axel F" — 3:00 "Shoot Out" — 2:44 This version of the song reached number 2 on the UK Singles Chart and number 3 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US.
It spent two weeks atop the American adult contemporary chart. This song played in the American comedy film Summer Rental in 1985; this song played on an episode of the American daytime soap opera General Hospital on 22 September 1986. This song played on an episode of the American action sci-fi drama television series Photon on 14 February 1987; this song appears in a scene of the 1989 Marathi movie Atmavishwas. This song played on an episode of the American television comedy series Friends on 1 February 1996; this song played on an episode of the American television comedy series Everybody Hates Chris on 29 January 2007. This song played on an episode of the American animated television comedy series Family Guy on 20 May 2007. Part of this song was played in the movie Aliens; this song played on an episode of the American television comedy series Parks and Recreation on 6 May 2010. It was played on the Australian game show Specks during the Cover Versions segment. In the Philippines this is being used as a song background for Metro Traffic Live in DZMM TeleRadyo.
It is the 2018 opening song for The Power Trip Morning Show on KFAN in Minneapolis. In 2005, Crazy Frog recorded the song, releasing it as "Axel F", though it was known as the "Crazy Frog song"; the novelty song is most internationally successful single. The cover was produced by Matthias Wagner and Andreas Dohmeyer, the two members of Off-cast Project, Henning Reith and Reinhard "DJ Voodoo" Raith, two members of the German dance production team Bass Bumpers. Wolfgang Boss and Jamster! Arranged the remix, marketed it as a ringtone; the song consists of vocals taken from the Crazy Frog recording by Daniel Malmedahl in 1997. It uses the same part of the two-minute original, used in Jamster's ringtone release; the song uses the "What's going on?" Vocal samples from another 2003 cover of Axel F, by Murphy Brown and Captain Hollywood. The Ministry of Sound hired Kaktus Film and Erik Wernquist of TurboForce3D, the original creator of the 3D Crazy Frog, to produce a full-length animated music video to accompany the release of the song.
The video, featuring the Crazy Frog character, is set in the future, centres on his pursuit by a bounty hunter. The bounty hunter receives notification of a $50,000 reward for capturing the frog. There were three edits to the song; the original version of the song can be found at most P2P networks. This song used the "What's going on?" Samples twice throughout the song and the "weeee!" Sound is heard before the motorbike section of the song. A radio edit was made which had the frog saying "This is the Crazy Frog." and the removal of some sounds and a third edit was made for the Crazy Hits album with the frog saying "I am the Crazy Frog." Released across Europe in May 2005, "Axel F" topped the charts in the United Kingdom, with some of the best weekly sales of the year, remained at top of the UK Singles Chart for four weeks and becoming Britain's third best-selling single of 2005. In other European countries the popularity has differed, with the song failing to make the top 20 in Switzerland at first, before climbing to number 1, whilst only making number 18 in Russia.
It reached number 1 in the overall European chart, after being number 2 to Akon's "Lonely" for several weeks, stayed there until September. It reached number 1 in Australia, Republic of Ireland, Denmark, New Zealand, Ukraine and Sweden. In France, the song made an amazing jump, entering the French Singles Chart at number seventy seven on June 11, 2005, moving all the way to number two the next week. There it stayed for two weeks before climbing to the summit, it fell off the first position being dethroned by its 2nd single, "Popcorn". The song remained in the top 10 for 30 weeks in the top 50 and 36 weeks in the chart, its best weekly sales were 103,564 on its 6th week. On December 1, 2005, it was certified Diamond disc 7 months after its release by SNEP, the French certifier; the song is the third best-selling single of the