GMA Dove Award
A Dove Award is an accolade by the Gospel Music Association of the United States to recognize outstanding achievement in the Christian music industry. The awards are presented annually. Held in Nashville, the Dove Awards took place in Atlanta, Georgia during 2011 and 2012, but has since moved back to Nashville; the ceremonies feature live musical performances and are broadcast on TBN. The awards were established in 1969, represent a variety of musical styles, including rock, hip hop and urban; the Dove Awards were conceptualized by Gospel singer and songwriter Bill Gaither, at a Gospel Music Association board meeting in 1968. The idea of the award being represented by a dove is credited to Gaither and design for the award itself is credited to gospel singer Les Beasley; the first GMA Dove Awards were held at the Peabody Hotel in Memphis, Tennessee in October 1969. In 1971, the awards moved to Nashville; the 3rd GMA Dove Awards of 1971 were deemed invalid due to apparent ballot stuffing by the southern gospel group the Blackwood Brothers, that year is still not considered an official awards year by the Gospel Music Association.
There were no awards held in 1979, due to a decision by the Gospel Music Association to move the awards from autumn to spring. Every ceremony since has been held in the spring; the first televised ceremony was the 15th GMA Dove Awards of 1984, which aired on the Christian Broadcasting Network. The awards were held in Nashville until 2011 before being presented at the Fox Theatre in Atlanta, Georgia in 2012, they returned to Nashville in 2013, have been held at the Allen Arena on the campus of Lipscomb University since. Because of the large number of award categories, the desire to feature several performances by various artists, only the ones with the most popular interest are presented directly at the televised version of the award ceremony; the "General Field" includes seven awards which are not restricted by genre: Song of the Year is awarded to the songwriter and the publisher. Dove Award for Songwriter of the Year Male Vocalist of the Year Female Vocalist of the Year Group of the Year Artist of the Year New Artist of the Year Producer of the YearOther awards are given for performances in specific genres, as well as for other contributions such as artwork and video.
As of the 43rd Dove Awards, these include: Inspirational Recorded Song of the Year Inspirational Album of the Year Pop/Contemporary Recorded Song of the Year Pop/Contemporary Album of the Year Southern Gospel Recorded Song of the Year Southern Gospel Album of the Year Traditional Gospel Recorded Song of the Year Traditional Gospel Album of the Year Contemporary Gospel Recorded Song of the Year Contemporary Gospel Album of the Year Musical of the Year Youth/Children's Musical of the Year Worship Song of the Year Praise & Worship Album of the Year Country Recorded Song of the Year Country Album of the Year Bluegrass Recorded Song of the Year Bluegrass Album of the Year Rock Recorded Song of the Year Rock/Contemporary Recorded Song of the Year Rock Album of the Year Rock/Contemporary Album of the Year Rap/Hip Hop Recorded Song of the Year Rap/Hip Hop Album of the Year Urban Recorded Song of the Year Instrumental Album of the Year Children's Music Album of the Year Spanish Language Album of the Year Special Event Album of the Year Christmas Album of the Year Choral Collection of the Year Recorded Music Packaging Short Form Music Video of the Year Long Form Music Video of the Year In 1998 the GMA published a new definition of gospel music.
According to the definition, to be considered eligible for the Dove Awards, gospel music must have lyrics that are: Substantially based upon orthodox Christian truth contained in or derived from the Holy Bible An expression of worship of God or praise for His works. Prior to the definition, the only qualified music was that sold in Christian Booksellers Association affiliated stores; the new standards resulted in complaints by some fans and artists after thirteen entries were disqualified as being too secular in the 1999 Dove Awards. The rules were rescinded afterwards, many groups disqualified by the rulings in 1999 were winners in 2000. Christian pop culture Gospel Music Association of Canada Covenant Awards Official website GMA website Past winners
Nashville Municipal Auditorium
The Nashville Municipal Auditorium is an indoor sports and concert venue in Nashville, which houses the Musicians Hall of Fame and Museum. Constructed in 1962, the Auditorium was the first public assembly facility in the Mid South with air conditioning; the NMA hosted the 1994 United States Gymnastic Championships as well as the 1996 Tour of World Figure Skating Championships. The Auditorium has hosted minor league hockey, with the teams known as the Dixie Flyers, South Stars, Knights and Nashville Ice Flyers, it has hosted minor league basketball – the former Nashville Stars and Music City Jammers, women's professional basketball – the Nashville Noise of the former American Basketball League. It was a home court for the Belmont University basketball teams while Striplin Gym was demolished to make way for the Curb Event Center. Additionally, the NMA has hosted several Ohio Valley Conference basketball tournaments, the Auditorium hosted the OVC again in 2008. From 2011 to 2015, the NMA again hosted the men's and women's OVC basketball tournaments in a new four-day tournament format, subsequently reduced back to a three-day affair featuring only the top eight teams for 2016 and 2017.
The capacity is set around 8,000 during these tournaments. It hosts the annual Magnet Madness basketball game between rivals Hume-Fogg High School and Martin Luther King Magnet; the Music City Stars known as the Nashville Broncs, an American Basketball Association expansion team, began its inaugural season at the NMA in November 2008. The Professional Bull Riders association hosted a Built Ford Tough Series event at this venue from its inception in 1994 until 2001. In 2002, the event was moved to the Gaylord Entertainment Center; the NMA hosted Tuff Hedeman's CBR All-Star Shoot-Out on June 10, 2009 and again in 2010. It is home to the Nashville Rollergirls, a flat track roller derby league, a member of the Women's Flat Track Derby Association. On November 6, 2013 the Professional Indoor Football League announced that an expansion team would bring indoor football back to the Nashville sports market; the Nashville Venom would begin PIFL play for the 2014 season in Municipal Auditorium. On July 12, 2014, the Venom won that year’s PIFL Championship Game defeating the Lehigh Valley Steelhawks 64-43.
The team returned for a second season in 2015. Many Professional wrestling events were hosted in the arena including the NWA's Wrestle War 89 which featured a world title change and voted match of the year by PWI, Ric Flair vesus Ricky Steamboat, it was the home for the World Wrestling Federation's No Holds Barred: The Match/The Movie pay-per-view special held in December 1989 as well as the WWF's In Your House 2: The Lumberjacks in 1995. It was a favorite venue over the years for World Championship Wrestling, which hosted its Starrcade 1994, 1995 and 1996 in addition to its final Clash of the Champions show there in 1997, as well as its penultimate PPV event, SuperBrawl Revenge, in 2001. Masato Tanaka won his only ECW Heavyweight Championship by defeating Mike Awesome at Municipal at an ECW on TNN taping in December 1999. Total Nonstop Action Wrestling held their first events there June 2002 before moving to the Tennessee State Fairgrounds; the arena hosted TNA Wrestling's Slammiversary and Lockdown.
The arena hosted Ring of Honor's Honor for All. The venue has hosted performances from genres such as alternative rock, rock'n' roll, heavy metal, pop, R&B, urban and Hispanic concerts. Michael Jackson performed with The Jackson 5 at the NMA on December 29, 1970, January 1 and August 6, 1972, August 8, 1973, August 31, 1981. Elvis Presley performed two shows at the Nashville Auditorium on July 1, 1973. In 1967, the auditorium hosted the Country Music Association's first CMA Awards event, before the ceremonies moved to the Ryman Auditorium the following year. Due to the damage at Grand Ole Opry House due to the May 2010 Tennessee floods, the NMA hosted the June 8, 2010 edition of the Grand Ole Opry. NMA hosted an Opry show in 1973; the walls of the upper and lower concourses are decorated with enlarged ticket stubs for events and concerts the auditorium has hosted between the venue's debut in 1962 and 2010. President Donald Trump appeared on March 2017 for a rally and speech before thousands. According to a public address announcement in the venue, thousands more were unable to attend leaving empty seats in the upper level.
This announcement was controversial as there was no evidence the upper level tickets were sold. On June 4, 2013, the auditorium began housing the Musicians Hall of Museum; the museum was forced from its previous building as a result of the construction of the Music City Center. The Hall of Fame moved into the exhibition floor of the Nashville Municipal Auditorium. Nashville Municipal Auditorium
Steven Curtis Chapman
Steven Curtis Chapman is an American contemporary Christian music singer, record producer, actor and social activist. After starting his career in the late 1980s as a songwriter and performer of contemporary Christian music, Chapman has since been recognized as one of the most prolific singers in the genre, releasing over 20 albums. Chapman has won five Grammy awards and 58 Gospel Music Association Dove Awards, more than any other artist in history, his seven "Artist of the Year" Dove Awards, his latest in 2009, are an industry record. As of 2014, Chapman has sold more than 10 million albums and has 10 RIAA-certified Gold or Platinum albums. Chapman is a vocal advocate for adoption, along with his wife Mary Beth. Together, they have started a charity organization called Show Hope, that mobilizes individuals and communities to care for orphans through its international orphan care work as well as adoption aid grants to help put more orphans from overseas and the U. S. in loving families. In 2009, Show Hope finished building Maria's Big House of Hope, a medical care center in China that provides holistic care to orphans with special needs.
He is a contributor to Compassionart, a charity founded by Martin Smith of British Christian band Delirious?. Chapman was recognized in the Fall 2010 issue of Wood & Steel discussing the new Taylor 714 Signature Series guitar in honor of his youngest daughter Maria Sue; the guitar features the flower from Maria's picture and the word "SEE" on the 12th fret in Maria's handwriting. In 2003, Chapman starred in the Christian film Christmas Child. Steven Curtis Chapman was born to Judy and Herb Chapman in Paducah, Kentucky, on November 21, 1962. Chapman's father is a guitar teacher in Paducah, young Steven and Herb Jr. grew up playing the guitar and singing. Upon finishing high school, Chapman enrolled as a pre-med student at Georgetown College in Kentucky. After a couple of semesters he transferred to Anderson College in Indiana. However, he went to Nashville to pursue a career in music. While in Nashville he attended Belmont University, he began working a music show at Opryland USA. In the 1980s, Chapman wrote a song called "Built to Last", recorded by prominent gospel group The Imperials.
The strength of the song prompted him to be signed to a songwriting deal with Sparrow Records, where he rose to prominence. As of 2007, artists like Sandi Patty, Billy Dean, Glen Campbell, the Cathedral Quartet and Roger Whittaker have recorded Chapman's songs. In 1987, Chapman released First Hand; the album included the song "Weak Days", which peaked at No. 2 on the Contemporary Christian Music chart. In 1988, he followed with his second album, Real Life Conversations, which earned him four more hits, including the No. 1 song "His Eyes". The song, co-written by James Isaac Elliott, earned the Contemporary Recorded Song of the Year award from the Gospel Music Association in 1989; that year, he won a GMA Award for Best Songwriter of the Year. After that, Chapman followed with more albums like More to This Life and For the Sake of the Call. All of these albums were awarded several GMA Awards; the latter gave Chapman his first Grammy in the Best Pop Gospel Album category. These achievements strengthened his position in the Christian music scene.
In 1992, Chapman made a successful shift into a more mainstream audience with his album The Great Adventure. The album garnered Chapman two more Grammys, for the title track video. After Sparrow Records was purchased by EMI/Liberty, they began to market the album to a broader audience, pushing it to gold status in 1993; the success of the album prompted Chapman to record one of his concerts and release it as The Live Adventure, both as a video and a CD. This continuation won Chapman more GMA Awards, a new award from American Songwriter magazine for Songwriter and Artist of the Year. Chapman continued to enjoy success with albums like Heaven in the Real World, Signs of Life, Speechless. In 2001, with the release of Declaration, Chapman got more attention in the Top 200; that album, along with 2003's All About Love, peaked in the Top 15. The follow-up, All Things New, made it to No. 22. Chapman has released four Christmas albums, beginning with 1995's The Music of Christmas. In 2003 he released Christmas Is All in the Heart through Hallmark Gold Crown Stores and in 2005, he released All I Really Want for Christmas and Joy was released in 2012.
In the Christian video game, Dance Praise, four songs from Chapman are included: "All About Love", "Dive", "Live Out Loud", "Only Getting Started". The Dance Praise expansion pack, Dance Praise Expansion Pack Volume 1: Modern Worship, adds the following songs to the game: "Children of the Burning Heart", "Let Us Pray", "See the Glory", "Fingerprints of God", "I Do Believe". Chapman hosts the Gospel Music Channel show, "The Best of the Dove Awards". In 2006, Chapman went on tour to several Asian countries, his website claims his concert for U. S. troops serving in South Korea was the first Christian concert performed for the troops in that country, a concert in Shanghai, was "the first public performance by a Gospel recording artist event in the city open to China passport holders", the third-largest concert in Shanghai that spring. The tour took the artist to Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Singapore. During the same period, his song "The Blessing" reached No. 1 on Thailand radio charts.
His No. 1 songs are "Dive", "Live Out Loud", "Cinderella", "Do Everything". In 2007, Chapman co-headlined Newsong's annual Winter Jam tour with Jer
Memphis is a city located along the Mississippi River in southwestern Shelby County, United States. The 2017 city population was 652,236, making Memphis the largest city on the Mississippi River, second-largest city in Tennessee, as well as the 25th largest city in the United States. Greater Memphis is the 42nd largest metropolitan area in the United States, with a population of 1,348,260 in 2017; the city is the anchor of West Tennessee and the greater Mid-South region, which includes portions of neighboring Arkansas and Mississippi. Memphis is the seat of the most populous county in Tennessee; as one of the most historic and cultural cities of the southern United States, the city features a wide variety of landscapes and distinct neighborhoods. The first European explorer to visit the area of present-day Memphis was Spanish conquistador Hernando de Soto in 1541 with his expedition into the New World; the high bluffs protecting the location from the waters of the Mississippi would be contested between the Spanish and the English as Memphis took shape.
Modern Memphis was founded in 1819 by three prominent Americans: John Overton, James Winchester, future president Andrew Jackson. Memphis grew into one of the largest cities of the Antebellum South as a market for agricultural goods, natural resources like lumber, the American slave trade. After the American Civil War and the end of slavery, the city experienced faster growth into the 20th century as it became among the largest world markets for cotton and lumber. Home to Tennessee's largest African-American population, Memphis played a prominent role in the American civil rights movement and was the site of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.'s 1968 assassination. The city now hosts the National Civil Rights Museum—a Smithsonian affiliate institution. Since the civil rights era, Memphis has grown to become one of the nation's leading commercial centers in transportation and logistics; the city's largest employer is the multinational courier corporation FedEx, which maintains its global air hub at Memphis International Airport, making it the second-busiest cargo airport in the world.
Today, Memphis is a regional center for commerce, media and entertainment. The city has long had a prominent music scene, with historic blues clubs on Beale Street originating the unique Memphis blues sound during early 20th century; the city's music has continued to be shaped by a multi-cultural mix of influences across the blues, rock n' roll and hip-hop genres. Memphis barbecue has achieved international prominence, the city hosts the World Championship Barbecue Cooking Contest, which attracts over 100,000 visitors to the city annually. Occupying a substantial bluff rising from the Mississippi River, the site of Memphis has been a natural location for human settlement by varying cultures over thousands of years; the area was known to be settled in the first millennium A. D. by people of the Mississippian Culture, who had a network of communities throughout the Mississippi River Valley and its tributaries. They built complexes with large earthwork ceremonial and burial mounds as expressions of their sophisticated culture.
The historic Chickasaw Indian tribe, believed to be their descendants occupied the site. French explorers led by René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle and Spanish explorer Hernando de Soto encountered the Chickasaw tribe in that area in the 16th century. J. D. L. Holmes, writing in Hudson's Four Centuries of Southern Indians, notes that this site was a third strategic point in the late 18th century through which European powers could control United States encroachment and their interference with Indian matters—after Fort Nogales and Fort Confederación: "... Chickasaw Bluffs, located on the Mississippi River at the present-day location of Memphis. Spain and the United States vied for control of this site, a favorite of the Chickasaws."In 1795 the Spanish Governor-General of Louisiana, Francisco Luis Héctor de Carondelet sent his Lieutenant Governor, Manuel Gayoso de Lemos, to negotiate and secure consent from the local Chickasaw so that a Spanish fort could be erected on the bluff. Holmes notes that consent was reached despite opposition from "disappointed Americans and a pro-American faction of the Chickasaws", when the "pro-Spanish faction signed the Chickasaw Bluffs Cession and Spain provided the Chickasaws with a trading post…".
Fort San Fernando de las Barrancas remained a focal point of Spanish activity until, as Holmes summarizes: he Treaty of San Lorenzo or Pinckney's Treaty of 1795, all of the careful, diplomatic work by Spanish officials in Louisiana and West Florida, which has succeeded for a decade in controlling the Indians, was undone. The United States gained the right to navigate the Mississippi River and won control over the Yazoo Strip north of the thirty-first parallel; the Spanish dismantled the fort, shipping its iron to their locations in Arkansas. In 1796, the site became the westernmost point of the newly admitted state of Tennessee, located in what was called the Southwest United States; the area was still occupied and controlled by the Chickasaw nation. Captain Isaac Guion led an American force down the Ohio River to claim the land, arriving on July 20, 1797. By this time, the Spanish had departed; the fort's ruins went unnoticed twenty years when Memphis was laid out as a city, after the United States government paid the Chickasaw for land.
The city of Memphis was founded on May 22, 1819 by John Overton, James Winchester and Andrew Jackson. They named it after the ancient capita
The Blackwood Brothers
For the Scottish publisher and printer, see Blackwood. The Blackwood Brothers are an American southern gospel quartet. Pioneers of the Christian music industry, they are 8-time Grammy Award winners in addition to winning 7 Gospel Music Association Dove Awards, they are members of the the Memphis Music Hall of Fame, Gospel Music Hall of Fame, the Southern Gospel Museum and Hall of Fame. The Blackwood Brothers Quartet were formed in 1934 in the midst of the Great Depression when preacher Roy Blackwood moved his family back home to Choctaw County, Mississippi, his brothers, Doyle Blackwood and 15-year-old James Blackwood had some experience singing with Vardaman Ray and Gene Catledge. After adding Roy's 13-year-old son, R. W. Blackwood, to sing baritone, the brothers began to sing locally. By 1940, they were affiliated with the Stamps-Baxter Music Company to sell songbooks and were appearing on 50,000-watt radio station KMA in Shenandoah, Iowa. Doyle was replaced by Don Smith. After Doyle left, The Quartet relocated to Memphis, Tennessee in 1950.
The move proved to be successful for the group as they began to appear on television station WMCT in coming years. In 1952 they signed a major recording contract with RCA Victor. After the move to Memphis, Roy left and was replaced with Calvin Newton, replaced with Cat Freeman, after Freeman left, Alden Toney was hired to sing tenor. In 1951, Alden Toney and Don Smith were replaced with Dan Huskey and Bill Lyles. In 1952, Dan Huskey was replaced by Bill Shaw. On June 14, 1954, the Blackwood Brothers lineup of Bill Shaw, James Blackwood, R. W. Blackwood, Bill Lyles, Jackie Marshall, won the Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts competition on national television with their rendition of "Have You Talked To The Man Upstairs?" The win propelled them beyond just the Southern United States. After winning on Talent Scouts, the group began flying to shows with their own private plane due to the demand of their performances. However, on June 30, 1954, the group was scheduled to perform with The Statesmen Quartet in Clanton, Alabama during a town festival.
Prior to the start of their show. W. Blackwood, Bill Lyles, Johnny Ogburn, a local friend of the Blackwood Brothers decided to take a quick ride on the plane around dusk. Tenor singer Bill Shaw recalled the event saying. Members of The Statesmen Quartet witnessed it and provided aid to the survivors, taking them back to Memphis that night. After a funeral, attended by thousands in Memphis, including a young Elvis Presley, the survivors, James Blackwood, Bill Shaw, Jackie Marshall decided to press on. R. W.'s younger brother Cecil Blackwood took over as baritone and former Sunshine Boys Quartet J. D. Sumner replaced Bill Lyles at the bass position. According to Ken Berryhill, their producer, it was at about this point in their career that they first crossed paths with the young Elvis Presley, with whom they became friends. In the following years, the group was the first to customize a bus to make travel spacious and comfortable for entertainers, thereby inventing the customized "Tour Bus", something which many years when the most famous singer in the planet, Presley saw and went straight out and had one made for him.
After the crash, The group went to work forming the Gospel Music Association and was responsible for the creation of the National Quartet Convention. Sumner contributed to the group as a songwriter, sometimes writing all the songs for a music album; the Blackwood Brothers were setting new standards in the studio. Their RCA Victor recordings from this time period are now considered prized collectors' items; the lineup with Bill Shaw, Cecil, J. D. Sumner is considered the classic version of the Blackwood Brothers Quartet, with Jackie Marshall or Wally Varner on piano. A replica of the bus can be seen at the Southern Gospel Museum and Hall of Fame at Dollywood in Pigeon Forge, Tennessee The Blackwood Brothers formed a partnership with the Statesmen Quartet to tour as a team in the 1950s, they were the dominant act on the southern gospel circuit during this time; this dominance lasted for about a decade until the rise of gospel television shows in the late 1960s began to give competing groups wider exposure.
The "Stateswood" team started independent record label Skylite Records. At one time, the Skyline roster included The Blackwood Brothers, J. D. Sumner and the Stamps Quartet, Jake Hess and the Imperials, the Speer Family, the Florida Boys, the Couriers Quartet, The Kingsmen Quartet, the Calvarymen Quartet, the Calvary Quartet, the Kingdom Heirs Quartet, the Statesmen Quartet, the Prophets Quartet, the Oak Ridge Boys, the Jordanaires, the Southerners Quartet, the Rebels Quartet. In 1966, the Blackwoods teamed up with Porter Wagoner to record a country influenced gospel album called Grand Old Gospel, it won a Grammy Award for Best Sacred Performance and was the first of three albums the Blackwoods recorded with Wagoner. 1967's More Grand Old Gospel won a Grammy for Best Gospel Performance, along with 1969's In Gospel Country. Wagoner performed with the Blackwoods for years and were guests at the Ryman Auditorium multiple times. In 1969
30th GMA Dove Awards
The 30th Annual GMA Dove Awards were held on March 24, 1999, recognizing accomplishments of musicians for the year 1998. The show was held at the Bridgestone Arena in Nashville and was hosted by John Tesh. Winners are listed in bold type. "Adonai". "I Believe In Christ". B. M. Music Corp/ADC Music/Edinburg Songs "Mercy Said No". Newsboys Point of Grace Avalon DC Talk Point of Grace Michael W. Smith Jaci Velasquez All Star United Burlap To Cashmere Jennifer Knapp Nichole Nordeman Michelle Tumes Brown Bannister Brent Bourgeois Kirk Franklin Toby McKeehan Michael W. Smith "Basic Instructions". Aaron Wilburn. "Till The Last Leaf Shall Fall".
Nashville is the capital and most populous city of the U. S. state of Tennessee. The city is located on the Cumberland River; the city's population ranks 24th in the U. S. According to 2017 estimates from the U. S. Census Bureau, the total consolidated city-county population stood at 691,243; the "balance" population, which excludes semi-independent municipalities within Davidson County, was 667,560 in 2017. Located in northern Middle Tennessee, Nashville is the main core of the largest metropolitan area in Tennessee; the 2017 population of the entire 14-county Nashville metropolitan area was 1,903,045. The 2017 population of the Nashville—Davidson–Murfreesboro–Columbia combined statistical area, a larger trade area, was 2,027,489. Named for Francis Nash, a general of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, the city was founded in 1779; the city grew due to its strategic location as a port and railroad center. Nashville seceded with Tennessee during the American Civil War and in 1862 became the first state capital to fall to Union troops.
After the war the city developed a manufacturing base. Since 1963, Nashville has had a consolidated city-county government, which includes six smaller municipalities in a two-tier system; the city is governed by a mayor, a vice-mayor, a 40-member metropolitan council. Reflecting the city's position in state government, Nashville is home to the Tennessee Supreme Court's courthouse for Middle Tennessee. Nashville is a center for the music, publishing, private prison and transportation industries, is home to numerous colleges and universities such as Tennessee State University, Vanderbilt University, Belmont University, Fisk University, Lipscomb University. Entities with headquarters in the city include Asurion, Bridgestone Americas, Captain D's, CoreCivic, Dollar General, Hospital Corporation of America, LifeWay Christian Resources, Logan's Roadhouse, Ryman Hospitality Properties; the town of Nashville was founded by James Robertson, John Donelson, a party of Overmountain Men in 1779, near the original Cumberland settlement of Fort Nashborough.
It was named for the American Revolutionary War hero. Nashville grew because of its strategic location, accessibility as a port on the Cumberland River, a tributary of the Ohio River. By 1800, the city had 345 residents, including 136 enslaved African Americans and 14 free African-American residents. In 1806, Nashville was incorporated as a city and became the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee. In 1843, the city was named as the permanent capital of the state of Tennessee; the city government of Nashville owned 24 slaves by 1831, 60 prior to the war. They were "put to work to build the first successful water system and maintain the streets." The cholera outbreak that struck Nashville in 1849–1850 took the life of former U. S. President James K. Polk. There were 311 deaths from cholera in 1849 and an estimated 316 to about 500 in 1850. By 1860, when the first rumblings of secession began to be heard across the South, antebellum Nashville was a prosperous city; the city's significance as a shipping port made it a desirable prize as a means of controlling important river and railroad transportation routes.
In February 1862, Nashville became the first state capital to fall to Union troops. The state was occupied by Union troops for the duration of the war; the Battle of Nashville was a significant Union victory and the most decisive tactical victory gained by either side in the war. Afterward, the Confederates conducted a war of attrition, making guerrilla raids and engaging in small skirmishes, with the Confederate forces in the Deep South constantly in retreat. In 1868, a few years after the Civil War, the Nashville chapter of the Ku Klux Klan was founded by Confederate veteran John W. Morton. Chapters of this secret insurgent group formed throughout the South. In 1873 Nashville suffered another cholera epidemic, as did towns throughout Sumner County along railroad routes and the Cumberland River. Meanwhile, the city had reclaimed its important shipping and trading position and developed a solid manufacturing base; the post–Civil War years of the late 19th century brought new prosperity to Nashville and Davidson County.
These healthy economic times left the city with a legacy of grand classical-style buildings, including the Parthenon in Centennial Park, near downtown. On April 30, 1892, Ephraim Grizzard, an African-American man, was lynched in a spectacle murder in front of a white mob of 10,000 in Nashville, his lynching was described by journalist Ida B. Wells as: "A naked, bloody example of the blood-thirstiness of the nineteenth century civilization of the Athens of the South." From 1877 to 1950, a total of six lynchings of blacks were conducted in Davidson County, most in the county seat of Nashville near the turn of the century. By the turn of the century, Nashville had become the cradle of the Lost Cause of the Confederacy, as the first chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy was founded here and the Confederate Veteran magazine was published here. Most "guardians of the Lost Cause" lived near Centennial Park. At the same time, Jefferson Street became the historic center of the African-American community.
It remained so until the federal government s