Operation Little Saturn
Operation Saturn, revised as Operation Little Saturn, was a Red Army operation on the Eastern Front of World War II that led to battles in the North Caucasus and Donets Basin regions of the Soviet Union from December 1942 to February 1943. The success of Operation Uranus, launched on 19 November 1942, had trapped 250,000–300,000 troops of General Friedrich Paulus' German 6th Army and 4th Panzer Army in Stalingrad. To exploit this victory, the Soviet general staff planned a winter campaign of continuous and ambitious offensive operations, codenamed "Saturn". Joseph Stalin reduced his ambitious plans to a small campaign codenamed "Operation Little Saturn"; the offensive succeeded in smashing Germany's Italian and Hungarian allies, applied pressure on the over stretched German forces in Eastern Ukraine and prevented further German advances to the relief of the entrapped forces at Stalingrad. Despite these victories, the Soviets themselves became over extended, setting up the stages for the German offensives of the Third Battle of Kharkov and the Battle of Kursk.
On 17 May 1942, German Army Groups A and B launched a counteroffensive against advancing Soviet armies around the city of Kharkov, resulting in the Second Battle of Kharkov. By 6 July, General Hermann Hoth's Fourth Panzer Army had taken the city of Voronezh, threatening to collapse the Red Army's resistance. By early August, General Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist's First Panzer Army had reached the oil center of Maykop, 500 kilometres south of the city of Rostov, taken by the Fourth Panzer Army on 23 July; the rapid German advance threatened to cut the Soviet Union off from its southern territories, while threatening to cut the lend-lease supply lines from Persia. However, the offensive began to peter out, as the offensive's supply train struggled to keep up with the advance and spearhead units began to run low on fuel and manpower. Operation Uranus was the codename of the Soviet strategic operation in World War II which led to the encirclement of the German Sixth Army and Fourth Romanian armies, portions of the German Fourth Panzer Army.
The operation formed part of the ongoing Battle of Stalingrad, was aimed at destroying German forces in and around Stalingrad. Planning for Operation Uranus had commenced as early as September 1942, was developed with plans to envelop and destroy German Army Group Center and German forces in the Caucasus; the Red Army took advantage of the fact that German forces in the southern Soviet Union were overstretched around Stalingrad, using weaker Romanian armies to guard their flanks. These Axis armies were deployed in open positions on the steppe and lacked heavy equipment to deal with Soviet armor. Operation Winter Storm, undertaken between 12–23 December 1942, was the German Fourth Panzer Army's attempt to relieve encircled Axis forces during the Battle of Stalingrad. In late November, the Red Army completed Operation Uranus, which resulted in the encirclement of Axis personnel in and around the city of Stalingrad. German forces within the Stalingrad Pocket and directly outside were reorganized under Army Group Don, under the command of Field Marshal Erich von Manstein.
As the Red Army continued to build strength, in an effort to allocate as many resources as possible to the eventual launch of the planned Operation Saturn, which aimed to isolate Army Group A from the rest of the German Army, the Luftwaffe had begun an attempt to supply German forces in Stalingrad through an air bridge. However, as the Luftwaffe proved incapable of carrying out its mission and it became more obvious that a successful breakout could only occur if it was launched as early as possible, Manstein decided to plan and launch a dedicated relief effort. After the defeat of the Romanian Army around Stalingrad and the successful encirclement of the German Sixth Army, Stalin started a counter-offensive nicknamed "Operation Little Saturn" in order to enlarge the area controlled by the Soviet Army in eastern Ukraine until Kharkov and Rostov. Zhukov states the South-Western Front was assigned a mission in which the 1st and 3rd Guard armies and the 5th Tank Army "were to strike out in the general direction of Morozovsk and destroy the enemy grouping in that sector."
They would be supported by the 6th Army of the Voronezh Front. The first stage — an attempt to cut off the German Army Group A in the Caucasus — had to be revised when General Erich von Manstein launched Operation Winter Storm on 12 December in an attempt to relieve the trapped armies at Stalingrad. While General Rodion Malinovsky's Soviet 2nd Guards Army blocked the German advance on Stalingrad, the modified plan Operation Little Saturn was launched on 16 December; this operation consisted of a pincer movement. General Fyodor Isidorovich Kuznetsov's 1st Guards Army and General Dmitri Danilovich Lelyushenko's 3rd Guards Army attacked from the north, encircling 130,000 soldiers of the Italian 8th Army on the Don and advancing to Millerovo; the Italians resisted the Soviet attack for nearly two weeks, although outnumbered 9 to 1 in some sectors, but with huge losses. Manstein sent the 6th Panzer Division to the Italians' aid: of the 130,000 encircled troops, only 45,000 survived after bloody fighting to join the Panzers at Chertkovo on 17 January.
To the south the advance of General Gerasimenko's 28th Army threatened to encircle the 1st Panzer Army and General Trufanov's 51st Army attacked the relief column directly. In a dar
Mirna is a nucleated village and a minor economic centre in central Lower Carniola, Slovenia. It is the centre of the Municipality of Mirna, it is situated at the crossing of regional roads and a confluence of several creeks with the Mirna River, along the railway line linking Sevnica and Trebnje. Mirna was first mentioned in 1180; the village lies at the westernmost part of the Mirna–Mokronog basin in the Mirna Valley at raised terraces safe from flooding. To the southwest from Mirna stretches the Vejar Basin, connected with the Mirna–Mokronog basin by a narrow glen, it is included into the statistical region of Southeastern Slovenia. The crossroad of the regional roads R1-215, connecting Trebnje and Mokronog, R2-417, connecting Mirna and Moravče, the confluence of the Lipoglavščica, the Zabrščica, the Vejar Creeks with the Mirna are located in the settlement; the part of the R1-215 road traversing Mirna was until July 1996 named 3rd Battalion of the Army of the National Security Street and is now named Main Street.
The larger part of the older part of Mirna is situated on the left bank of the river, a smaller part on the right bank. Both parts are connected with a stone bridge dating to the 18th century and a wooden footbridge next to it; the oldest part of the town with St. John's the Baptist church lies at the foot and the southwestern slope of the Trbinc Hill, whereas the younger part has grown at the ridge on the other side of the Mirna river, which turns 90° here; the lowest parts along the Mirna banks have been settled by industry, which employs people from the whole basin as well as the nearby hilly areas. Due to its basin location and a temperature inversion, Mirna has a bit lower average temperatures and more hot and cold days than the villages on hills. There is less wind, the predominant being the north and the southwestern wind. There is more fog from August to January; the average annual precipitation is 1,165 mm. It occurs all over more in summer as well as in autumn. Outside the village, near the western border of the settlement, stands Mirna Castle.
It is situated at the extreme edge of the Upper Hill. Mirna Pond, used as a swimming pool in the past and now by fishermen, is situated under the castle, it was created at the end of the 1960s by damming of the Vejar. A jogging path leads past it. There are the confluence of the Mirna and the Vejar and a bridge across the Mirna. A plain with flood-meadows stretches from the castle to the village. Mirna Cave known as Roje Cave, is a fossil and isolated karst spring cave situated in the northern part of the settlement, it is 7 m deep. It was discovered on 8 September 1939 by the Underground Cave Exploration Society from Ljubljana, it serves as an illegal waste dump. Until the middle of the 19th century, the inhabitants made their living by farming. A spinning mill and a tannery appeared in the settlement. Since 1908, a railway has connected Mirna with the towns of Trebnje and Sevnica, with a station in the southern part of the settlement; the settlement was electrified after 1920. Due to the development of infrastructure, the existence of trades, the start of industry, a vision, Mirna surpassed nearby Šentrupert and Mokronog as the centre of the Mirna Valley.
Mirna is industrially the most developed settlement in the valley with the largest number of workplaces. Major companies in Mirna include Dana, Droga Kolinska, JGZ Pohorje. Tourism has been gaining in importance. Since 1961, the number of inhabitants in Mirna has tripled, it was 292 in 1869, 274 in 1900, 417 in 1931, 550 in 1961, 882 in 1971, 1183 in 1981, 1500 in 1991, 1465 in 2002, 1374 in 2010. The local dialect is the Eastern Lower Carniolan subdialect; the main sports practiced in Mirna are association football and ski jumping. The Mirna Football Club was established in 1967 and as of June 2012 has about 120 registered players, up to 14 years old; the Mirna Badminton Club was established in 1991 and reaches the highest places among Slovenian clubs. The most known ski jumper from Mirna is Maja Vtič. A ski jumping hill stands behind the building of the Mirna Post Office in the western part of the settlement, it is eight meters tall and was completed in 2011. Mirna was a municipal centre before World War II.
After the war, it was a municipal centre from the establishment of municipalities in Slovenia in 1952 until 1959, when the Municipality of Mirna merged with the Municipality of Trebnje. In November 2009, residents of the parish of Mirna voted in a referendum in support of secession from the Municipality of Trebnje and the establishment of an independent municipality, but the act enacting this was rejected in April 2010 by the National Assembly because it included the establishment of the Municipality of Ankaran. On 1 February 2011, the National Assembly passed another act on the establishment of the Municipality of Mirna; that happened after the Constitutional Court of Slovenia had ordered in December 2010 the National Assembly to establish the Municipality of Mirna within two months and to call the election to its municipal council within 20 days after the establishment. Mirna regained its position as a municip
The Alpini, are a specialised mountain warfare infantry corps of the Italian Army. They are organized in two operational brigades, which are subordinated to the Alpine Troops Headquarters. Established in 1872, the Alpini are the oldest active mountain infantry in the world, their original mission was to protect Italy's northern mountain border with France and Austria-Hungary. In 1888 the Alpini deployed on their first mission abroad, in Africa, a continent where they returned on several occasions and during various wars of the Kingdom of Italy, they emerged during World War I as they fought a three-year campaign on the Alps against Austro-Hungarian Kaiserjäger and the German Alpenkorps in what has since become known as the "War in snow and ice". During World War II, the Alpini fought alongside the Axis forces across the Eastern Front and in the Balkans Campaigns. After the end of the Cold War, the Italian Army was reorganised in the 1990s. Three out of five Alpini brigades and many support units were disbanded.
The Alpini are deployed in Afghanistan. To honour the Alpini a park in the northern Illawarra suburb of Tarrawanna in Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia was dedicated to the brave soldiers of the Alpini. In 1872, Captain Giuseppe Perrucchetti published a study in the May edition of the Military Review. In the study, he proposed to assign the defence of mountain borders of the established Kingdom of Italy to soldiers recruited locally. Indeed, thanks to their knowledge of the surroundings and personal attachment to the area, they would be capable and better motivated defenders. Perrucchetti drew on the work of Lieutenant General Agostino Ricci, who in 1868 had organised exercises in the mountains to assess the feasibility of a specialised mountain infantry corps. Five months after Perrucchetti's article, the first 15 Alpini companies were formed by Royal decree no. 1056. The units became active on October 15, 1872, making the Alpini the oldest active Mountain Infantry in the world. At first the Alpini were organized as a militia, capable of defending Italy's northern mountainous borders.
Austria's surrender in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 resulted in Italy annexing the province of Venetia, the northern borders of which coincided in large part with the Alpine Arch. Prior to gaining the new northern borders, homeland defence was based on the so-called Quadrilatero strategy; that outdated strategy, ignored the geopolitics of the new Italian Kingdom. It called for primary defence of the Po Valley region farther to the southwest, but left the Alpine region undefended. Recruiting Italy's mountain valleys locals and organising them into a special corps was indeed an innovative idea, they possessed superior knowledge of mountain territory and greatest adaptability to Alpine conditions. At the beginning, the mountain regions were divided into seven military districts, each commanded by an Officer and home to at least two Alpini companies, each consisting of 120 personnel. Soldiers were equipped with the Vetterli 1870 rifle. In 1873 nine more companies were added, thus totalling 24. In 1875, the companies doubled in size, having 250 soldiers and 5 officers, which were organised into 7 Alpini battalions.
Each battalion was named after one of the seats of the seven military districts: 1° Cuneo, 2° Mondovi, 3° Torino, 4° Torino, 5° Como, 6° Treviso, 7° UdineIn 1877, five Alpini mountain artillery batteries were formed and - in the following year - the Alpini had grown to 36 mountain infantry companies organised into 10 battalions. On November 1, 1882, the Alpini organisation doubled in size to 72 companies and a total of 20 Alpini battalions; the latter plus 8 Alpini mountain artillery batteries were now organized into six numbered Alpini regiments and two Alpini mountain artillery brigades. Each battalion was named after the area it was required to defend in case of war: The numbers used earlier to distinguish the battalions were dropped while - at the same time - the companies were now numbered from 1 to 72. In order to distinguish the battalions and non-commissioned officers were issued thread tufts of various colors, which were added to the Cappello Alpino: white for the First Bn. red for the Second Bn. and Green for the Third Bn. of each regiment.
Special Bn. and Fourth Bn. were issued blue tufts. Soldiers of the Mountain Artillery units were issued a green tuft with a black patch in the middle onto which the number of the battery was written in yellow numbers. On June 7, 1883, the green flames collar patch was introduced, thus making the Alpini a specialty within the Italian infantry corps; the Cappello Alpino, with its black raven feather, was introduced at that time. The distinctive headdress led the Alpini to be nicknamed "The Black feathers". Officers hats had the black feather replaced with a white eagle feather. At first, the hat was a black felt hat, but as soon as the new green-grey uniform was adopted in 1909 the hat was changed to the distinctive grey felt still in service today; the Alpini were distinguished by the green cuffs on the dark blue tunics worn for full dress and barrack dress until 1915, by green piping on their light blue/grey trousers. When grey-green service uniforms were trialled by the Alpini in 1906, before being adopted by the entire army in 1909, the distinctive green collar patches and typical headdress were retained.
The materials and equipment of each battalion were stored in the major village of a specific area they were required to defend in case of war. Soldiers of a battalion were only
136th Armoured Division Giovani Fascisti
The 136th Armoured Division Giovani Fascisti was an infantry division of the Italian Army during World War II. The Giovani Fascisti Division was formed from volunteers from the Young Fascist University; the volunteers were subject to a power struggle between the Army and the Fascist Blackshirts and of the original 25 battalions only two battalions survived to see action. The Division was sent to Libya in July 1941, the III "A ferro freddo" battalion remained in Italy for training and was used as a source for replacements. In May 1942 it was decided to reform them for their conduct during the Western Desert Campaign as an Armoured Division, the 136th Armoured Division Giovani Fascisti, but the division never received its tanks and it remained an infantry division, it was in action during Operation Crusader when the 11th Indian Infantry Brigade was engaged against a strong point near Bir el Gubi, 25 miles south of Ed Duda. The GGFF made their mark during Operation Crusader. Tasked to defend the small hill known as Bir el Gobi, they fought off repeated attacks by the 11th Indian Brigade and British 7th Armoured Division during the first week of December, 1941.
Despite overwhelming odds, they inflicted massive casualties on the Allies and held their ground despite severe hunger and thirst. The 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 136th Giovani Fascisti Infantry Regiment, held a hilltop position and fought off repeated attacks by the British armour and Indian infantry units during the first week of December 1941; the Mussolini's Boys began the Gazala battle in May 1942 as part of the army reserve, with four infantry battalions — the two original battalions, plus 9th Independent Infantry Battalion and the 3rd Battalion of the San Marco Marine Regiment. During the course of the battle, the remaining three battalions went forward to assist the 102nd "Trento" Division's penetration of the Allied minefield zone; the division occupied the oasis of Siwa in Egypt in summer 1942, in order to prevent possible military actions from the British Army to the south of the Axis Army attacking El Alamein. Indeed in July 1942, German Ju-52 transport planes transported one battalion of the "Giovani Fascisti" to seize the strategic Oasis of Siwa, the largest air-landing assault conducted by the Axis in Africa.
The rest of the division soon arrived as well, except for two companies from the 4th Anti-Tank Battalion. The oasis had been a staging area for raids by the Allied Long Range Desert Group into Libya, now the Axis saw an opportunity to return the favor. Italian planners looked longingly at the tracks leading to the Nile. Field Marshal Erwin Rommel reviewed the unit. Officers showed him their maps and scouting reports of the deep desert, several Egyptian clan chiefs gave their opinions that no substantial Allied forces stood between Siwa and the Nile; the Young Fascist Division, the officers claimed, could unhinge the Allied positions on the coast from Siwa if only they had the fuel. While they waited, the Italians set up an Egyptian government-in-exile, complete with postage stamps, flew the Egyptian flag alongside the Italian tricolor flag; some units of the "Giovani Fascisti" fought in the second battle of El Alamein with the 185th Airborne Division Folgore. In mid-November, after Montgomery's victory, the Division withdrew from Siwa to Agedaiba and to Tunisia.
In the Mareth Line fought bravely the Allies with the remaining Axis troops. The Division was nearly destroyed in 1943, during the fighting in Tunisia. If decimated, the "Giovani Fascisti" was the last Axis military unit to surrender to the Allies in North Africa on May 13, 1943. 136. Giovani Fascisti Infantry Regiment I Battalion "Mi scaglio a ruina" II Battalion "Abbi fede" 8. Bersaglieri Regiment 136. Artillery Regiment 88. Anti Aircraft Battery 25. Engineer Battalion 53. Medical Section 105. Carabinieri Section 45. Field Post Office Footnotes Citations Paoletti, Ciro. A Military History of Italy. Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0-275-98505-9. Giulio Bedeschi, Fronte d'Africa. Ed. Mursia. Milano, 1979. John Gooch. Decisive campaigns of the Second World War. Publisher Psychology Press, 1990 ISBN 0-7146-3369-0 North African Campaign Tunisia Campaign Operation Crusader Battle of Gazala
Tuscany is a region in central Italy with an area of about 23,000 square kilometres and a population of about 3.8 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence. Tuscany is known for its landscapes, artistic legacy, its influence on high culture, it is regarded as the birthplace of the Italian Renaissance and has been home to many figures influential in the history of art and science, contains well-known museums such as the Uffizi and the Pitti Palace. Tuscany produces wines, including Chianti, Vino Nobile di Montepulciano, Morellino di Scansano and Brunello di Montalcino. Having a strong linguistic and cultural identity, it is sometimes considered "a nation within a nation". Tuscany is a popular destination in Italy, the main tourist spots are Florence, Lucca, Versilia and Chianti; the village of Castiglione della Pescaia is the most visited seaside destination in the region, with seaside tourism accounting for 40% of tourist arrivals. Additionally, Lucca, the Chianti region and Val d'Orcia are internationally renowned and popular spots among travellers.
Seven Tuscan localities have been designated World Heritage Sites: the historic centre of Florence. Tuscany has over 120 protected nature reserves, making Tuscany and its capital Florence popular tourist destinations that attract millions of tourists every year. In 2012, the city of Florence was the world's 89th most visited city, with over 1.834 million arrivals. Triangular in shape, Tuscany borders the regions of Liguria to the northwest, Emilia-Romagna to the north, Marche to the northeast, Umbria to the east and Lazio to the southeast; the comune of Badia Tedalda, in the Tuscan Province of Arezzo, has an exclave named Ca' Raffaello within Emilia-Romagna. Tuscany has a western coastline on the Ligurian Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, among, the Tuscan Archipelago, of which the largest island is Elba. Tuscany has an area of 22,993 square kilometres. Surrounded and crossed by major mountain chains, with few plains, the region has a relief, dominated by hilly country used for agriculture. Hills make up nearly two-thirds of the region's total area, covering 15,292 square kilometres, mountains, a further 25%, or 5,770 square kilometres.
Plains occupy 8.4% of the total area—1,930 square kilometres —mostly around the valley of the Arno. Many of Tuscany's largest cities lie on the banks of the Arno, including the capital Florence and Pisa; the climate is mild in the coastal areas, is harsher and rainy in the interior, with considerable fluctuations in temperature between winter and summer, giving the region a soil-building active freeze-thaw cycle, in part accounting for the region's once having served as a key breadbasket of ancient Rome. The pre-Etruscan history of the area in the late Bronze and Iron Ages parallels that of the early Greeks; the Tuscan area was inhabited by peoples of the so-called Apennine culture in the late second millennium BC who had trading relationships with the Minoan and Mycenaean civilizations in the Aegean Sea. Following this, the Villanovan culture saw Tuscany, the rest of Etruria, taken over by chiefdoms. City-states developed in the late Villanovan before "Orientalization" occurred and the Etruscan civilization rose.
The Etruscans created the first major civilization in this region, large enough to establish a transport infrastructure, to implement agriculture and mining and to produce vibrant art. The Etruscans lived in the area of Etruria well into prehistory; the civilization grew to fill the area between the Arno and Tiber from the eighth century BCE, reaching its peak during the seventh and sixth centuries B. C. succumbing to the Romans by the first century BCE. Throughout their existence, they lost territory to Magna Graecia and Celts. Despite being seen as distinct in its manners and customs by contemporary Greeks, the cultures of Greece, Rome, influenced the civilization to a great extent. One reason for its eventual demise was this increasing absorption by surrounding cultures, including the adoption of the Etruscan upper class by the Romans. Soon after absorbing Etruria, Rome established the cities of Lucca, Pisa and Florence, endowed the area with new technologies and development, ensured peace.
These developments included extensions of existing roads, introduction of aqueducts and sewers, the construction of many buildings, both public and private. However, many of these structures have been destroyed by erosion due to weather; the Roman civilization in the West of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire collapsed in the fifth century, the region fell to barbarians migrating through the Empire from Eastern Europe and Central Asia of the Goths was re-conquered by the revived Eastern Roman Empire under the strong Emperor Justinian. In the years following 572, the Lombards arrived and designated Lucca the capital of their subsequent Tuscia. Pilgrims travelling along the Via Francigena between Rome and France brought wealth and development during the medieval period; the food and shelter required by the
131st Armoured Division Centauro
The 131st Armoured Division Centauro was an armoured division of the Italian Army during World War II. It was formed in February 1939, by upgrading the 1st Armoured Brigade, it took part in operations in Albania and Yugoslavia before returning to Italy. Sent to North Africa in August 1942, it surrendered in Tunisia on 13 May 1943; the 1st Armoured Brigade was formed in April 1937, along with the 132nd Armoured Division Ariete, formed the Italian Armoured Corps. The two divisions took part in the first corps-level exercises in the Po Valley in the late 1930s. In February 1939, Centauro was re-designated a division, it was and attached to the reserve Army of the Po. When Italy invaded Albania in April 1939, the Centauro was equipped with L3/35 tankettes; the division participated in the Greco-Italian War in 1940, just before it received its first M13/40 tanks in December 1940, deployed with them at Këlcyrë in January 1941, losing many of them to the Greek artillery fire. The following year the Centauro was deployed into Yugoslavia, together with the 4th Division "Littorio", where they performed well despite their outdated equipment.
In June 1941 they were recalled to Italy to be re-equipped. With the experience obtained from fighting in the Western Desert Italian Armoured Divisions were now re-organized into a three tank, three infantry battalion structure, combined with a large artillery regiment which included two small battalions of self-propelled guns and one anti-aircraft battalion and organic reconnaissance and engineer battalions. In August 1942, the 131st were ordered to prepare to move to Libya; the Centauro missed both the First and Second Battles of El Alamein, arrived during the retreat from Egypt back into Libya in late 1942. On 13 December, during the Battle of El Agheila, the Centauro - along with a strong formation from the 132nd Armoured Division Ariete- forced the British 7th Armoured Division to retreat. Rommel gave significant praise of Italian conduct during this action, they were involved in several actions in Tunisia and, according to US historian Brian John Murphy, overran a part of the US forces defending Highway 13 during the Battle of the Kasserine Pass: "Axis forces made a breakthrough on Highway 13, where the Italians of the Centauro Division spearheaded the attack.
In the early morning hours, the Italians pressed their offensive, broke through the remains of the American line, continued up Highway 13." The Centauro remained in Tunisia as part of the Italian 1st Army until the end of the campaign, surrendering in May 1943. 31st Tank Regiment 13th Armoured Battalion 14th Armoured Battalion 15th. Armoured Battalion 5th Bersaglieri Regiment 14th Bersaglieri Motorized Battalion 22nd Bersaglieri Motorized Battalion 24th Bersaglieri Motorized Battalion 131st Artillery Regiment 22nd Motorized Infantry Support Battalion 31st Motorized Engineer Battalion Motorized Anti-Tank Battalion Armoured Car Battalion 5th Bersaglieri Motorcycle Company The division was raised again after World War II on 1 April 1951. At first named Centauro Armored Brigade the division reached its full complement of troops in fall of 1952 and became the Centauro Armored Division on 1 November 1952; the division was based around Milan with the headquarters in the city of Verona. The division was part of the 4th Army Corps and consisted of the following units: Division Headquarters 3rd Bersaglieri Regiment XVIII Bersaglieri Battalion with M3 Half-tracks XX Bersaglieri Battalion with M3 Half-tracks XXV Bersaglieri Battalion with M3 Half-tracks Bersaglieri Anti-tank Company with M40 recoilless rifles 31st Tank Regiment I Tank Battalion with M26 Pershing II Tank Battalion with M26 Pershing III Tank Battalion with M26 Pershing 131st Armored Artillery Regiment I Self-propelled Howitzer Group with M7 Priest II Self-propelled Howitzer Group with M7 Priest III Self-propelled Howitzer Group with M7 Priest IV Self-propelled Howitzer Group with M7 Priest V Light Air-defense Group with M1 40mm Automatic Guns VI Light Air-defense Group with M1 40mm Automatic Guns Armored Cavalry Squadron Cavalleggeri di Lodi with M8 Greyhound CXXXI Engineer Battalion 131st Signal CompanyIn fall of 1955 the division moved its headquarters to Novara and joined 3rd Army Corps.
The units of the Centauro moved to Bellinzago Novarese. In 1963 all Italian divisions adapted their organization to NATO standards and thus added a brigade level to the divisions structure. In the same year the reconstitution of the 32nd Tank Regiment began. I Mechanized Brigade Centauro, in Milan 3rd Bersaglieri Regiment, in Milan VI Bersaglieri Battalion, with M113 armored personnel carriers X Bersaglieri Battalion, with M113 armored personnel carriers IV Tank Battalion with, M47 Patton main battle tanks Bersaglieri Anti-tank Company, with M40 recoilless rifles I/131st Armored Artillery Regiment, with M7 Priest 105mm self propelled howitzers I Service Battalion 1st Engineer Company 1st Signal Company II Armored Brigade Centauro, in Novara 1st Armored Bersaglieri Regiment, in Bellinzago Novarese VII Tank Battalion, with M47 Patton main battle tanks CI Tank Battalion, with M47 Patton main battle tanks I Bersaglieri Battalion, with M113 armored personnel carriers II/131st Armored Artillery Regiment, with M7 Priest 105mm self propelled howitzers II Service Battalion 2nd Engineer Company 2nd Signal Company III Armored Brigade Centauro, in Novara 31st Tank Regiment in Bellinzago Novarese I Tank Battalion, with M47 Patton main battle tanks IX Tank Battalion, with M47 Patton main battle tanks XVIII Bersaglieri Battalion, with M113 armored personnel carriers III/131st Armored Artillery Regiment, with M7 Priest 105mm self propelled howitzers III Service Battalion 3rd Engineer Company 3rd Signal Company C
Alessandria is a city and comune in Piedmont and the capital of the Province of Alessandria. The city is sited on the alluvial plain between the Tanaro and the Bormida rivers, about 90 kilometres southeast of Turin. Alessandria is a major railway hub. Alessandria was founded in 1168 with a charter as a free comune. Alessandria stood in the territories of the marchese of Montferrat, a staunch ally of the Emperor, with a name assumed in 1168 to honor the Emperor's opponent, Pope Alexander III. In 1174 -- 1175 the fortress stood fast. A legend says it was saved by a quick-witted peasant, Gagliaudo: he fed his cow with the last grain remaining within the city took it outside the city walls until he reached the Imperial camp. Here he was captured, his cow cut open to be cooked: when the Imperials found the cow's stomach filled with grain, Gagliaudo was asked the reason to waste such a rich meal, he answered that he was forced to feed his cow with grain because there was such a lot of it, no room to place it within the city.
The Emperor, left Alessandria free. A statue of Gagliaudo can be found on the left corner of the city cathedral. Alessandria entered into jealous conflicts with the older communes of the region, in particular with Asti. In 1348 Alessandria fell into the hands of the Visconti and passed with their possessions to the Sforza, following the career of Milan, until 1707, when it was ceded to the House of Savoy and henceforth formed part of Piedmont; the new domination was evidenced by the construction of a new big Cittadella on the left side of the river Tanaro, across from the city. With Napoleon's success at the Battle of Marengo, Alessandria fell to France and became the capital of the Napoleonic Département of Marengo. During this period another substantial fort was built to the north of the city containing impressive and substantial barracks which are still used as a military headquarters and stores; the remains of a second fort to the south of the city have been sliced in two by a railway. From 1814 Alessandria was Savoyard territory once more, part of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
During the years of the Risorgimento, Alessandria was an active center of the liberals. In a suburb, Spinetta Marengo, the Battle of Marengo is reenacted annually, on June 14. Alessandria was the first capital of an Italian province to be governed by a Socialist: the clockmaker Paolo Sacco was elected mayor on July 25, 1899. Alessandria was a tactical military target during World War II and was subjected to intense Allied bombing, the most serious being the raids of April 30, 1944, with 238 dead and hundreds wounded, April 5, 1945, with 160 deaths, among them 60 children from the children's asylum in Via Gagliaudo. On end of that month the city was liberated from the German occupation by the partisan resistance and troops of Brazilian Expeditionary Force. On November 6, 1994, the Tanaro flooded a good part of the city, causing major damage in the Orti quarter; the first known Jews in Alessandria, named Abraham opened a loan bank in or about 1490. In 1590, the Jews were expelled from the Duchy of Milan, one of Abraham's descendants travelled to Madrid, which ruled the Duchy, was permitted to stay in the town due to a large sum owed him by the government.
Of the 230 Jews living in the city in 1684, 170 were members of the Vitale family. The Jewish Ghetto was established in 1724. Between 1796 and 1814, among the rest of Italian Jewry, the city Jewish congregation was emancipated, under French influence. According to Benito Mussolini's census in 1938, the town had 101 Jews. On December 13, 1943, The synagogue on Via Milano was attacked by supporters of the Italian Social Republic. Books and manuscripts were set on fire at Piazza Rattazzi. In total, 48 Jews were sent from the province of Alessandria to death, most of them in Auschwitz. Alessandria is located in a humid subtropical climate, the city has moderately cold winters and hot, sultry summers. Rainfall is moderate, with two maximums in autumn and spring. Citadella Militare The church of Santa Maria di Castello The church of Santa Maria del Carmine Palazzo Ghilini Università del Piemonte Orientale The Marengo Battle Museum Antiquarium Forum Fulvii Sale d'arte I percorsi del Museo Civico Museo del Fiume Museo di Scienze Naturali e Planetario Museo Etnografico "C'era una volta" Museo del Cappello Borsalino Sistema dei musei civici The annual Fraskettando SkaBluesJazz Festival, which takes place on the first weekend of July, has showcased the Blues Brothers, Eddie Floyd, Al Di Meola, Taj Mahal, Soft Machine, Mario Biondi, Mick Abrahams & Clive Bunker and many others.
Michele Pittaluga International Classical Guitar Competition Premio Città di Alessandria International Rally "Madonnina dei Centauri". The International Kendo Trophy "City of Alessandria" Alessandria railway station, opened in 1850, forms part of the Turin–Genoa railway, it is a junction for six other