The 3rd century was the period from 201 to 300 A. D. In this century, the Roman Empire saw a crisis, marking the beginning of Late Antiquity, in Persia, the Parthian Empire was succeeded by the Sassanid Empire. In India, the Kushan Empire was replaced by the Gupta Empire, China was in the Three Kingdoms period. The Xiongnu formed the Tiefu state under Liu Qubei, Korea was ruled by the Three Kingdoms of Korea. At about this time in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Bantu expansion reached Southern Africa, in Pre-Columbian America, the Adena culture of the Ohio River valley declined in favor of the Hopewell culture. The Maya civilization entered its Classic Era, after the death of Commodus in the previous century the Roman Empire was plunged into a civil war. When the dust settled, Septimius Severus emerged as emperor, establishing the Severan dynasty, unlike previous emperors, he openly used the army to back his authority, and paid them well to do so. The regime he created is known as the Military Monarchy as a result, the majority of these men were assassinated, or killed in battle, and the empire almost collapsed under the weight of the political upheaval, as well as the growing Persian threat in the east. Under its new Sassanid rulers, Persia had grown into a superpower. These reforms were finally realized late in the century under the reign of Diocletian, one of them being to divide the empire into an eastern and western half, early 3rd century – Burial in catacombs becomes common place. 208, the Chinese naval Battle of Red Cliffs occurs,211 –217, Caracalla, Roman Emperor. 212, Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men,212 –217, Baths of Caracalla. 220, The Han Dynasty comes to an end with establishment of the Three Kingdoms in ancient China,220 –280, The Three Kingdoms period. 222 –235, Alexander Severus, Roman Emperor,224, Ardashir I of the Sassanid dynasty conquers the Parthian empire at the Battle of Hormozdgān. 230 –232, Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east,234, Zhuge Liang dies of illness at the standoff of Wuzhang Plains. 235 –284, Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire,244, Battle of Xingshi in China. 250 –538, Kofun era, the first part of the Kofun period in Japan,260, Roman Emperor Valerian I is taken captive by Shapur I of Persia. 263, Cao Wei conquers the Shu Han Kingdom,265, The Jin Dynasty is founded after the overthrow of the Cao Wei Dynasty by Sima Yan
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 3rd century AD.
Eastern Hemisphere at the end of the 3rd century AD.