Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-6-2 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels, six coupled driving wheels and two trailing wheels. This arrangement is called a Prairie; the majority of American 2-6-2s were tender locomotives, but in Europe tank locomotives, described as 2-6-2T, were more common. The first 2-6-2 tender locomotives for a North American customer were built by Brooks Locomotive Works in 1900 for the Chicago and Quincy Railroad, for use on the Midwestern prairies; the type was thus nicknamed the Prairie in North American practice. This name was also used for British locomotives with this wheel arrangement; as with the 2-10-2, the major problem with the 2-6-2 is that these engines have a symmetrical wheel layout, with the centre of gravity over the centre driving wheel. The reciprocation rods, when working near the centre of gravity, induce severe side-to-side nosing which results in intense instability if unrestrained either by a long wheelbase or by the leading and trailing trucks.
Though some engines, like the Chicago and Great Western of 1903, had the connecting rod aligned onto the third driver, most examples were powered via the second driver and were prone to the nosing problem. In Australia, no tender versions of the 2-6-2 operated on any system. However, three classes of 2-6-2T did. In New South Wales a class of twenty engines, the Z26 class the 17 class, entered service in 1892 and operated until the end of steam. Two are preserved, no. 2606 at the Rail Transport Museum at Thirlmere and no. 2605 at the State Mine Museum in Lithgow. The Silverton Tramway operated two 2-6-2T locomotives from 1891, both of which are preserved in South Australia; the principal 2-6-2T locomotives which were built for the narrow gauge system of the Victoria Railway, are the now famous "Puffing Billy" engines. Two of these little locomotives arrived from Baldwin Locomotive works in 1898 and a total of seventeen saw service throughout the state on the various narrow gauge timber and gold lines, including the Wangaratta and Walhalla.
When the VR determined to close the Upper Ferntree Gully to Gembrook narrow gauge route in the mid-1950s, the Victorian community refused to let the train die. Today, the Puffing Billy Railway has a fleet of saved and modified 2-6-2T engines on active steam roster and is one of Victoria's main tourist attractions; the Belgian State Railways ordered 91 inside-cylinder 2-6-2 tank engines between 1878 and 1881 with large drivers and side tanks longer than the boiler. They hauled commuter fast trains on short lines; some of them survived the war and were used on local trains until 1926. After World War I, the Belgian State Railways were needing new engines in order to replace the ones that were lost or damaged during the war, they purchased 63 2-6-2 Saddle tank engines from the Railway Operating Division (Belgian State Railways Type 22 SNCB Type 57 and used them for switching and light freight trains until the 1960s. The most numerous steam locomotive type used in Hungary was the 324 class 2-6-2, built from 1909 onwards, which were still at work in the last days of steam.
The Hungarian State Railways ran three important classes of 2-6-2 tank engines. These were the large 342 class built from 1917, the smaller 375 class and 376 class; the Ferrovie dello Stato Italiane built the 151-strong compound FS Class 680 for express trains from 1907 to 1911. The FS Class 685, built in 271 units from 1912 to 1928, was its non-compound and superheated version, proved successful, to the point that all but 31 of the earlier Class 680 were rebuilt as 685; the Class 685 was the most numerous standard gauge 2-6-2 class in the world. A fleet of five tank engines, built by Manning Wardle of Leeds in England, were supplied to New Zealand in 1884-85; the private Wellington and Manawatu Railway used them for construction and local service work. Three were taken over as the New Zealand Railways WH class in 1908; the second batch of Prairie locomotives was built to an order for the New Zealand Railways Department, with the initial order for ten being let to Nasmyth and Company of Manchester, England.
This became the NZR V class which, due to political interference and their being overweight, did not go into traffic until 1890. New Zealand's third batch of Prairie locomotives was ordered by the WMR in 1884, their design was identical to that of the NZR V class, though they were heavier. They could burn any light fuel, coal or wood as available, entered service in 1886, soon after the WMR started operating. In 1908, with the purchase of the company by the NZR, they were awarded the V classification. In 1885, Baldwin Locomotive Works built New Zealand's fourth batch of Prairie locomotives; these were to become the NZR N class. Six were delivered in 1885 and were of an identical design to the previous, but altered to utilise off-the-shelf components supplied by Baldwin. In 1901, four more were built for the NZR, but these were fitted with piston valves actuated by Walschaerts valve gear. In 1891, two of these locomotives had been built to the same design for the WMR. In 1908, with the purchase of the WMR by NZR, all of these engines were classified as N class.
Between 1894 and 1904, four similar engines were built by Baldwin for the WMR. In 1908, these became NC class, with two units each; the NZR’s Addington Workshops joined the list of Prairie suppliers in 1889, producing the first of two NZR W class tank engines. These were followed between 1901 with eleven similar NZR WA class tank engines. Baldwin followed this u
A locomotive or engine is a rail transport vehicle that provides the motive power for a train. If a locomotive is capable of carrying a payload, it is rather referred to as multiple units, motor coaches, railcars or power cars. Traditionally, locomotives pulled trains from the front. However, push-pull operation has become common, where the train may have a locomotive at the front, at the rear, or at each end; the word locomotive originates from the Latin loco – "from a place", ablative of locus "place", the Medieval Latin motivus, "causing motion", is a shortened form of the term locomotive engine, first used in 1814 to distinguish between self-propelled and stationary steam engines. Prior to locomotives, the motive force for railways had been generated by various lower-technology methods such as human power, horse power, gravity or stationary engines that drove cable systems. Few such systems are still in existence today. Locomotives may generate their power from fuel, or they may take power from an outside source of electricity.
It is common to classify locomotives by their source of energy. The common ones include: A steam locomotive is a locomotive whose primary power source is a steam engine; the most common form of steam locomotive contains a boiler to generate the steam used by the engine. The water in the boiler is heated by burning combustible material – coal, wood, or oil – to produce steam; the steam moves reciprocating pistons which are connected to the locomotive's main wheels, known as the "drivers". Both fuel and water supplies are carried with the locomotive, either on the locomotive itself or in wagons called "tenders" pulled behind; the first full-scale working railway steam locomotive was built by Richard Trevithick in 1802. It was constructed for the Coalbrookdale ironworks in Shropshire in the United Kingdom though no record of it working there has survived. On 21 February 1804, the first recorded steam-hauled railway journey took place as another of Trevithick's locomotives hauled a train from the Pen-y-darren ironworks, in Merthyr Tydfil, to Abercynon in South Wales.
Accompanied by Andrew Vivian, it ran with mixed success. The design incorporated a number of important innovations including the use of high-pressure steam which reduced the weight of the engine and increased its efficiency. In 1812, Matthew Murray's twin-cylinder rack locomotive Salamanca first ran on the edge-railed rack-and-pinion Middleton Railway. Another well-known early locomotive was Puffing Billy, built 1813–14 by engineer William Hedley for the Wylam Colliery near Newcastle upon Tyne; this locomotive is the oldest preserved, is on static display in the Science Museum, London. George Stephenson built Locomotion No. 1 for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in the north-east of England, the first public steam railway in the world. In 1829, his son Robert built The Rocket in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Rocket was entered into, won, the Rainhill Trials; this success led to the company emerging as the pre-eminent early builder of steam locomotives used on railways in the UK, US and much of Europe.
The Liverpool and Manchester Railway, built by Stephenson, opened a year making exclusive use of steam power for passenger and goods trains. The steam locomotive remained by far the most common type of locomotive until after World War II. Steam locomotives are less efficient than modern diesel and electric locomotives, a larger workforce is required to operate and service them. British Rail figures showed that the cost of crewing and fuelling a steam locomotive was about two and a half times larger than the cost of supporting an equivalent diesel locomotive, the daily mileage they could run was lower. Between about 1950 and 1970, the majority of steam locomotives were retired from commercial service and replaced with electric and diesel-electric locomotives. While North America transitioned from steam during the 1950s, continental Europe by the 1970s, in other parts of the world, the transition happened later. Steam was a familiar technology that used widely-available fuels and in low-wage economies did not suffer as wide a cost disparity.
It continued to be used in many countries until the end of the 20th century. By the end of the 20th century the only steam power remaining in regular use around the world was on heritage railways. Internal combustion locomotives use an internal combustion engine, connected to the driving wheels by a transmission, they keep the engine running at a near-constant speed whether the locomotive is stationary or moving. Kerosene locomotives use kerosene as the fuel, they were the world's first oil locomotives, preceding diesel and other oil locomotives by some years. The first known kerosene locomotive was a draisine built by Daimler in 1887. A kerosene locomotive was built in 1894 by the Priestman Brothers of Kingston upon Hull for use on Hull docks; this locomotive was built using a 12 hp double-acting marine type engine, running at 300 rpm, mounted on a 4-wheel wagon chassis. It was only able to haul one loaded wagon at a time, due to its low power output, was not a great success; the first successful kerosene locomotive was "Lachesis" built by Richard Hornsby & Sons Ltd. and delivered to Woolwich Arsenal railway in 1896.
The company built a series of kerosene locomotives between 1896 and 1903, for use by the British military. Petrol locomotives use petrol as their fuel. Most petrol locomotives built were petrol-mechanical, using a mechanical transmission to deliver the power output of the engine t
A diesel–electric transmission, or diesel–electric powertrain, is used by a number of vehicle and ship types for providing locomotion. A diesel–electric transmission system includes a diesel engine connected to an electrical generator, creating electricity that powers electric traction motors. No clutch is required. Before diesel engines came into widespread use, a similar system, using a petrol engine and called petrol–electric or gas–electric, was sometimes used. Diesel–electric transmission is used on railways by diesel electric locomotives and diesel electric multiple units, as electric motors are able to supply full torque at 0 RPM. Diesel–electric systems are used in submarines and surface ships and some land vehicles. In some high-efficiency applications, electrical energy may be stored in rechargeable batteries, in which case these vehicles can be considered as a class of hybrid electric vehicle; the first diesel motorship was the first diesel–electric ship, the Russian tanker Vandal from Branobel, launched in 1903.
Steam turbine–electric propulsion has been in use since the 1920s, using diesel–electric powerplants in surface ships has increased lately. The Finnish coastal defence ships Ilmarinen and Väinämöinen laid down in 1928–1929, were among the first surface ships to use diesel–electric transmission; the technology was used in diesel powered icebreakers. In World War II the United States built diesel–electric surface warships. Due to machinery shortages destroyer escorts of the Evarts and Cannon classes were diesel–electric, with half their designed horsepower; the Wind-class icebreakers, on the other hand, were designed for diesel–electric propulsion because of its flexibility and resistance to damage. Some modern diesel–electric ships, including cruise ships and icebreakers, use electric motors in pods called azimuth thrusters underneath to allow for 360° rotation, making the ships far more maneuverable. An example of this is Symphony of the Seas, the largest passenger ship as of 2019. Gas turbines are used for electrical power generation and some ships use a combination: Queen Mary 2 has a set of diesel engines in the bottom of the ship plus two gas turbines mounted near the main funnel.
This provides a simple way to use the high-speed, low-torque output of a turbine to drive a low-speed propeller, without the need for excessive reduction gearing. Early submarines used a direct mechanical connection between the engine and propeller, switching between diesel engines for surface running and electric motors for submerged propulsion; this was a "parallel" type of hybrid, since the motor and engine were coupled to the same shaft. On the surface, the motor was used as a generator to recharge the batteries and supply other electric loads; the engine would be disconnected for submerged operation, with batteries powering the electric motor and supplying all other power as well. True diesel–electric transmissions for submarines were first proposed by the United States Navy's Bureau of Engineering in 1928—instead of driving the propeller directly while running on the surface, the submarine's diesel would instead drive a generator that could either charge the submarine's batteries or drive the electric motor.
This meant that motor speed was independent of the diesel engine's speed, the diesel could run at an optimum and non-critical speed, while one or more of the diesel engines could be shut down for maintenance while the submarine continued to run using battery power. The concept was pioneered in 1929 in the S-class submarines S-3, S-6, S-7 to test the concept; the first production submarines with this system were the Porpoise-class, it was used on most subsequent US diesel submarines through the 1960s. The only other navy to adopt the system before 1945 was the British Royal Navy in the U-class submarines, although some submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy used separate diesel generators for low-speed running. In a diesel–electric transmission arrangement, as used on 1930s and US Navy, German and other nations' diesel submarines, the propellers are driven directly or through reduction gears by an electric motor, while two or more diesel generators provide electric energy for charging the batteries and driving the electric motors.
This mechanically isolates the noisy engine compartment from the outer pressure hull and reduces the acoustic signature of the submarine when surfaced. Some nuclear submarines use a similar turbo-electric propulsion system, with propulsion turbo generators driven by reactor plant steam. During World War I, there was a strategic need for rail engines without plumes of smoke above them. Diesel technology was not yet sufficiently developed but a few precursor attempts were made for petrol–electric transmissions by the French and British. About 300 of these locomotives, only 96 being standard gauge, were in use at various points in the conflict. Before the war, the GE 57-ton gas-electric boxcab had been produced in the USA. In the 1920s, diesel–electric technology first saw limited use in switchers, locomotives used for moving trains around in railroad yards and assembling and disassembling them. An early company offering "Oil-Electric" locomotives was the American Locomotive Company; the ALCO HH series of diesel–electric switcher entered series production in 1931.
In the 1930s, the system was adapted for the fastest trains of their day. Diesel–electric powerplants became popular
On a steam locomotive, a driving wheel is a powered wheel, driven by the locomotive's pistons. On a conventional, non-articulated locomotive, the driving wheels are all coupled together with side rods. On diesel and electric locomotives, the driving wheels may be directly driven by the traction motors. Coupling rods are not used, it is quite common for each axle to have its own motor. Jackshaft drive and coupling rods were used in the past but their use is now confined to shunting locomotives. On an articulated locomotive or a duplex locomotive, driving wheels are grouped into sets which are linked together within the set. Driving wheels are larger than leading or trailing wheels. Since a conventional steam locomotive is directly driven, one of the few ways to'gear' a locomotive for a particular performance goal is to size the driving wheels appropriately. Freight locomotives had driving wheels between 40 and 60 inches in diameter; some long wheelbase locomotives were equipped with blind drivers.
These were driving wheels without the usual flanges, which allowed them to negotiate tighter curves without binding. The driving wheels on express passenger locomotives have come down in diameter over the years, e.g. from 8 ft 1 in on the GNR Stirling 4-2-2 of 1870 to 6 ft 2 in on the SR Merchant Navy Class of 1941. This is. On locomotives with side rods, including most steam and jackshaft locomotives, the driving wheels have weights to balance the weight of the coupling and connecting rods; the crescent-shaped balance weight is visible in the picture on the right. In the Whyte notation, driving wheels are designated by numbers in the set; the UIC classification system counts the number of axles rather than the number of wheels and driving wheels are designated by letters rather than numbers. The suffix'o' is used to indicate independently powered axles; the number of driving wheels on locomotives varied quite a bit. Some early locomotives had as few as two driving wheels; the largest number of total driving wheels was 24 on the 2-8-8-8-4 locomotives.
The largest number of coupled driving wheels was 14 on the ill-fated AA20 4-14-4 locomotive. The term driving wheel is sometimes used to denote the drive sprocket which moves the track on tracked vehicles such as tanks and bulldozers. Many American roots artists, such as The Byrds, Tom Rush, The Black Crowes and the Canadian band Cowboy Junkies have performed a song written by David Wiffen called "Driving Wheel", with the lyrics "I feel like some old engine/ That's lost my driving wheel."These lyrics are a reference to the traditional blues song "Broke Down Engine Blues" by Blind Willie McTell, 1931. It was directly covered by Bob Dylan and Johnny Winter. Many versions of the American folk song "In the Pines" performed by artists such as Leadbelly, Mark Lanegan, Nirvana reference a decapitated man's head found in a driving wheel. In addition, it is that Chuck Berry references the locomotive driving wheel in "Johnny B. Goode" when he sings, "the engineers would see him sitting in the shade / Strumming with the rhythm that the drivers made."
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 2-8-0 represents the wheel arrangement of two leading wheels on one axle in a leading truck, eight powered and coupled driving wheels on four axles and no trailing wheels. In the United States and elsewhere, this wheel arrangement is known as a Consolidation, after the Lehigh and Mahanoy Railroad’s Consolidation, the name of the first 2-8-0. Of all the locomotive types that were created and experimented with in the 19th century, the 2-8-0 was a relative latecomer; the first locomotive of this wheel arrangement was built by the Pennsylvania Railroad. Like the first 2-6-0s, this first 2-8-0 had a leading axle, rigidly attached to the locomotive's frame, rather than on a separate truck or bogie. To create this 2-8-0, PRR master mechanic John P. Laird modified an existing 0-8-0, the Bedford, between 1864 and 1865; the 2-6-0 Mogul type, first created in the early 1860s, is considered as the logical forerunner to the 2-8-0. However, a claim is made that the first true 2-8-0 engine evolved from the 0-8-0 and was ordered by the United States' Lehigh and Mahanoy Railroad, which named all its engines.
The name given to the new locomotive was Consolidation, the name, almost globally adopted for the type. According to this viewpoint, the first 2-8-0 order by Lehigh dates to 1866 and antedates the adoption of the type by other railways and coal and mountain freight haulers. From its introduction in 1866 and well into the early 20th century, the 2-8-0 design was considered to be the ultimate heavy-freight locomotive; the 2-8-0's forte was starting and moving "impressive loads at unimpressive speeds" and its versatility gave the type its longevity. The practical limit of the design was reached in 1915, when it was realised that no further development was possible with a locomotive of this wheel arrangement; as in the United States, the 2-8-0 was a popular type in Europe, again as a freight hauler. The type was used in Australia, New Zealand, Southern Africa; the 2-8-0 locomotive was used extensively throughout Australia. It served on the 5 ft 3 in broad gauge, 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in standard gauge and 3 ft 6 in narrow gauge and was employed as a freight locomotive, although it was also employed in passenger service in Victoria.
The first Australian locomotive class with this wheel arrangement consisted of 20 standard-gauge New South Wales Government Railways J Class engines, which arrived from Baldwin Locomotive Works in 1891. The Js remained in service in New South Wales until 1915. Wartime shortages between 1916 and 1920 had six engines re-entering service after being shopped and fitted with superheaters; the last engine of this class was withdrawn in 1934 and all were scrapped by 1937. The second batch of 2-8-0 locomotives to appear in Australia, between 1896 and 1916, was the NSWGR T class engines; the class was delivered from one local and several overseas builders, 151 locomotives from Beyer and Company, 84 from North British Locomotive Company, 10 from Neilson and Company, 30 from Clyde Engineering in Australia, five from Dübs and Company. During World War II, 14 of these locomotives were equipped with superheaters, which raised their tractive effort from 28,777 lbf to 33,557 lbf. From 1899, the Victorian Railways used a range of broad-gauge 2-8-0 locomotives.
The first of these locomotives were the Baldwin-built Victorian Railways V class. These engines were built at Phoenix Foundry in Victoria. By 1930, they had disappeared from the VR; the VR's next type was the 26 C class engines, which saw passenger service. In 1922, a smaller and lighter 2-8-0, the K class, was introduced for branchline freight and also passenger services; the VR introduced sixty light 2-8-0 J class engines in 1954. These worked both freight and passenger services; the first 2-8-0 engines in private service on the Midland Railway of Western Australia arrived in 1912. These were 3 ft 6 in gauge locomotives; the five in the class operated until 1958. All were gone by 1963. In 1912, some of the NSWGR T class types were purchased by the private East Greta Railway to become the South Maitland Railway, but these were converted to 2-8-2 tank locomotives; the class proved to be successful throughout its long service life, until being retired from government revenue service in 1973. During 1916, several of these same T class engines were purchased from NBL by the Commonwealth Railways for the Trans-Australian Railway.
In 1924, a private coal company, J&A Brown in NSW, obtained three ex-British military Railway Operating Division ROD 2-8-0 locomotives. Brown ordered another 10 of these locomotives, but only nine of that order arrived in Australia; the last was withdrawn in 1973. To compensate for wartime losses, Belgian railways acquired 300 2-8-0 locomotives in 1946, they were built in North America, 160 by Montreal Locomotive Works in Canada, 60 by the Canadian Locomotive Company, 80 by the American Locomotive Company in the United States. These machines proved to be reliable and were used for mixed traffic until the end of the steam era, when number 29.013 hauled the last scheduled steam passenger train from Ath to Denderleeuw on 20 December 1966. This locomotive is used on special excursions. On 16 December 2006, number 29.013 re-enacted the last 1966 run on the same route. The Canadian Pacific Railway N-2-a, b, c class locomotives were a class of altogether 182 Consolidation type locomotives, built by Montreal Locomotive Works between 1912 and 1914.
They were numbered in the range from 3600 to 3799 and were used everywhere around the sy
Swiss locomotive and railcar classification
For more than a century, the Swiss locomotive, multiple unit, motor coach and railcar classification system, in either its original or updated forms, has been used to name and classify the rolling stock operated on the railways of Switzerland. It started out as a uniform system for the classification and naming of all rolling stock and unpowered, but had been replaced and amended by the UIC classification of goods wagons; the Swiss classification system was created by the Swiss federal railways department, applied to the rolling stock of private railways, operating under government concessions. In 1902, when the Swiss Federal Railways was founded as a government railway, that new railway became bound by the system. Unlike the Whyte notation and AAR system, both of which are used to classify wheel arrangements, the UIC classification of locomotive axle arrangements, the Swiss system, in both its original and updated forms, takes into account a number of other variables, including track gauge, motive power type, maximum speed.
The Swiss system is less precise than those other systems in the way it deals with axles, because it refers only to numbers, rather than to arrangements, of powered axles, axles as a whole. The Swiss system is therefore more a method of classifying locomotive and railcar types and series than a method of classifying wheel or axle arrangements. Plus inn The classifications for which the Swiss system provides have always been adapted to fulfil new requirements; the last modification to the original system occurred in 1968, with the publication of the Directory of the Rolling Stock of the Swiss Private Railways by the Swiss Federal Agency for Transport. For carriages and wagons, the original system was progressively replaced from 1968 by the UIC international wagon classification system. However, all of Switzerland's powered rolling stock retained its Swiss type classification or class designation. In 1989, the Swiss Federal Railways introduced a new classification and numbering system, which combined the old series classification, build type number and vehicle number, but was used at its inception only for new vehicles.
The standard gauge private railways of Switzerland soon followed the example of the Swiss FedePlbug ral Railways, agreement was reached as to the allocation of number ranges. The narrow gauge railways have retained the old system for locomotives and passenger carriages, but there have been some minor individual additions to the old system. Here is a description of the classification system as it operated up to 1989, as it still operates in respect of narrow gauge private railway motive power. There is no provision for combining the codes A, B, C, D, E, G, R and T; the combination of H and G is possible. HG would therefore be a narrow gauge locomotive, with a mix of rack rail drive. However, the editions of the official list of rolling stock published up to 1939 defined HG as "Locomotive for adhesion and rack rail drive", classified the standard gauge RHB steam locomotives as HG 1/2. Since 1966, in respect of railcars and tractors, he or hm has meant pure rack rail drive, eh or mh has meant a mix of adhesion and rack rail drive.
Steam powered tank locomotives were always given an E, the maximum speed of the locomotive was designated with a lower case letter. Thus, an Ea 3/6 was a tank locomotive with vmax > 80 kilometres per hour, three coupled drive axles, three unpowered axles. With steam locomotives, separate driving mechanisms were displayed. So, for example, a Mallet locomotive was named G 2x2/2 or G 2/3+2/2, not G 4/4 or G 4/5. Up until 1920, standard gauge electric locomotives were given the letter F and a lower case letter for the maximum speed level; the class designated as Be 5/7 was therefore named Fb 5/7, the first Be 4/6 was still designated Fb 2x2/3 as at the date of its delivery. The designation R was intended for locomotives with an axle load of under 16 tonnes; these lightweight locomotives exert less stress on the rails when they negotiate curves, were therefore permitted to do so at higher speeds. With the introduction of the Re 4/4II, the axle load limit was dropped following extensive testing. Several locomotives were given approval for higher cornering speeds, to which their type designation had not yet been adapted.
With the advent of the ETR 470 Pendolino, the class designation N was introduced. Thanks to their tilt technology, these multiple unit trains have an higher cornering speed compared with designation R; the Swiss Federal Railways Tilt Train RABDe 500 achieves this norm, but the train itself was given the designation R. Technically, locomotives of the class R can operate to the standards of class N, but in practice the maximum cornering speeds are lower, to improve passenger comfort by reducing lateral forces; the additional letters designating traction type can occur in combination. Examples: Gea, Gmf One distinction: with pure rack rail vehicles, the letter h comes in first place after the capital letters. In a combined multiple unit train, the individual carriages of which cannot be uncoupled, all axles are taken into account, e.g. RABDe 8/16. An electric railcar with first class, second class, luggage compart
Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 4-8-0 represents the wheel arrangement of four leading wheels on two axles in a leading truck or bogie, eight powered and coupled driving wheels on four axles and no trailing wheels. In North America and in some other countries the type was known as the Mastodon and sometimes as the Twelve-wheeler; the first 4-8-0 locomotive is believed to have been the Centipede, a tender locomotive built by Ross Winans in 1855 for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad in the United States of America, where it remained in service for nearly twenty years. It appears to have been delivered in a cab-forward type of configuration, modified to a Camel configuration in 1864. On a Camel locomotive the cab was mounted atop the boiler, unlike the Camelback locomotive whose cab straddled the boiler and that first appeared around 1877; the name Mastodon for the 4-8-0 wheel arrangement was derived from the unofficial name of the first 4-8-0 locomotive of the Central Pacific Railroad in the United States, the wood-fired CPR no.
229, designed and built in 1882 by the railroad's master mechanic, Andrew Jackson Stevens, at the railroad’s Sacramento works in California. The 4-8-0 wheel arrangement saw service in Australia from 1900. In Tasmania, the owned Emu Bay Railway ordered four 4-8-0 tender locomotives for their 3 ft 6 in gauge system. In 1911, another locomotive was delivered from the North British Locomotive Company. Two of these locomotives are preserved. A new class of 4-8-0 locomotive, the T class, designed in South Australia for use on the narrow gauge 3 ft 6 in gauge system of the South Australian Railways, was introduced in 1903, it proved to be a suitable workhorse and by 1917 there were 78 locomotives in the class. In 1921 and 1922, the Tasmanian Government purchased six of these narrow gauge South Australian locomotives and, during 1922 and 1923, five of the class were converted to 1,600 mm gauge for use on the broad gauge system of the South Australian; these were converted back to narrow gauge in 1949.
During the Second World War, the Commonwealth Railways obtained four of these South Australian narrow gauge locomotives on loan. Several of these locomotives are preserved; the Queensland Government Railways introduced its C16 class of 4-8-0 locomotives in 1903, built at its Ipswich workshops. Altogether 152 of these locomotives were in service by 1917. Beginning in 1920, a number of the QGR C16 class locomotives were equipped with superheaters on an experimental basis, but since their slide valves were not suited to superheated steam and became prone to steam leaks due to excessive wear, they were soon converted back to use saturated steam. During the Second World War, the Commonwealth Government acquired eleven C16 class locomotives on loan. Only one example of this class was preserved; the QGR’s superheated C17 class entered service from 1920. The Commonwealth Railways ordered 22 locomotives of the same design for their narrow gauge rail system, designated the NM class. In total, the C17 class numbered 227 locomotives, of which twenty are preserved.
In 1922, the QGR designated them the C19 class. They were the largest conventional type locomotives to operate on the QGR. In Austria, the 4-8-0 wheel arrangement was used for express locomotives; the Class 570 locomotive was introduced in 1915 and the class 113 locomotive of the Austrian Federal Railways was introduced in 1923. From 1938, both classes were re-designated as Class 33 on the Deutsche Reichsbahn. In 1897, four Cape 7th Class 4-8-0 locomotives were ordered by the Cape Government Railways from Neilson and Company for use on the new Vryburg to Bulawayo line of the fledgling Bechuanaland Railway Company; the line through Bechuanaland Protectorate was still under construction and was operated by the CGR on behalf of the BR at the time. The locomotives were returned to the CGR and were designated Class 7A on the South African Railways in 1912. In France, the 4-8-0 wheel arrangement was used on two locomotive classes; the first was in 1907 by the Chemins de fer de Paris à Lyon et à la Méditerranée.
These locomotives were intended for goods trains, as well as passenger trains on the more difficult routes. They were Baudry type compound locomotives, similar to the De Glehn type, but with their low pressure cylinders set at 60% cut-off. All of them used saturated steam, but some were equipped with superheaters while all the others were provided with feedwater heaters; these locomotives had a maximum speed limit of 52.8 miles per hour and were designed to be able to haul 1,177 long tons at 22.4 miles per hour. A total of 282 were built; the PLM had prepared designs for another much larger 4-8-0 locomotive by 1913, but it did not materialise as a result of the outbreak of the First World War. The second 4-8-0 locomotive to appear in France was the famous 240P class of the Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer Français, with "240" in this instance referring to the French classification of wheel arrangement according to the number and arrangement of axles rather than wheels. Technically, these locomotives were developments of some of the earliest 4-6-2 Pacific locomotives in Europe that were built for the Chemin de Fer de Paris à Orléans.
The 240P class was considered to be one of André Chapelon's finest designs and benefited from his thorough understanding of thermodynamics and his appreciation of the need to consider the entirety of the steam circuit. The locomotive was a four-cylinder compound, fitted with Lentz-Dabeg poppet valves. Coupled with an elegant French style tender, the second batch of the 240P class was aestheticall