Aedes aegypti, the yellow fever mosquito, is a mosquito that can spread dengue fever, Zika fever and yellow fever viruses, other disease agents. The mosquito can be recognized by white markings on its legs and a marking in the form of a lyre on the upper surface of its thorax; this mosquito originated in Africa, but is now found in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world. Aedes aegypti is a vector for transmitting several tropical fevers. Only the female bites for blood. To find a host, these mosquitoes are attracted to chemical compounds emitted by mammals, including ammonia, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, octenol. Scientists at The United States Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service have studied the specific chemical structure of octenol to better understand why this chemical attracts the mosquito to its host, they found. The yellow fever mosquito can contribute to the spread of reticular cell sarcoma among Syrian hamsters; the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traveler's page on preventing dengue fever suggests using mosquito repellents that contain DEET.
It suggests: Although Aedes aegypti mosquitoes most feed at dusk and dawn, indoors, in shady areas, or when the weather is cloudy, "they can bite and spread infection all year long and at any time of day." Once a week, scrub off eggs sticking to wet containers, seal and/or discard them. The mosquitoes prefer to breed in areas of stagnant water, such as flower vases, uncovered barrels and discarded tires, but the most dangerous areas are wet shower floors and toilet tanks, as they allow the mosquitos to breed in the residence. Research has shown that certain chemicals emanating from bacteria in water containers stimulate the female mosquitoes to lay their eggs, they are motivated to lay eggs in water containers that have the correct amounts of specific fatty acids associated with bacteria involved in the degradation of leaves and other organic matter in water. The chemicals associated with the microbial stew are far more stimulating to discerning female mosquitoes than plain or filtered water in which the bacteria once lived.
Wear long-sleeved clothing and long trousers when outdoors during the day and evening. Use mosquito netting over the bed if the bedroom is not air conditioned or screened, for additional protection, treat the mosquito netting with the insecticide permethrin. Insect repellants containing DEET or p-menthane-3,8-diol were effective in repelling Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, while others were less effective or ineffective in a scientific study. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention article on "Protection against Mosquitoes, Ticks, & Other Arthropods" notes that "Studies suggest that concentrations of DEET above 50% do not offer a marked increase in protection time against mosquitoes. Mosquito control is the best method for disease prevention; this includes source reduction, pesticide spraying for larval control and "fogging" for adult control, or the use of mosquito traps like the lethal ovitrap. Although the lifespan of an adult Ae. aegypti is two to four weeks depending on conditions, the eggs can be viable for over a year in a dry state, which allows the mosquito to re-emerge after a cold winter or dry spell.
The preference for biting humans is dependent on expression of the odorant receptor AeegOr4. New research is looking into the use of a bacterium called Wolbachia as a method of biocontrol. Studies show that invasion of Ae. aegypti by the endosymbiotic bacteria allows mosquitos to be resistant to the certain arboviruses such as dengue fever and Zika virus strains circulating. The yellow fever mosquito's distribution has increased in the past two to three decades worldwide, it is considered to be among the most widespread mosquito species. Signs of Zika virus-capable mosquito populations have been found adapting for persistence in warm temperate climates; such a population has been identified to exist in parts of Washington, DC, genetic evidence suggests they survived at least the last four winters in the region. One of the study researchers noted, "...some mosquito species are finding ways to survive in restrictive environments by taking advantage of underground refugia". As the world's climate becomes predictably warmer, the range of Aedes aegypti and a hardier species originating in Asia, the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus, which can expand its range to cooler climates, will inexorably spread north and south.
Sadie Ryan of the University of Florida was the lead author in a 2019 study published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases that estimated the vulnerability of naïve populations in geographic regions that do not harbor vectors i.e. for Zika in the Old World. Ryan's co-author, Georgetown University's Colin Carlson remarked,"Plain and simple, climate change is going to kill a lot of people."New research has attempted to estimate the basic reproduction number, or R0 value, for Zika virus in several locations. Research looking at the Yap Island epidemic estimated an R0 of 4.3–5.8. R0 value estimates for the Colombia epidemic ranged from 3.0–6.6. Values for both locations were seen to be similar to those found for Chikungunya virus. Determining these values could help determine transmissibility, as well as how large an area would need to be vaccinated if/when a vaccine is developed, to acquire herd immunity. Ae. aegypti has been genetically modified to suppress its own species in an approach simil
The compound 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile, a cyanocarbon, is the defining component of a tear gas referred to as CS gas, used as a riot control agent. Exposure causes a burning sensation and tearing of the eyes to the extent that the subject cannot keep his or her eyes open, a burning irritation of the nose and throat mucous membranes causing profuse coughing, mucous nasal discharge and difficulty breathing incapacitating the subject. CS gas is an aerosol of a volatile solvent and 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile, a solid compound at room temperature. CS gas is accepted as being non-lethal, it was first synthesized by two Americans, Ben Corson and Roger Stoughton, at Middlebury College in 1928, the chemical's name is derived from the first letters of the scientists' surnames. CS was developed and tested secretly at Porton Down in Wiltshire, UK, in the 1950s and 1960s. CS was used first on animals subsequently on British Army servicemen volunteers. CS has less effect on animals due to "under-developed tear-ducts and protection by fur".
CS is synthesized by the reaction of 2-chlorobenzaldehyde and malononitrile via the Knoevenagel condensation: ClC6H4CHO + H2C2 → ClC6H4CHC2 + H2OThe reaction is catalysed with weak base like piperidine or pyridine. The production method has not changed since the substance was discovered by Corson and Stoughton. Other bases, solvent free methods and microwave promotion have been suggested to improve the production of the substance; the physiological properties had been discovered by the chemists first synthesising the compound in 1928: "Physiological Properties. Certain of these dinitriles have the effect of sneeze and tear gases, they are harmless when wet but to handle the dry powder is disastrous." As 2-chlorobenzalmalononitrile is a solid at room temperature, not a gas, a variety of techniques have been used to make this solid usable as an aerosol: Melted and sprayed in the molten form. Dissolved in organic solvent. CS2 dry powder. CS from thermal grenades by generation of hot gases. In the Waco Siege in the United States, CS was dissolved in the organic solvent dichloromethane.
The solution was dispersed as an aerosol via explosive force and when the volatile dichloromethane evaporated, CS crystals precipitated and formed a fine dispersion in the air. Many types of tear gas and other riot control agents have been produced with effects ranging from mild tearing of the eyes to immediate vomiting and prostration. CN and CS are the most used and known, but around 15 different types of tear gas have been developed worldwide, e.g. adamsite or bromoacetone, CNB, CNC. CS has become the most popular due to its strong effect; the effect of CS on a person will depend on whether it is packaged as a solution or used as an aerosol. The size of solution droplets and the size of the CS particulates after evaporation are factors determining its effect on the human body; the chemical reacts with moisture on the skin and in the eyes, causing a burning sensation and the immediate forceful and uncontrollable shutting of the eyes. Effects include tears streaming from the eyes, profuse coughing, exceptional nasal discharge, full of mucus, burning in the eyes, eyelids and throat areas, disorientation and restricted breathing.
It will burn the skin where sweaty and/or sunburned. In concentrated doses, it can induce severe coughing and vomiting. All of the immediate effects wear off within an hour, although the feeling of burning and irritated skin may persist for hours. Affected clothing will need to be washed several times or thrown away. People or objects contaminated with CS gas can cause secondary exposure to others, including healthcare professionals and police. In addition, repeated exposure may cause sensitisation. Although described as a non-lethal weapon for crowd control, studies have raised doubts about this classification. CS can cause severe pulmonary damage and can significantly damage the heart and liver. On 28 September 2000, Prof. Dr. Uwe Heinrich released a study commissioned by John C. Danforth, of the United States Office of Special Counsel, to investigate the use of CS by the FBI at the Branch Davidians' Mount Carmel compound, he said no human deaths had been reported, but concluded that the lethality of CS used would have been determined by two factors: whether gas masks were used and whether the occupants were trapped in a room.
He suggests that if no gas masks were used and the occupants were trapped "there is a distinct possibility that this kind of CS exposure can contribute to or cause lethal effects". At least one study has associated CS exposure with miscarriages; this is consistent with its reported clastogenic effect on mammalian cells. In Egypt, CS gas was reported to be the cause of death of several protesters in Mohamed Mahmoud Street near Tahrir square during the November 2011 protests; the solvent in which CS is dissolved, methyl isobutyl ketone, is classified as harmful by inhalation. Note: Anyone aiding a victim of CS gas exposure will suffer similar severe irritation. Source: Move to fresh air. If the wind is blowing, face the wind. Flap your arms and rub your hair in a breeze. Eyes must be wide
Simplified molecular-input line-entry system
The simplified molecular-input line-entry system is a specification in the form of a line notation for describing the structure of chemical species using short ASCII strings. SMILES strings can be imported by most molecule editors for conversion back into two-dimensional drawings or three-dimensional models of the molecules; the original SMILES specification was initiated in the 1980s. It has since been extended. In 2007, an open standard called. Other linear notations include the Wiswesser line notation, ROSDAL, SYBYL Line Notation; the original SMILES specification was initiated by David Weininger at the USEPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division Laboratory in Duluth in the 1980s. Acknowledged for their parts in the early development were "Gilman Veith and Rose Russo and Albert Leo and Corwin Hansch for supporting the work, Arthur Weininger and Jeremy Scofield for assistance in programming the system." The Environmental Protection Agency funded the initial project to develop SMILES. It has since been modified and extended by others, most notably by Daylight Chemical Information Systems.
In 2007, an open standard called "OpenSMILES" was developed by the Blue Obelisk open-source chemistry community. Other'linear' notations include the Wiswesser Line Notation, ROSDAL and SLN. In July 2006, the IUPAC introduced the InChI as a standard for formula representation. SMILES is considered to have the advantage of being more human-readable than InChI; the term SMILES refers to a line notation for encoding molecular structures and specific instances should be called SMILES strings. However, the term SMILES is commonly used to refer to both a single SMILES string and a number of SMILES strings; the terms "canonical" and "isomeric" can lead to some confusion when applied to SMILES. The terms are not mutually exclusive. A number of valid SMILES strings can be written for a molecule. For example, CCO, OCC and CC all specify the structure of ethanol. Algorithms have been developed to generate the same SMILES string for a given molecule; this SMILES is unique for each structure, although dependent on the canonicalization algorithm used to generate it, is termed the canonical SMILES.
These algorithms first convert the SMILES to an internal representation of the molecular structure. Various algorithms for generating canonical SMILES have been developed and include those by Daylight Chemical Information Systems, OpenEye Scientific Software, MEDIT, Chemical Computing Group, MolSoft LLC, the Chemistry Development Kit. A common application of canonical SMILES is indexing and ensuring uniqueness of molecules in a database; the original paper that described the CANGEN algorithm claimed to generate unique SMILES strings for graphs representing molecules, but the algorithm fails for a number of simple cases and cannot be considered a correct method for representing a graph canonically. There is no systematic comparison across commercial software to test if such flaws exist in those packages. SMILES notation allows the specification of configuration at tetrahedral centers, double bond geometry; these are structural features that cannot be specified by connectivity alone and SMILES which encode this information are termed isomeric SMILES.
A notable feature of these rules is. The term isomeric SMILES is applied to SMILES in which isotopes are specified. In terms of a graph-based computational procedure, SMILES is a string obtained by printing the symbol nodes encountered in a depth-first tree traversal of a chemical graph; the chemical graph is first trimmed to remove hydrogen atoms and cycles are broken to turn it into a spanning tree. Where cycles have been broken, numeric suffix labels are included to indicate the connected nodes. Parentheses are used to indicate points of branching on the tree; the resultant SMILES form depends on the choices: of the bonds chosen to break cycles, of the starting atom used for the depth-first traversal, of the order in which branches are listed when encountered. Atoms are represented by the standard abbreviation of the chemical elements, in square brackets, such as for gold. Brackets may be omitted in the common case of atoms which: are in the "organic subset" of B, C, N, O, P, S, F, Cl, Br, or I, have no formal charge, have the number of hydrogens attached implied by the SMILES valence model, are the normal isotopes, are not chiral centers.
All other elements must be enclosed in brackets, have charges and hydrogens shown explicitly. For instance, the SMILES for water may be written as either O or. Hydrogen may be written as a separate atom; when brackets are used, the symbol H is added if the atom in brackets is bonded to one or more hydrogen, followed by the number of hydrogen atoms if greater than 1 by the sign + for a positive charge or by - for a negative charge. For example, for ammonium. If there is more than one charge, it is written as digit.
Tear gas, formally known as a lachrymator agent or lachrymator, sometimes colloquially known as mace, is a chemical weapon that causes severe eye and respiratory pain, skin irritation and blindness. In the eye, it stimulates the nerves of the lacrimal gland to produce tears. Common lachrymators include pepper spray, PAVA spray, CS gas, CR gas, CN gas, xylyl bromide, syn-propanethial-S-oxide, Mace, household vinegar. Lachrymatory agents are used for riot control, their use in warfare is prohibited by various international treaties. During World War I toxic and deadly lachrymatory agents were used. Tear "gas" evaporated liquid compounds, not gas. Tear gas works by irritating mucous membranes in the eyes, nose and lungs, causes crying, coughing, difficulty breathing, pain in the eyes, temporary blindness. With CS gas, symptoms of irritation appear after 20–60 seconds of exposure and resolve within 30 minutes of leaving the area. With pepper spray, the onset of symptoms, including loss of motor control, is immediate.
There can be considerable variation in tolerance and response, according to the National Research Council Committee on Toxicology. The California Poison Control System analyzed 3,671 reports of pepper spray injuries between 2002 and 2011. Severe symptoms requiring medical evaluation were found in 6.8% of people, with the most severe injuries to the eyes, respiratory system and skin. The most severe injuries occurred in law enforcement training, intentionally incapacitating people, law enforcement. Lachrymators are thought to act by attacking sulfhydryl functional groups in enzymes. One of the most probable protein targets is the TRPA1 ion channel, expressed in sensory nerves of the eyes, nose and lungs; as with all non-lethal, or less-lethal weapons, there is some risk of serious permanent injury or death when tear gas is used. This includes risks from being hit by tear gas cartridges, which include severe bruising, loss of eyesight, skull fracture, death. A case of serious vascular injury from tear gas shells has been reported from Iran, with high rates of associated nerve injury and amputation, as well as instances of head injuries in young people.
While the medical consequences of the gases themselves are limited to minor skin inflammation, delayed complications are possible: people with pre-existing respiratory conditions such as asthma, who are at risk, are to need medical attention and may sometimes require hospitalization or ventilation support. Skin exposure to CS may induce allergic contact dermatitis; when people are hit at close range or are exposed, eye injuries involving scarring of the cornea can lead to a permanent loss in visual acuity. Frequent or high levels of exposure carry increased risks of respiratory illness. Reports of expired tear gas canisters picked up by protesters in Egypt led to theories that it could be more toxic, but Steve Wright of Leeds Metropolitan University said if enough time has elapsed that the chemicals have broken down inside the can it makes the canister less effective. However, a study carried out by Mónica Kräuter, a Venezuelan professor of Simón Bolívar University, collected thousands of tear gas canisters fired by Venezuelan authorities in 2014, showed that 72% of the tear gas used was expired and noted that expired tear gas "breaks down into cyanide oxide and nitrogens that are dangerous".
Use of tear gas in warfare is prohibited by various international treaties that most states have signed. Police and private self-defense use is not banned in the same manner. Armed forces can use tear gas for drills and for riot control. First used in 1914, xylyl bromide was a popular tearing agent since it was prepared; the US Chemical Warfare Service developed tear gas grenades for use in riot control in 1919. Certain lachrymatory agents are used by police to force compliance, most notably tear gas. In some countries, another common substance is mace; the self-defense weapon form of mace is based on pepper spray, comes in small spray cans, versions including CS are manufactured for police use. Xylyl bromide, CN and CS are the oldest of these agents, CS is the most used. CN has the most recorded toxicity. Tear gas exposure is a standard in Australia for military and prison officer training programs. Typical manufacturer warnings on tear gas cartridges state "Danger: Do not fire directly at person.
Severe injury or death may result." Such warnings are not respected, in some countries, disrespecting these warnings is routine. In the 2013 protests in Turkey, there were hundreds of injuries among protesters targeted with tear gas projectiles. Israeli soldiers have been documented by B'Tselem firing tear gas canisters at activists, some of which resulted in fatalities, though the Israel Defense Forces insist that they maintain a strict policy of only indirect firing. Amnesty International criticized the usage of tear gas by Venezuelan authorities noting canisters being fired directly at individuals, causing the death of at least one demonstrator, while being shot into residential buildings. However, tear gas guns do not have a manual setting to adjust the range of fire; the o
Russia the Russian Federation, is a transcontinental country in Eastern Europe and North Asia. At 17,125,200 square kilometres, Russia is by far or by a considerable margin the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, the ninth most populous, with about 146.77 million people as of 2019, including Crimea. About 77 % of the population live in the European part of the country. Russia's capital, Moscow, is one of the largest cities in the world and the second largest city in Europe. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Estonia, Latvia and Poland, Ukraine, Azerbaijan, China and North Korea, it shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U. S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. However, Russia recognises two more countries that border it, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, both of which are internationally recognized as parts of Georgia.
The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' disintegrated into a number of smaller states; the Grand Duchy of Moscow reunified the surrounding Russian principalities and achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had expanded through conquest and exploration to become the Russian Empire, the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state; the Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War.
The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Belarus, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Lithuania, it is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. Russia's economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2018. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally; the country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction.
Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Collective Security Treaty Organization and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union, along with Armenia, Belarus and Kyrgyzstan; the name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated by the East Slavs. However, this proper name became more prominent in the history, the country was called by its inhabitants "Русская Земля", which can be translated as "Russian Land" or "Land of Rus'". In order to distinguish this state from other states derived from it, it is denoted as Kievan Rus' by modern historiography.
The name Rus itself comes from the early medieval Rus' people, Swedish merchants and warriors who relocated from across the Baltic Sea and founded a state centered on Novgorod that became Kievan Rus. An old Latin version of the name Rus' was Ruthenia applied to the western and southern regions of Rus' that were adjacent to Catholic Europe; the current name of the country, Россия, comes from the Byzantine Greek designation of the Rus', Ρωσσία Rossía—spelled Ρωσία in Modern Greek. The standard way to refer to citizens of Russia is rossiyane in Russian. There are two Russian words which are commonly
An insect repellent is a substance applied to skin, clothing, or other surfaces which discourages insects from landing or climbing on that surface. Insect repellents help prevent and control the outbreak of insect-borne diseases such as malaria, Lyme disease, dengue fever, bubonic plague, river blindness and West Nile fever. Pest animals serving as vectors for disease include insects such as flea and mosquito; some insect repellents are insecticides, but most discourage insects and send them flying or crawling away. Any might kill at a massive dose without reprieve, but classification as an insecticide implies death at lower doses. Methyl anthranilate and other anthranilate-based insect repellents Benzaldehyde, for bees DEET Dimethyl carbate Dimethyl phthalate, not as common as it once was but still an active ingredient in commercial insect repellents Ethylhexanediol known as Rutgers 612 or "6-12 repellent," discontinued in the US in 1991 due to evidence of causing developmental defects in animals Icaridin known as picaridin, KBR 3023 Butopyronoxyl.
Used in a "6-2-2" mixture during the 1940s and 1950s before the commercial introduction of DEET Ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate Metofluthrin Permethrin is different in that it is a contact insecticide A more recent repellent being researched is SS220, shown to provide better protection than DEET Tricyclodecenyl allyl ether, a compound found in synthetic perfumes Beautyberry leaves Birch tree bark is traditionally made into tar. Combined with another oil at 1/2 dilution, it is applied to the skin for repelling mosquitos Bog Myrtle Catnip oil whose active compound is Nepetalactone Citronella oil Essential oil of the lemon eucalyptus and its active compound p-menthane-3,8-diol Neem oil Lemongrass Tea tree oil from the leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia Tobacco Synthetic repellents tend to be more effective and/or longer lasting than "natural" repellents. For protection against mosquito bites, the U. S. Centers for Disease Control recommends DEET, oil of lemon eucalyptus, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate and 2-undecanone with the caveat that higher percentages of the active ingredient provide longer protection.
In 2015, Researchers at New Mexico State University tested 10 commercially available products for their effectiveness at repelling mosquitoes. On the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the vector of Zika virus, only one repellent that did not contain DEET had a strong effect for the duration of the 240 minutes test: a lemon eucalyptus oil repellent. All DEET-containing mosquito repellents were active. In one comparative study from 2004, ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate was as effective or better than DEET in protection against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes. Other sources (official publications of the associations of German physicians as well as of German druggists suggest the contrary and state DEET is still the most efficient substance available and the substance of choice for stays in malaria regions, while ethyl butylacetylaminopropionate has little effect. However, some plant-based repellents may provide effective relief as well. Essential oil repellents can be short-lived in their effectiveness, since essential oils can evaporate completely.
A test of various insect repellents by an independent consumer organization found that repellents containing DEET or picaridin are more effective than repellents with "natural" active ingredients. All the synthetics gave 100% repellency for the first 2 hours, where the natural repellent products were most effective for the first 30 to 60 minutes, required reapplication to be effective over several hours. Permethrin is recommended as protection against mosquitoes for gear, or bed nets. In an earlier report, the CDC found oil of lemon eucalyptus to be more effective than other plant-based treatments, with a similar effectiveness to low concentrations of DEET. However, a 2006 published study found in both cage and field studies that a product containing 40% oil of lemon eucalyptus was just as effective as products containing high concentrations of DEET. Research has found that neem oil is mosquito repellent for up to 12 hours. Citronella oil's mosquito repellency has been verified by research, including effectiveness in repelling Aedes aegypti, but requires reapplication after 30 to 60 minutes.
There are products available based on sound production ultrasound which purport to be insect repellents. However, these electronic devices have been shown to be ineffective based on studies done by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and many universities. Regarding safety with insect repellent use on children and pregnant women: Children may be at greater risk for adverse reactions to repellents, in part, because their exposure may be greater. Keep repellents out of the reach of children. Do not allow children to apply repellents to themselves. Use only small amounts of repellent on children. Do not apply repellents to the hands of young children because this may result in accidental eye contact or ingestion. Try to reduce the use of repellents by dressing children in long sleeves and long trousers tucked into boots or socks whenever possible. Use netting over strollers, etc; as with chemical exposures in general, pregnant
The Jmol applet, among other abilities, offers an alternative to the Chime plug-in, no longer under active development. While Jmol has many features that Chime lacks, it does not claim to reproduce all Chime functions, most notably, the Sculpt mode. Chime requires plug-in installation and Internet Explorer 6.0 or Firefox 2.0 on Microsoft Windows, or Netscape Communicator 4.8 on Mac OS 9. Jmol operates on a wide variety of platforms. For example, Jmol is functional in Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Google Chrome, Safari. Chemistry Development Kit Comparison of software for molecular mechanics modeling Jmol extension for MediaWiki List of molecular graphics systems Molecular graphics Molecule editor Proteopedia PyMOL SAMSON Official website Wiki with listings of websites and moodles Willighagen, Egon. "Fast and Scriptable Molecular Graphics in Web Browsers without Java3D". Doi:10.1038/npre.2007.50.1