40 Harmonia

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40 Harmonia
40Harmonia (Lightcurve Inversion).png
A three-dimensional model of 40 Harmonia based on its light curve
Discovered by H. Goldschmidt
Discovery date March 31, 1856
MPC designation (40) Harmonia
Named after
1950 XU
Main belt
Orbital characteristics[1]
Epoch December 31, 2006 (JD 2454100.5)
Aphelion 355.021 Gm (2.373 AU)
Perihelion 323.537 Gm (2.163 AU)
339.279 Gm (2.268 AU)
Eccentricity 0.046
1,247.514 d (3.42 a)
Inclination 4.256°
Physical characteristics
Dimensions 107.6 km
Mass ~1.3×1018 kg
0.3712 d (8.909 h)[2]
9.31 (brightest)

40 Harmonia /hɑːrˈmniə/ is a large main-belt asteroid. It was discovered by German-French astronomer Hermann Goldschmidt on March 31, 1856,[4] and named after Harmonia, the Greek goddess of harmony. The name was chosen to mark the end of the Crimean War.

The spectrum of 40 Harmonia matches an S-type in the Tholen classification system, and is similar to primitive achondrite meteorites.[5]

Photometric observations at the Organ Mesa Observatory in Las Cruces, New Mexico during 2008–09 were used to generate a light curve that showed four unequal minima and maxima per cycle. The curve shows a period of 8.909 ± 0.001 hours with a brightness variation of 0.28 ± 0.02 in magnitude. This result is compatible with previous studies.[2]

Speckle interferometric observations carried out with the Nicholas U. Mayall Telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory during 1982–84 failed to discover a satellite companion.[6] In 1988 a search for satellites or dust orbiting this asteroid was performed using the UH88 telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatories, but the effort came up empty.[7]


  1. ^ Yeomans, Donald K., "40 Harmonia", JPL Small-Body Database Browser, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  2. ^ a b Pilcher, Frederick (October 2009), "New Lightcurves of 8 Flora, 13 Egeria, 14 Irene, 25 Phocaea 40 Harmonia, 74 Galatea, and 122 Gerda", The Minor Planet Bulletin, 36 (4), pp. 133–136, Bibcode:2009MPBu...36..133P. 
  3. ^ Asteroid Data Archive, Planetary Science Institute, archived from the original on 2006-06-23, retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  4. ^ "Numbered Minor Planets 1–5000", Discovery Circumstances, IAU Minor Planet center, retrieved 2013-04-07. 
  5. ^ Hiroi, T.; et al. (March 1993), "Modeling of S-type asteroid spectra using primitive achondrites and iron meteorites", Icarus, 102 (1), pp. 107–116, Bibcode:1993Icar..102..107H, doi:10.1006/icar.1993.1036. 
  6. ^ Roberts, Lewis C., Jr.; et al. (November 1995), "A Speckle Interferometric Survey for Asteroid Duplicity", Astronomical Journal, 110, pp. 2463–2468, Bibcode:1995AJ....110.2463R, doi:10.1086/117704. 
  7. ^ Gradie, J.; Flynn, L. (March 1988), "A Search for Satellites and Dust Belts Around Asteroids: Negative Results", Abstracts of the Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, 19, pp. 405–406, Bibcode:1988LPI....19..405G. 

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