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40th (the 2nd Somersetshire) Regiment of Foot

The 40th Regiment of Foot was an infantry regiment of the British Army, raised in 1717 in Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia. Under the Childers Reforms it amalgamated with the 82nd Regiment of Foot to form the Prince of Wales's Volunteers in 1881; the regiment was raised at Annapolis Royal in Nova Scotia by General Richard Philipps as the Richard Philipps's Regiment of Foot in August 1717 out of independent companies stationed in North America and the West Indies. Prior to Father Rale's War, the Mi'kmaq resisted the establishment of a British fort at Canso, Nova Scotia by raiding the fishing station in 1720. Phillips sent a company of the 40th, under the command Major Lawrence Armstrong, to take up garrison of a small fort in Canso built by the New England fishermen; the Mi'kmaq continued preying on shipping, forcing the garrison to take action in February 1723. Serving as marines, the troops and local fishermen were able to disperse the marauding Indians; the next engagement came in July 1724. The garrison responded with a poorly calculated sortie from the town's dilapidated fort, resulting in the death of a sergeant and private, the wounding of an officer and three privates, the repulse of the troops.

After some pillaging, the Mi'kmaq departed with a number of civilian prisoners. From 1717 to 1743, Phillips' Regiment, garrisoning Annapolis and Canso, was successful in protecting settlers from Indian attacks, checking French influence in the area, preserving the British foothold in Atlantic Canada. At the outbreak of King George's War, the French at Louisbourg engaged in the Raid on Canso in May 1744. A flotilla containing 900 French regulars and militia; the four poorly supplied. The town was destroyed and the prisoners sent to Louisbourg. Once the regiment's officers and men were paroled in September 1744, the regiment was evacuated to Boston where they provided valuable information on the defences of Louisbourg for the British siege the following year. Governor Shirley was having difficulty raising troops requested by Mascarene and therefore he ordered the ex-Canso garrison to Annapolis Royal; the Newfoundland Campaign started during August 1744. Captain Robert Young, of the 44-gun ship Kinsale, lying in St. John's, received intelligence that five French ships were in the port of Fishotte and resolved on despatching an armed prize to attack them.

The prize was named the St. Philip, was manned by eighty men of the Kinsale's crew, commanded by one of her lieutenants, accompanied by three 10-gun colonial privateers; the St. Philip succeeded, after grounding several times, in reaching the Moderate, of twelve guns and seventy-five men, boarded and carried; the St. Philip had ten killed, thirty wounded; the loss on board the French ships was more severe. The five vessels, which had on board 18,000 quintals of fish and eighty tons of oil, mounted together sixty-six guns, carried 342 men. In July 1744, three hundred Indians under command of a French priest named Le Loutre attacked Annapolis, the only British garrison in Nova Scotia. Only eighty men of Phillips' Regiment were available to meet this threat, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Paul Mascarene. Mascarene refused to surrender to Le Loutre. Le Loutre's party burned a number of houses and withdrew. Following this, George II authorized the reorganization of the regiment which increased to six regiments the garrison at Annapolis, with an authorized complement of 450.

Only seventy additional men were received. Recruitment efforts continued and Governor Shirley sent 206 recruits in February 1746. Despite the additional manpower the regiment remained under strength, it was at this time that Captain John Winslow first took command of a Philipp's regiment at Annapolis Royal, after being transferred from Newfoundland. In September the enemy, this time three hundred regulars and militia with Indian support, reappeared outside the dilapidated earthworks of Annapolis Royal. After a four-week siege and lacking a train of artillery, the French withdrew from the defiant garrison. A force of six hundred French and Indians again attempted to take Annapolis in May 1745; this demonstration ended with the French and Mi'kmaq being ordered back to help defend Louisbourg from the British. The only other action seen by Phillips' Regiment occurred. A detachment from the garrison at St. John's, Newfoundland volunteered to serve on a captured twenty-gun ship for an expedition with three privateers to Fishotte Bay.

The prize engaged a number of anchored French ships. After five hours of fighting and the loss of ten killed and thirty wounded, the ship had captured three fourteen-gun and two twelve-gun enemy ships; the lagging privateers entered the harbour and assisted in the destruction of French fishing stages and the removal of enemy ships and prisoners. By the end of the war Phillips' Regiment, after defending Britain's foothold in Nova Scotia with a skeleton complement, had its establishment raised to seventy men for each company. Men were impressed in England for service in the regiment. Between 1746 and 1748 the regiment contented itself with garrison duty at Annapolis and St. John's. With a continuing problem of finding recruits in Britain for the Philipp's regiment George II took the unusual step of allowing recruitment from the c

Uganda at the 2019 African Games

Uganda competed at the 2019 African Games held from 19 to 31 August 2019 in Rabat, Morocco. 77 athletes were scheduled to represent Uganda. This rose to 78 athletes. Athletes representing Uganda won two silver medals and eight bronze medals and the country finished in 28th place in the medal table. Uganda competed in 3x3 basketball; the women's team reached the quarterfinals in the women's tournament. Jacent Nyamahunge competed in the women's 100 metres event, she finished in 13th place in the semifinals. She competed in the women's 200 metres event where she finished in 15th place in the semifinals. Emily Nanziri competed in the women's 200 metres event. Leni Shida competed in the women's 400 metres event, she finished in 6th place in the final. Halimah Nakaayi won the bronze medal in the women's 800 metres event. Esther Chebet finished in 5th place in the women's 1500 metres event. Sarah Chelangat and Stella Chesang competed in the women's 5000 metres event and they finished in 4th and 7th place respectively.

Chesang was scheduled to compete in the women's 10,000 metres event but she did not start. Rachael Zena Chebet did compete in that event and she finished in 7th place. In the women's 4 × 400 metres relay the bronze medal was won by Stella Wonruku, Nasiba Nabirye, Emily Nanziri and Leni Shida. One athlete represented Uganda in the women's half marathon: Linet Toroitich Chebet, she finished in 9th place. Two athletes represented Uganda in the women's javelin throw event: Josephine Joyce Lalam and Lucy Aber, they finished in 9th place respectively. Uganda competed in badminton. Six players represented Uganda in this discipline: Brian Kasirye, Devis Senono, Daniel Mihigo, Aisha Nakiyemba, Gladys Mbabazi and Mable NamakoyeGladys Mbabazi and Aisha Nakiyemba won the bronze medal in the women's doubles event. Uganda competed in boxing. Six men and two women were scheduled to represent Uganda in boxing: Musa Shadir Bwogi, Champion Busingye, Isaac Masembe, Joshua Tukamuhebwa, David Kavuma Ssemujju, Solomon Geko, Hellen Baleke and Jalia Nalia.

In total two silver medals and one bronze medal were won in boxing. Uganda is scheduled to compete in chess. Two chess players are scheduled to compete Harold Wanyama. Wanyama won the country a bronze medal during the Men's rapid individual event. Uganda competed in cycling. No cyclists won a medal. Uganda women's national handball team competed in the women's tournament and they reached the quarterfinals where they were eliminated by the Angola women's team. Two athletes represented Uganda in swimming. MenWomen Amina Lukaaya, Eddy Omongole, Rita Nakhumitsa and Ludia Magandlen Natunga competed in table tennis. Uganda entered two tennis players into the African Games. Men Uganda competed in weightlifting. Four athletes were scheduled to compete: Davis Niyoyita, Julius Ssekitoleko, Hakim Musoke Ssempereza and Zubairi Kubo. Zubairi Kubo won the bronze medals in all three men's 96kg events

Barmouth Junction and Arthog Tramway

The Barmouth Junction and Arthog Tramway operated a 3 ft narrow gauge tramway service in Arthog between 1899 and 1903. The tramway was built by Solomon Andrews in 1899 as part of his scheme to develop Arthog as a holiday resort, it used the routes of previous tramways, constructed from the 1860s as part of quarrying operations. Construction of the tramway began in 1899 with a route from the Arthog side to Vegla Island, it was used to carry materials for building roads and houses The tram road opened to the public in June 1903 with services operating daily Initially a success Solomon Andrews started work on another tramroad, to run from the entrance of Barmouth Bridge over the sands along the embankment which runs along the railway to the waterfalls above Tyddyn Sheffri. The tramway connected Mawddach Crescent to Barmouth Junction railway station and other lines were built to local quarries to provide building material for the terraces of houses built as part of the holiday resort project; the project failed and after one or two seasons and the tramway was closed, never to re-open.

The single passenger car was transferred to the Pwllheli and Llanbedrog Tramway

Bert Lacey

Robert Herbert "Bert" Lacey was an Australian politician. Born in Maryborough, Victoria, he was educated at state schools and at Wendouree Agricultural College in Ballarat, he became a construction worker, bush worker and miner, served in the military in 1918. Having moved to Tasmania, he was an organiser of the state's Australian Workers' Union 1938–1946 and Secretary of the Tasmanian Labor Party 1947–1965. In January 1959, he was elected in a countback as Labor member for Denison in the Tasmanian House of Assembly, replacing Alfred White, appointed Agent-General in London; the parliament was prorogued before Lacey took his seat in the chamber, he was defeated at the state election in May that year. In 1964, Lacey was elected to the Australian Senate as a Labor Senator for Tasmania, he held the seat until his defeat in 1970 by independent Michael Townley. Lacey died in 1984

Alfred Leo Smith

Alfred Leo Smith known as Al Smith, was a Klamath Nation drug and alcohol counselor and Native American activist from Oregon. Smith was born on November 1919 in Modoc Point, Oregon, he spent his early childhood on the Williamson River. At age seven, Smith was sent to a nearby Catholic boarding school at the insistence of local Indian agents, he was sent to a mix of catholic schools and Bureau of Indian Affairs schools, as far away as Beaverton and Stewart Indian School in Nevada. After leaving Chemawa Indian School, he began to live in Portland, Oregon as an alcoholic panhandler, he was sent to federal prison for drinking on duty. He survived a bout of tuberculosis, experienced the 1942 death of his sister and 1950 death of his mother; the United States Congress voted to terminate the Klamath Nation in 1954, striking another blow against Smith. In 1957, Smith became sober with the help of an Alcoholics Anonymous program celebrating 56 years of sobriety, he became interested in Native recovery through culturally relevant practices and indigenous spirituality.

Smith began working for the Portland Alcoholism Counseling and Recovery Program, helping alcoholics in a community he knew well. In 1972, the Bureau of Indian Affairs hired Smith to set up a number of tribal treatment programs across the United States, he worked in the Klamath Basin on drug and alcohol recovery issues, where he was able to reconnect with his heritage and culture. In 1972, Al Smith began to work at Sweathouse Lodge, part of the Chicano-Indian Study Center of Oregon founded on the site of Camp Adair, his position as treatment coordinator allowed him to combine AA principles with traditional Native spiritual practices the daily sweat lodge ceremony. In 1982, Smith began working at a nonprofit Alcohol counseling program in Roseburg, Oregon. After his colleague Galen Black was fired for ingesting peyote, Smith indignantly attended a ceremony of the Native American Church, declaring "You can't tell me that I can't go to church!". Smith was fired for using peyote as part of the ceremony.

At the time, intentional possession of peyote was a crime under Oregon law without an affirmative defense for religious use. The counselors filed a claim for unemployment compensation with the state, but the claim was denied because the reason for their dismissal was deemed work-related "misconduct." The Oregon Court of Appeals reversed that ruling, holding that denying them unemployment benefits for their religious use of peyote violated their right to exercise their religion. The Oregon Supreme Court agreed, although it relied not on the fact that peyote use was a crime but on the fact that the state's justification for withholding the benefits—preserving the "financial integrity" of the workers' compensation fund—was outweighed by the burden imposed on the employees' exercise of their religion; the state appealed to the U. S. Supreme Court, again arguing that denying the unemployment benefits was proper because possession of peyote was a crime; the U. S. Supreme Court let stand the Oregon Supreme Court's judgment against the two employees and returned the case to the Oregon courts to determine whether or not sacramental use of illegal drugs violated Oregon's state drug laws.

Writing for the majority, Antonin Scalia declared that the free exercise of religion did not protect minority religions from "neutral applicable laws." Scalia believed that "...eaving accommodation to the political process will place at a relative disadvantage those religious practices that are not engaged in, but that unavoidable consequence of democratic government must be preferred to a system in which each conscience is a law unto itself or in which judges weigh the social importance of all laws against the centrality of all religious beliefs."

Typhoon Koppu

Typhoon Koppu, known in the Philippines as Typhoon Lando, was a powerful and devastating tropical cyclone that struck Luzon in October 2015. It was the fifteenth typhoon of the annual typhoon season. Similar to Goni earlier in the year, Koppu originated from a tropical disturbance east of the Mariana Islands on October 10. Moving briskly west, the system consolidated into a tropical depression the following day and further into a tropical storm on October 13. Situated over the warm waters of the Philippine Sea, Koppu deepened; the storm reached its peak intensity on October 17 with ten-minute sustained winds of 185 km/h according to the Japan Meteorological Agency. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center assessed Koppu to have been a Category 4-equivalent super typhoon with one-minute sustained winds of 240 km/h; the storm subsequently made landfall at this strength near Philippines. Rapid weakening ensued due to interaction with the mountainous terrain of Luzon and the disheveled core of Koppu emerged over the West Philippine Sea on October 19.

Unfavorable environmental conditions inhibited reorganization and the system diminished to a tropical depression on October 21. Prior to Koppu's landfall, PAGASA raised Public Storm Warning Signals for numerous provinces; the storm caused tremendous structural damage in coastal provinces, with thousands of structures damaged or destroyed. Prolonged, heavy rains—peaking at 1,077.8 mm in Baguio—exacerbated the storm's effects and resulted in widespread flooding. 62 people were killed across the country and more than 100,000 others were displaced. Preliminary damage totals amount to ₱14.4 billion. A tropical disturbance formed over Enewetak Atoll. One day the Japan Meteorological Agency upgraded the low-pressure area to a tropical depression, yet the low-level circulation center was exposed owing to strong vertical wind shear. On October 12, as the system kept consolidating with convection sheared to the west, the Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert; the JTWC upgraded the system to a tropical depression early on October 13, although fragmented convective bands were wrapping tighter into a broad LLCC which remained exposed.

At noon, tracking westward along the southern periphery of the deep-layered subtropical ridge, the system intensified into a tropical storm and was named Koppu by the JMA. Early on October 14, the storm entered the Philippine Area of Responsibility and received the name Lando from PAGASA, deepened convection obscured the LLCC late on the same day, shortly before being upgraded to a severe tropical storm by the JMA. Under a favorable environment of low vertical wind shear and radial outflow, Koppu deepened and intensified into a typhoon in the afternoon of October 15, when a tightly-curved convective band was wrapping into an eye revealed by a microwave imagery. Intensification slowed down until an apparent but ragged eye formed one day as sea surface temperature was over 31 °C in the Philippine Sea; the 35 km eye became sharper on October 17, prompting the JTWC upgrading Koppu to a super typhoon with one-minute maximum sustained winds at 240 km/h in the afternoon, equivalent to Category 4 of the Saffir–Simpson hurricane wind scale.

Around 01:00 PHT on October 18, Koppu made landfall over Aurora in the Philippines. Frictional effects from land interaction with Luzon started to erode the typhoon after landfall, despite excellent dual outflow channels. Before noon or in the afternoon on October 18, Koppu emerged into the South China Sea as a disorganized system which had begun to encounter with stronger easterly vertical wind shear. Tracking northward slowly along the western periphery of an extension of the deep-layered subtropical ridge to the east-northeast, the proximity to Luzon was inhibiting the system from consolidating, leading the JMA to downgrade Koppu to a severe tropical storm when main convection had been sheared to the west early on October 19. Both the JTWC and the JMA downgraded the unorganized system with a ragged LLCC to a tropical storm in the afternoon. Continuing hugging the coast of Luzon on October 20, Koppu drifted northeastward and east-northeastward due to embedded within a weak complex steering environment with a near-equatorial ridge to the south and an induced ridge between Typhoon Champi and Koppu.

PAGASA began issuing Public Storm Warning Signals for the Philippines starting on October 15, at which time Koppu was situated 755 km east of Baler, Aurora. The advised areas were concentrated around east-central Luzon; as the typhoon intensified, the PSWS levels were expanded. At 09:00 UTC on October 17, PSWS #4—the second-highest level—was issued for Aurora Province as winds of 171 to 220 km/h were anticipated in the province within 12 hours. Following the storm's landfall, PSWS were lowered over the subsequent several days. Nearly 24,000 people evacuated ahead of the typhoon's arrival while numerous schools and government offices closed. A total of 88 flights were canceled. Powerful winds caused widesp