Blagoveshchensk is a city and the administrative center of Amur Oblast, located at the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers, opposite to the Chinese city of Heihe. Population: 214,390 ; the Amur has formed Russia's border with China since the 1858 Aigun Treaty and 1860 Treaty of Peking. The area north of the Amur belonged to the Manchu Qing dynasty by the Treaty of Nerchinsk of 1689, until it was ceded to Russia by Aigun Treaty in 1858; the early residents of both sides of the Amur in the region of today's Blagoveshchensk were the Daurs and Duchers. An early settlement in the area of today's Blagoveshchensk was the Ducher town whose name was reported by the Russian explorer Yerofey Khabarov as Aytyun in 1652; the Grodekovo site is thought by archaeologists to have been populated since ca. 1000 CE. As the Russians tried to assert their control over the region, the Ducher town was vacated when the Duchers were evacuated by the Qing to the Sungari or Hurka in the mid-1650s. Since 1673, the Chinese re-used the site for their fort, which served in 1683-1685 as a base for the Manchus' campaign against the Russian fort of Albazin further north.
After the capture of Albazin in 1685 or 1686, the Chinese relocated their town, to a new site on the right bank of the Amur, about 3 miles downstream from the original site. The series of conflicts between Russians and China ended with Russia's recognition of the Chinese sovereignty over both sides of the Amur by the Nerchinsk Treaty of 1689; as the balance of power in the region has changed by the mid-19th century, the Russian Empire was able to take over the left shore of the Amur from China. Since the 1858 Aigun Treaty and the 1860 Treaty of Peking, the river has remained the border between the countries, although the Qing subjects were allowed to continue to live in the so-called Sixty-Four Villages east of the Amur and the Zeya. Although Russian settlers had lived in the area as early as 1644 as "Hailanpao", the present-day city began in 1856 as the military outpost of Ust-Zeysky. Tsar Alexander II gave approval for the founding of the city in 1858, to be named Blagoveshchensk means "the city of good news", after the parish Church of the Annunciation and declared to be seat of government for the Amur region.
According to Blagoveshchensk authorities, by 1877 the city had some 8,000 residents, with 15 foreigners among them. The city was an important river port and trade center during the late 19th century, with growth further fueled by a gold rush early in the 20th century and by its position on the Chinese border, just hundreds of meters across from the city of Heihe. Local historian note the preeminence of Blagoveshchensk in the economy of the late 19th century Russian Far East, reflected by a "small detail": When the heir to Russian throne, HIH Nicholas Alexandrovich visited in 1891 during his grand tour of Asia, the locals presented him with bread and salt on a gold tray, rather than on a silver one, as it was done in other cities of the region. In the course of the Boxer Rebellion, the Qing Imperial army and Boxer insurgents shelled the city in July 1900. Chinese Honghuzi forces joined the attack against Blagoveshchensk. According to the Orthodox belief, the city was saved by a miraculous icon of Our Lady of Albazin, prayed to continuously during the shelling which lasted two weeks.
On July 3, a decision was made by the city's Police Chief Batarevich and the Military Governor Gribsky to deport the city's entire ethnic Chinese community, viewed as potential "fifth columnists". As the cross-river shipping was interrupted by the rebellion, a question arose how to get them from the Russian side of the Amur to the Chinese side. Batarevich suggested that the deportees could be first taken east of the Zeya, where they could try to obtain boats from the local Chinese villagers; the plan, was vetoed by the governor, the decision was made instead to take the deportees to the stanitsa of Verkhneblagoveshchenskaya—the place where the Amur is at its narrowest—and made them leave the Russian shore. As the local ataman refused to provide the deportees with boats to take them across the river, few of them made it to the Chinese side; the rest drowned in the Amur, or were shot or axed by the police and local volunteers, when refusing to leave the dry land. According to Chinese sources, about 5,000 people died during these events of July 4–8, 1900.
The expulsion of local Chinese caused some hardships for Blagoveshchensk consumers. Historians note that during the second half of 1900, it became impossible to buy any green vegetables in town; the massacre angered the Chinese, had ramifications for the future: the Chinese Honghuzi fought a guerilla war against Russian occupation and assisted th
4th Army (Wehrmacht)
The 4th Army was a field army of the Wehrmacht during World War II. The 4th Army was activated on 1 August 1939 with General Günther von Kluge in command, it took part in the Invasion of Poland of September 1939 as part of Army Group North, under Field Marshal Feodor von Bock. The 4th Army contained the II Corps and III Corps, each with two infantry divisions, the XIX Corps with two motorized and one panzer divisions, three other divisions, including two in reserve, its objective was to capture the Polish Corridor. During the attack on the Low Countries and France, the 4th Army, as part of Field Marshal Gerd von Rundstedt's Army Group A, invaded Belgium from the Rhineland. Along with other German armies, the 4th Army penetrated the Dyle Line and completed the trapping of the Allied forces in France; the Major-General Erwin Rommel, under Kluge, contributed immensely to his victories. Kluge, General of the Artillery, was promoted to Field Marshal along with many others on 19 July 1940; the 4th Army took part in Operation Barbarossa in 1941 as part of Fedor von Bock's Army Group Center and took part in the Battle of Minsk and the Battle of Smolensk.
In the aftermath of the German failure in the Battle of Moscow, Fedor von Bock was relieved of his command of Army Group Center on 18 December. Kluge was promoted to replace him. General Ludwig Kübler assumed command of the 4th Army. After the launching of Operation Blue, the 4th Army and the entire Army Group Center did not see much action, as troops were concentrated to the south. From 1943 on, the 4th Army was in retreat along with other formations of Army Group Center; the Red Army's campaign of autumn 1943, Operation Suvorov, saw the 4th Army pushed back towards Orsha. Between October and the first week of December, Western Front had tried four times to take Orsha and had been beaten off in furious battles by Fourth Army. In 1944, the 4th Army was holding defensive positions east of Orsha and Mogilev in the Belorussian SSR, occupying a bulging, 25- by 80-mile bridgehead east of the Dnepr; the Soviet summer offensive of that year, Operation Bagration, commencing on 22 June, proved disastrous for the Wehrmacht, including the 4th Army.
It lost 130,000 men in 12 days since the start of Bagration. Few units were able to escape westwards. During late 1944–45 the 4th Army, now under the command of Friedrich Hoßbach, was tasked with holding the borders of East Prussia. On the first week in November in Gumbinnen Operation, the 4th Army pushed back the Soviet forces in the Gumbinnen sector off all but a fifteen-mile by fifty-mile strip of East Prussian territory; the Soviet East Prussian Offensive, commencing on 13 January, saw the 2nd Army driven backwards towards the Baltic coast over a period of two weeks and 4th Army threatened with encirclement. Hoßbach, with the Army Group Centre's commander Georg-Hans Reinhardt concurrence, attempted to break out of East Prussia by attacking towards Elbing. For defying their orders, both Hoßbach and Reinhardt are relieved of command. By 13 February, 3rd Belorussian Front had pushed 4th Army out of the Heilsberg triangle. After 13 March 3rd Belorussian Front had pushed 4th Army into a ten by two mile beachhead west of Heiligenbeil before Hitler allowed the army to retreat across the Frisches Haff to the Frische Nehrung on 29 March.
After Königsberg fell, Hitler sent Headquarters, 4th Army, out of East Prussia and merged its units with 2nd Army to form the East Prussian Army Group, commanded by Dietrich von Saucken, which surrendered to the Red Army at the end of the war in May. Meanwhile, the Headquarters, 4th Army became Headquarters, 21st Army. Generaloberst Günther von Kluge General der Gebirgstruppe Ludwig Kübler General of the Infantry Gotthard Heinrici General of the Infantry Hans von Salmuth General of the Infantry Gotthard Heinrici Generaloberst Hans von Salmuth Generaloberst Gotthard Heinrici General of the Infantry Kurt von Tippelskirch Generalleutnant Vincenz Müller General of the Infantry Kurt von Tippelskirch General of the Infantry Friedrich Hoßbach General of the Infantry Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller 4th Army for the WW I German Army formation
Tula is an industrial city and the administrative center of Tula Oblast, located 193 kilometers south of Moscow, on the Upa River. Population: 501,169 ; the name of the city is pre-Russian Baltic, origin. The word Tula means canvas rucksack. Spanish immigrants and explorers named some of their discoveries Tula. Tula was first mentioned in the Nikon Chronicle in 1146; as the chronicle was written in the 16th century, the date is disputed. The first confirmed mention of Tula dates to 1382. In the Middle Ages, Tula was a minor fortress at the border of the Principality of Ryazan; as soon as it passed to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a brick citadel, or kremlin, was constructed in 1514–1521. It was a key fortress of the Great Abatis Belt and resisted a siege by the Tatars in 1552. In 1607, Ivan Bolotnikov and his supporters seized the citadel and withstood a four-months siege by the Tsar's army. In the 18th century, some parts of the kremlin walls were demolished. Despite its archaic appearance, the five-domed Assumption Cathedral in the kremlin was built as late as 1764.
In 1712, Tula was visited by Peter the Great, who commissioned the Demidov blacksmiths to build the first armament factory in Russia. Several decades Tula was turned by the Demidovs into the greatest ironworking center of Eastern Europe; the oldest museum in the city, showcasing the history of weapons, was inaugurated by the Demidovs in 1724, Nicholas-Zaretsky Church in the city houses their family vault. The first factory to produce samovars industrially was established there in the course of the 18th century. After the Demidovs moved the center of their manufacture to the Urals, Tula continued as a center of heavy industry in the manufacture of matériel. In the 1890s, Ivan Savelyev, a medical orderly, became the founder of social democracy in Tula and set up a workers' study circle; the city grew in the early 20th century as a result of arms production during the 1905 Russo-Japanese War and World War I. Tula's factories manufactured weapons for the Red Army during the Russian Civil War of 1918–1921.
During the World War II of 1941–1945, the city was important in the production of armaments. Tula became the target of a German offensive to break Soviet resistance in the Moscow area between Friday, October 24 and December 5, 1941. According to Erik Durschmied in The Weather Factor, The Day The Panzers Froze, 5th December 1941, one General Reached the South Western Outskirts of Tula on 29th-30th October 1941; the fortified city held out and Guderian's Second Panzer Army was stopped near Tula. The city secured the southern flank during the Battle of Moscow and the subsequent counter-offensive. Tula was awarded the title Hero City in 1976, it is home to the Tula Arms Plant. Tula serves as the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the territories of Tula City Under Oblast Jurisdiction and of Leninsky District are incorporated as Tula Urban Okrug.
Sergey Kazakov Vladimir Mogilnikov Alisa Tolkachyova Yevgeny Avilov Aleksandr Prokopuk Yuri Tskipuri For more than four centuries Tula has been known as a center of crafts and metalworking. Tula is a developed industrial center. Importance in the industrial structure of Tula are metallurgy and metal with a high share of the military-industrial complex and food manufacturing. Almaz-Antey Concern: Scientific Production Association Strela Splav part of the Techmash holding of Rostec. Tula is renowned for traditional Russian pryanik, cookies made with honey and spices. In the West, Tula is best known as the center of samovar production: the Russian equivalent of "coals to Newcastle" is "You don't take a samovar to Tula"; the most popular tourist attraction in Tula Oblast is Yasnaya Polyana, the home and burial place of the writer Leo Tolstoy. It is situated 14 kilometres south-west of the city, it was here that Tolstoy wrote his celebrated novels Anna Karenina. Tula is home to: Tula State University Tula State Pedagogical University The Tula artillery and Engineering Institute A branch of the All Russia Economic and Finance Institute A branch of The Moscow Economics and Management Institute Since 1867, there has been a railway connection between Tula and Moscow.
Tula is a major railway junction with trains to Moscow, Oryol and Kaluga. The Moscow to Simferopol M2 motorway runs past the city
Belgorod is a city and the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast, located on the Seversky Donets River 40 kilometers north of the border with Ukraine. Population: 356,402 ; the name Belgorod in Russian means "White city", compounding the sememes "белый" and "город". The city thus acquired its name. Etymologically, the name corresponds to other Slavic city-names of identical meaning: Belgrade, Białogard, Biograd and Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. Records first mention the settlement in 1237, it is unclear. In 1596 Tsar Feodor Ioannovich of Russia ordered its re-establishment as one of numerous forts set up to defend Muscovy's Southern borders from the Crimean Tatars. In the 17th century Belgorod suffered from Tatar incursions, against which Russia built an earthen wall, with twelve forts, extending upwards of 200 miles from the Vorskla in the west to the Don in the east, called the Belgorod line. In 1666 the Moscow Patriarchate established. After the Russian border moved south following successful wars against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in the second half of the 17th century, the fortress fell into disrepair.
Tsar Peter the Great visited Belgorod on the eve of the Battle of Poltava. A dragoon regiment had its base in the town until 1917. Ioasaph of Belgorod, an 18th-century bishop of Belgorod and Oboyanska, became venerated as a miracle worker and was glorified as a saint of the Russian Orthodox Church in 1911. Soviet power was established in the city on 26 October, 1917. On 10 April 1918, troops of the Imperial German Army occupied Belgorod. After the conclusion of the Brest-Litovsk peace treaty of 9 February 1918 the demarcation line passed to the north of the city. Belgorod became part of the newly proclaimed Ukrainian People's Republic and Ukrainian State headed by Hetman Pavlo Skoropadskyi. On 20 December 1918, after the overthrow of German-backed Skoropadskyi, the Soviet Red Army regained control over the city, which became part of the RSFSR. From 24 December 1918 to 7 January 1919, the Provisional Workers' and Peasants' Government of Ukraine led by General Georgy Pyatakov, was based in Belgorod.
The city served as the temporary capital of the Ukrainian People's Republic. From 23 June to 7 December 1919 the Volunteer Army occupied the town as part of White-controlled South Russia. From September 1925 the territorial 163rd Infantry Regiment of the 55th Infantry Division of Kursk was stationed in Belgorod. In September 1939 it was deployed to the 185th Infantry Division. On 2 March 1935, the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union decided to allocate the city of Belgorod, Kursk region, into an independent administrative unit directly subordinate to the Kursk Regional Executive Committee; the German Wehrmacht occupied Belgorod from 25 October 1941 to 9 February 1943. The Germans re-captured it on 18 March 1943 in the final move of the Third Battle of Kharkov. On 12 July 1943, during the Battle of Kursk, the largest tank battle in world history took place near Prokhorovka, Red Army definitively retook the city on 5/6 August 1943; the Belgorod Diorama is one of the World War II monuments commemorating the event.
In 1954 the city became the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast. From this time the rapid development of the city as a regional center began. Belgorod is an administrative and cultural center of Belgorod Oblast, established in 1954; the major educational centers of the city are Belgorod State University, the Belgorod Technological University, the Belgorod Agrarian University, the Financial Academy. Belgorod Drama Theater is named after the famous 19th-century actor, Mikhail Shchepkin, born in this region. On 22 April 2013, a mass shooting occurred at 2:20 PM Moscow time on a street in Belgorod; the shooter, identified as 31-year-old Sergey Pomazun, opened fire with a semi-automatic rifle on several people at a gun store and on a sidewalk, killing all six people whom he hit: three people at the store and three passers-by, including two teenage girls. Pomazun was apprehended after an extensive day-long manhunt, he was sentenced to life in prison on 23 August 2013. Belgorod is the administrative center of the oblast.
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as the city of oblast significance of Belgorod—an administrative unit with status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the city of oblast significance of Belgorod is incorporated as Belgorod Urban Okrug. For administrative purposes, Belgorod is divided into two city okrugs: Vostochny, population: 141,844 Zapadny, population: 214,558 Belgorod's climate is humid continental featuring moderate precipitation. Winters are rather cold and changeable with warmings which are followed by rains. Sometimes temperature falls lower −15 °C which can proceed about one week and more. Summer is warm, in separate years -- could be hot and droughty. Autumn is rainy; the Belgorod reservoirs become covered with ice at the end of November — the beginning of December, the ice drift lasts from March to April. Average year temperature: + 7.7 °C average humidity: 76% average wind
6th Guards Airborne Division
The 6th Guards Airborne Division was a Red Army airborne division that fought as infantry during World War II. Formed in December 1942 from an airborne corps, it first saw combat as an infantry unit in the Staraya Russa in March 1943 fought in the Battle of Kursk; the division advanced west in the Battle of the Dnieper. The division fought in the Kirovograd Offensive and the Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive in late 1943 and early 1944; the 5th Guards received the Order of the Red Banner and the Order of Suvorov for actions during the Uman–Botoșani Offensive fought in the Jassy–Kishinev Offensive. The division advanced westward into Hungary, fighting in the Battle of Debrecen and the Budapest Offensive in late 1944. In the last months of the war it fought in the Bratislava–Brno Offensive and ended the war fighting in the Prague Offensive. Weeks after the end of the war, it was redesignated as the 113th Guards Rifle Division, it was downsized into a brigade between 1953, serving in the Taurida Military District.
The division became a motor rifle division in 1957 and disbanded in 1959. The 6th Guards Airborne Division was formed on 8 December 1942 from the 6th Airborne Corps in Noginsk, one of eight new airborne divisions formed due to a shortage of infantry; the former commander of the 6th Airborne Corps, Major General Alexander Kirzimov, continued in command of the new division. Although its personnel received airborne training, the division was organized as a guards rifle division and would fight as infantry for the rest of the war, it included the 14th, 17th, 20th Guards Airborne Regiments, the 8th Guards Airborne Artillery Regiment, smaller units. Before the division went into combat, Kirzimov was replaced by Colonel Mikhail Smirnov on 11 March 1943, promoted to major general on 16 October 1943; the division saw its first combat with the 1st Shock Army in the area of Koshelki south of Staraya Russa on 14 March during the Staraya Russa Offensive. After that, the division was placed in the Reserve of the Supreme High Command.
As part of the 5th Guards Army, the division fought in the Battle of Kursk and the Belgorod-Kharkov Offensive Operation. After the Battle of the Dnieper, the division captured Kremenchuk on 29 September and Znamianka on 9 December, for which it was awarded honorifics. On 8 January 1944, the division helped capture Kirovohrad during the Kirovograd Offensive. In the Korsun-Shevchenkovsky Offensive, the division stopped German attempts to relieve the Korsun Pocket. During the Uman–Botoșani Offensive, it operated with the 4th Guards Army. For its performance during the offensive, the division was awarded the Order of the Red Banner on 19 March. For crossing the Dniester, the 6th Guards Airborne was awarded the Order of Suvorov 2nd class on 8 April. 14th Guards Airborne Regiment platoon commander Starshina Sharifzyan Kazanbaev was posthumously made a Hero of the Soviet Union for saving the regimental flag during fighting in early April. In the second half of April, it entered Romanian territory; as part of the 7th Guards Army, it captured Târgu Frumos.
In October, it fought in the Battle of Debrecen. Advancing into Hungary, it fought in the Budapest Offensive. On 5 December, the division broke through the northeastern defensive lines of Budapest as part of the 7th Guards Army, with which it remained for the rest of the war. At the end of December it crossed the Hron, but was forced to retreat in the face of German resistance. On 25 March 1945, the division crossed the Hron in the area of Zhemlyari during the Bratislava–Brno Offensive. On that day, it had a strength of 5,001 officers and men, with more than 1,000 in each of its three rifle regiments; the division was equipped with 2,157 rifles, 851 submachine guns, 109 light machine guns, 49 heavy machine guns, twelve anti-aircraft machine guns, twelve 120 mm mortars divided between each rifle regiment, 51 82 mm mortars divided between the rifle regiments, five 122 mm howitzers, twenty 76 mm divisional guns, eight 76 mm regimental guns, eighteen 45 mm anti-tank guns, 36 anti-tank rifles, 131 vehicles.
After the breaking through the German lines, the division captured Šurany, advanced over the Western Carpathians, captured oilfields in Zistersdorf. The division captured Příbram on 11 May. On 13 June 1945, it was redesignated as the 113th Guards Rifle Division to reflect its infantry role as part of the 25th Guards Rifle Corps of the 7th Guards Army in the newly created Central Group of Forces, its airborne regiments became the 359th, 361st, 363rd Guards Rifle Regiments, the division included the 468th and 473rd Guards Artillery Regiments. The division was withdrawn to Zaporizhia in the Odessa Military District in late 1945 with the corps and downsized into the 43rd Separate Guards Rifle Brigade in April 1948 following the disbandment of the corps in May 1947; the brigade was subsequently moved to Yevpatoria in the Taurida Military District, where it became a division again in October 1953. By 1955, the 85th Guards Tank Regiment was added to the division. On 17 May 1957, the 113th Guards Rifle Division became a motor rifle division at Yevpatoria with the 45th Army Corps.
It included the 359th, 361st and 363rd Guards Motor Rifle Regiments formed from guards rifle regiments with the same numbers, the 85th Guards Tank Regiment and other smaller units. The division was disbanded on 1 March 1959; the following officers are known to have led the division: Major General Alexander Kirzimov Colonel Mikhail Smirnov (11 March 1943–December 1948.
Bryansk is a city and the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast, located 379 kilometers southwest of Moscow. Population: 415,721 ; the first written mention of Bryansk was in the Hypatian Codex, as Debryansk. Its name is derived from "дъбръ", a Slavic word for "ditch", "lowland", or "dense woodland". Local authorities and archaeologists, believe that the town had existed as early as 985 as a fortified settlement on the right bank of the Desna River. Bryansk remained poorly attested until the Mongol invasion of Rus', it was the northernmost of the Severian cities in the possession of the Chernigov Rurikids. After Mikhail of Chernigov was murdered by the Mongols and his capital was destroyed, his son moved his seat to Bryansk. In 1310, when the Mongols sacked the town again, it belonged to the Principality of Smolensk. Algirdas of Lithuania acquired Bryansk through inheritance in 1356 and gave it to his son, Dmitry the Elder; until the end of the century, the town was contested between Jogaila, Vytautas, Švitrigaila, Yury of Smolensk.
The Grand Duchy of Moscow conquered Bryansk following the Battle of Vedrosha in 1503. The town was turned into a fortress. During the Time of Troubles, it was occupied by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1610 and remained at Polish hands as part of Smolensk Voivodeship until the Truce of Deulino in 1634. Peter the Great incorporated Bryansk into Kiev Governorate, but Catherine the Great deemed it wise to transfer the town to Oryol Governorate in 1779, she promulgated the town's coat of arms. In the 17th and 18th centuries, the economy of Bryansk, which had become a regional trading center, was based on the Svenskaya fair, the largest in European Russia; the fair was held annually under the auspices of the Svensky Monastery. After cannon and ammunition started to be manufactured there for the Imperial Russian Navy in 1783, Bryansk evolved from a regional market town into an important industrial center for metallurgy and textiles; the city's population exceeded 30,000 by 1917. In 1812 The Grande Army fought the Russians in Orel.
In 1918, the Belarusian People's Republic claimed Bryansk, but the town was taken by Bolshevik forces in 1919. During World War II, Bryansk was captured by the Germans and thereafter occupied, with the city left damaged by fighting. About 60,000 Soviet partisans were active in and around Bryansk, inflicting heavy losses on the German army. In 1944, soon after its liberation, Bryansk became the administrative center of Bryansk Oblast. Bryansk is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with three work settlements, incorporated separately as Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, Bryansky Urban Administrative Okrug is incorporated as Bryansk Urban Okrug. Today's Bryansk is an important center for steel and machinery manufacturing, is home to many large factories; the main industries are machine building, chemical, electrical equipment, wood and food industries, diesel engines, freight cars, motor graders and other road equipment, agricultural equipment, construction materials, garments.
Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Moscow. The city has railway stations: Bryansk-Lgovskiy, Ordzhonikidzegrad. Fourteen kilometres west of the city lies the Bryansk International Airport. Passenger traffic carried by bus, trolley on 10 regular routes, uses, as well as commuter trains and railcars; the cost of public transport is 16 rubles, buses, 20 rubles. Russian cosmonaut Viktor Afanasyev, shot put athlete Svetlana Krivelyova and architect Naum Gabo, classical pianist Valentina Igoshina, MMA fighter Vitaly Minakov were born in Bryansk. Bulgarian communist leader Stanke Dimitrov died in an aviation accident near the city; the writer Leonid Dobychin spent most of his adult years there. Swimmer Victoria Kaminskaya was born in Bryansk. Bryansk has a humid continental climate. Bryansk has two universities, three theaters, a technical academy. Bryansk is twinned with: Lokot Autonomy Брянский городской Совет народных депутатов. 30 ноября 2005 г. «Устав города Брянска», в ред. Решения №173 от 29 апреля 2015 г.
«О внесении изменений и дополнений в Устав города Брянска». Вступил в силу после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Брянск", №23, 7 декабря 2005 г.. Брянская областная Дума. Закон №13-З от 5 июня 1997 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Брянской области», в ред. Закона №4-З от 5 февраля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Брянской области». Опубликован: "Брянский рабочий", №119, 24 июня 1997 г. (Bryansk Oblast Duma. Law #13-Z of June 5, 1997 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Bryansk Oblast, as amended by the Law #4-Z of February 5, 2014 On Amending Va
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove