Deadhead or Dead Head is a name given to fans of the American rock band the Grateful Dead. In the 1970s, a number of fans began travelling to see the band in as many shows or festival venues as they could. With large numbers of people thus attending strings of shows, a community developed. Deadheads developed their own idioms and slang. Much Deadhead-related historical material received or collected by the band over the years is housed in the Grateful Dead Archive of UC-Santa Cruz. Archive founding curator Nicholas Meriwether, who has written extensively about the culture and its impact on society, predicted, "The Grateful Dead archive is going to end up being a critical way for us to approach and understand the 1960s and the counterculture of the era... It's going to tell us a lot about the growth and development of modern rock theater, it's helping us understand fan culture." By the late 1970s, some Deadheads began to sell tie-dye T-shirts, veggie burritos, or other items at Grateful Dead concerts.
This allowed many Deadheads a way to follow the band on its tours. During the early 1980s, the number of Deadheads taping shows increased, the band created a special section for fans who wished to record the show; these tapes are still shared and circulated today via websites such as the Live Music Archive and bt.etree.org. In the earlier days of the Grateful Dead, there were questions as to whether or not it was in the best interest of the band for fans to tape concerts. In 1982, Garcia himself was asked what he thought about it, he replied, "When we are done with it, they can have it." The practice of taping has evolved with the digital age, the rise of the Internet has made it easy to share concerts through unofficial channels. The term "Deadhead" first appeared in print at the suggestion of Hank Harrison, author of The Dead Trilogy, on the sleeve of Grateful Dead, the band's second live album, released in 1971, it read: DEAD FREAKS UNITE: Who are you? Where are you? How are you? Send us your name and address and we'll keep you informed.
Dead Heads, P. O. Box 1065, San Rafael, California 94901; this phenomenon was first touched on in print by Village Voice music critic Robert Christgau at a Felt Forum show in 1971, noting "how many'regulars' seemed to be in attendance, how, from the way they compared notes, they'd made a determined effort to see as many shows as possible."Eileen Law, a long time friend of the band, was put in charge of the mailing list and maintained the Dead Heads newsletter. It is estimated that by the end of 1971, the band had received about 350 letters, but this number swelled over the next few years to as many as 40,000. In total, 25 mailings/newsletters reached Dead Heads between October 1971 and February 1980. After this time, the Grateful Dead Almanac would succeed it, with this being abandoned for Dead.net. Those who did receive the newsletter in the 1970s found pleasant surprises sent along. One example is from May 1974 when Heads received a sample EP of Robert Hunter's upcoming album Tales of the Great Rum Runners as well as selections from Jerry Garcia's second album, Compliments of Garcia, some cuts that were from bandmembers Keith and Donna Godchaux's eponymous solo album, Keith & Donna, both on Round Records.
This sample was titled Anton Round, an alias used by Ron Rakow. The Grateful Dead's appeal to fans was supported by the way. From the early 1970s on, night-to-night song selection changed over subsequent shows. From the early 1970s on, it could be expected that the band would play two sets in a show with an encore. From the 1980s on, the second set contained a prolonged drum solo, called "Drums", by Mickey Hart and Bill Kreutzmann followed by an extended improvisational "space" jam played by the rest of the band; the varied song selection allowed the band to create a "rotation" of songs, repeated every 3 to 5 performances. The rotation created two phenomena; the first was that the desire of Deadheads to hear their favorite song or attend a good show led many of them to begin following the band on its tour. The second was that the large number of traveling fans empowered the band to perform multiple shows in each venue with the assurance that the performances would be sold out, as all were from the mid 1980s on.
In this way, the Deadheads were one of the main driving forces keeping the band going. With large numbers of people thus attending strings of shows, a community developed out of the familiarity; as generations turned from the Acid Tests to the 1970s, tours became a time to revel with friends at concerts and new, who never knew the psychedelic age that spawned the band they loved. As with any large community, Deadheads developed their own idioms and slang, amply illustrated in books about the Grateful Dead such as the Skeleton Key; some Deadheads use the term "X Factor" to describe the intangible element that elevates mere performance into something higher. Publicist and Jerry Garcia biographer Blair Jackson stated that "shows were the sacrament... rich and full of blissful, transcendent musical moments that moved the body and enriched the soul." Phil Lesh himself comments on this phenomenon in his autobiography by saying "The unique organicity of our music reflects the fact that each of us consciously personalized his playing: to fit with what others were playing and to fit with who each man was as an individual, allowing us to meld our consciousnesses together in the unity of a group mind."Jackson takes this further, citing drummer Mickey Hart as saying "The Grateful D
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Civic Center, Denver
Civic Center is a neighborhood in Denver, Colorado. The area is known as the center of the civic life in the city, with numerous institutions of arts and culture as well as numerous festivals and protests throughout the year; the parkbearing the same name is home to a fountain, several statues, formal gardens, includes a Greek amphitheater, a war memorial, the Voorhies Memorial Seal Pond. It is well known for its symmetrical Neoclassical design. Civic Center is located in central Denver just south of the Central Business District; the park is located at the intersection of Colfax Avenue and Broadway the best-known and most important streets in Denver. The park borders are defined as Bannock Street on the west, Lincoln Street on the east, Colfax Avenue on the north, 14th Avenue on the south; the institutions surrounding the civic center are thought of as part of the Civic Center area, future plans for the civic center would extend the area further west all the way to Speer Boulevard. Civic Center is a neighborhood defined by the Denver city government, but is identified in the minds of Denverites as the "Golden Triangle."
The borders of this neighborhood are Speer Boulevard on the west and south, Broadway on the east, Colfax Avenue on the north. Civic Center was an idea. In 1904, Speer proposed a series of civic improvements based on the City Beautiful Ideas shown to him at the 1893 World Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Speer hired Charles Mulford Robinson among others to develop plans for the area. Robinson proposed extending 16th Street to the Colorado State Capitol and to group other municipal buildings around a central park area. However, the plan was defeated in a 1907 election. Undaunted, Speer gathered business leaders who brought in new ideas for the Civic Center including the creation of an east-west axial between the Colorado State Capitol, swinging the north and south borders of the park into the city grid system; these plans were stalled. The new mayor brought in Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr., developing plans for Denver's mountain parks. His ideas include an informal grove of trees on the eastern edge of the park, a lighted concert area.
When Speer was reelected in 1916, he re-pursued his ideas about the Civic Center, hiring Chicago planner and architect Edward H. Bennett, a protégé of Daniel Burnham. Bennett combined the ideas of all of the previous plans, adding the Greek amphitheater, the Colonnade, the seal pond, the realignment of Colfax Avenue and 14th Ave. around the park. The park opened in 1919. Civic Center has long been the government, arts and learning nexus of both the state of Colorado and the Denver Metropolitan Area. Among the institutions in the Civic Center are Denver Art Museum, the Denver Public Library's Central Library along the parks south side, the Colorado State Capitol and the City and County Building of Denver along the east and west axis of the park, the Wellington E. Webb Municipal Office Building on the park's north side, the History Colorado Museum and the Colorado State Judicial Building towards the southeast of the park; the Denver Mint lies west of the Civic Center Park across the street from the City and County Building.
Civic Center has issues related with poverty. There continues to be housing the homeless. In 2003 Denver Mayor John Hickenlooper began an initiative to reduce the homeless population with a program that included the first "Ten year plan to end homeless" in the United States. A crackdown on drug-dealing and crime in the area has been started. City and County officials have proposed changes to make the area more accessible to the downtown population in the north and the museums towards the south; some of these changes include adding bus areas and kiosks. One proposal would put Colfax Avenue underground with a pedestrian plaza on top of the former street; the area has seen a lot of new civic development, including the Denver Newspaper Agency, the home of The Denver Post. Voters in 2004 approved a new Denver Justice Center, two blocks away from Civic Center Park; these new buildings will change the dynamic of the area with some in The Colorado Office of Architecture and Historic Preservation worrying that the architecture of the two buildings the Justice Center, could disrupt the historic design of the park.
Denver hopes to alleviate these concerns by incorporating the buildings into future Civic Center planning. Civic Center is known throughout the state as the rendezvous for the largest and most important cultural and civic events. Being at the center of the state and local government institutions, Civic Center has become the place for political statement for various groups and individuals representing a variety of causes, it was Civic Center where the public held a vigil for the victims of Columbine High School massacre, 9/11. Former presidential candidate and Denver native John Kerry made a 2004 campaign stop at Civic Center, 2008 Democratic nominee Barack Obama gave a speech there on October 26, 2008 to more than 120,000 supporters. Civic Center is the location for many annual events; these include: January - The City and County Building has a Christmas lights display up until the National Western Stock Show ends in mid January. March – Civic Center is at the end of one of the longest St. Patrick's Day parades in the nation.
April - Mile High 420 Festival an annual pro-cannabis rally/ cannabis culture gathering is held in Civic Center every year on April 20, otherwise known as 420. May - Denver has a large Cinco de M
Vancouver Art Gallery
The Vancouver Art Gallery is the fifth-largest art gallery in Canada, the largest in Western Canada. It is located at 750 Hornby Street in Vancouver, British Columbia, its permanent collection of about 11,000 artworks includes more than 200 major works by Emily Carr, the Group of Seven, Jeff Wall, Harry Callahan and Marc Chagall. The gallery has 41,400 square feet of exhibition space and more than 11,000 works in its collection, most notably its Emily Carr collection, it has amassed a significant collection of photographs. In addition to exhibitions of its own collection, the gallery hosts international touring exhibitions; the gallery features a variety of public programmes and lectures. The gallery has a gift shop, a café, a library; the Vancouver Art Gallery had its first home at 1145 West Georgia Street. In 1983 it moved to the former provincial courthouse, it was renovated at a cost of $20 million by architect Arthur Erickson, which completed his modern three city-block Robson Square complex.
The gallery connects to the rest of the complex via an underground passage below Robson Street to an outdoor plaza, the University of British Columbia's downtown satellite campus, government offices, the new Law Courts at the southern end. In March 2007, the 2010 Olympic countdown clock was placed in the front lawn of the VAG, it was open for free for the public to see. The clock has since been disassembled, with one half going to BC Place and the other to Whistler Village. In November 2007, the gallery announced plans to move to a new building at Larwill Park, a block occupied by a bus depot on the corner of Cambie and Georgia streets opposite the Queen Elizabeth Theatre; the new building would be about 30,000 square metres 10 times the current building size, would include more gallery space for the permanent collection now in storage, a larger exhibit space for visiting international works, more children's and community programming, an improved storage and display environment. Construction was planned to begin after the 2010 Olympics with a tentative opening date in 2013.
The projected cost was in the hundreds of millions of dollars, the gallery hoped to secure funding from provincial and federal governments, as well as private donors. In May 2008, a different site was chosen for the new gallery, on land occupied by the Plaza of Nations near BC Place; the new plans would double the gallery size to 320,000 square feet. In 2013, the decision was made to go back to the Cambie site. In April, 2014, Vancouver Art Gallery selected Herzog & de Meuron, from a group of five shortlisted firms, from across the globe following a series of in-depth interviews and site visits to significant projects designed by each firm; the finalists, announced in January 2014, represented five of 75 firms from 16 different countries, who submitted their credentials through an open request for qualifications process issued by the gallery. The new Vancouver Art Gallery building is Herzog & de Meuron’s first project in Canada, working in collaboration with Vancouver-based Perkins + Will as executive architect in the realization of the design.
In September 2015, the gallery unveiled its conceptual design for the new building in a public event held at the Queen Elizabeth Theatre. The project is expected to break ground in 2018; the VAG is located in the former main courthouse for Vancouver. The original 165,000-square-foot neoclassical building was designed by Francis Rattenbury after winning a design competition in 1905. Rattenbury designed the British Columbia Parliament Buildings and the Empress Hotel in Victoria; the design includes ionic columns, a central dome, formal porticos, ornate stonework. The building was constructed using marble imported from Alaska and Vermont; the new building was constructed in 1906 and replaced the previous courthouse located at Victory Square. At the time, the building contained 18 courtrooms. An annex designed by Thomas Hooper was added to the western side of the building in 1912; the Annex Building is the only part of the VAG, not converted to use as an art gallery. It was declared a heritage site and retains the original judges' benches and walls as they were when the building was a courthouse.
On the Georgia Street side of the building is the Centennial Fountain. This fountain was installed in 1966 to commemorate the centennial of the union of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia; the Centennial Fountain was removed in 2017 as part of the Georgia Street plaza renovations. The plaza opened to the public in late 2017; the building was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1980. Both the main and annex portions of the building are municipally designated "A" heritage structures; the steps on both the Robson Street and Georgia Street sides of the building are popular gathering spots for protest rallies. The Georgia Street side is a popular place in the summertime for people to relax or socialize. A regular gathering spot for protests and demonstrations, the Vancouver Art Gallery's lawn and steps hosts gatherings several times a week; the Vancouver Art Gallery is the monthly meeting spot for Vancouver's Critical Mass, as well as flash mobs, the Zombie Walk, Pro-Marijuana rallies, numerous environmental demonstrations.
The Vancouver Art Gallery's collection of about 11,000 works grows by several hundred works every year. Established in 1931, it is a principle repository of works produced in this region, as well as related works by other Canadian and international artists; the gallery’s European historical collection includes Dutch paintings from the seventeenth century by Jan Anthoniszoon van Ravestyn, Jan Wynants (1
The Grateful Dead was an American rock band formed in 1965 in Palo Alto, California. Ranging from quintet to septet, the band is known for its eclectic style, which fused elements of rock, country, blues, modal jazz, experimental music and space rock, for live performances of lengthy instrumental jams, for their devoted fan base, known as "Deadheads". "Their music", writes Lenny Kaye, "touches on ground that most other groups don't know exists". These various influences were distilled into a diverse and psychedelic whole that made the Grateful Dead "the pioneering Godfathers of the jam band world"; the band was ranked 57th by Rolling Stone magazine in its The Greatest Artists of All Time issue. The band was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1994 and a recording of their May 8, 1977, performance at Cornell University's Barton Hall was added to the National Recording Registry of the Library of Congress in 2012; the Grateful Dead have sold more than 35 million albums worldwide. The Grateful Dead was founded in the San Francisco Bay Area amid the rise of the counterculture of the 1960s.
The founding members were Jerry Garcia, Bob Weir, Ron "Pigpen" McKernan, Phil Lesh, Bill Kreutzmann. Members of the Grateful Dead had played together in various San Francisco bands, including Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions and the Warlocks. Lesh was the last member to join the Warlocks. Drummer Mickey Hart and non-performing lyricist Robert Hunter joined in 1967. With the exception of McKernan, who died in 1973, Hart, who took time off from 1971 to 1974, the core of the band stayed together for its entire 30-year history; the other official members of the band are Tom Constanten, John Perry Barlow, Keith Godchaux, Donna Godchaux, Brent Mydland, Vince Welnick. Bruce Hornsby was a touring member from 1990 to 1992, as well as a guest with the band on occasion before and after the tours. After the death of Garcia in 1995, former members of the band, along with other musicians, toured as the Other Ones in 1998, 2000, 2002, the Dead in 2003, 2004, 2009. In 2015, the four surviving core members marked the band's 50th anniversary in a series of concerts that were billed as their last performances together.
There have been several spin-offs featuring one or more core members, such as Dead & Company, the Rhythm Devils, Phil Lesh and Friends, RatDog, Billy & the Kids. The Grateful Dead began their career as the Warlocks, a group formed in early 1965 from the remnants of a Palo Alto, California jug band called Mother McCree's Uptown Jug Champions; the band's first show was at Magoo's Pizza located at 639 Santa Cruz Avenue in suburban Menlo Park, on May 5, 1965. They continued playing bar shows as the Warlocks, but changed its name after finding out that the Velvet Underground had put out a record under the same name; the first show under the name Grateful Dead was in San Jose on December 4, 1965, at one of Ken Kesey's Acid Tests. Earlier demo tapes have survived, but the first of over 2,000 concerts known to have been recorded by the band's fans was a show at the Fillmore Auditorium in San Francisco on January 8, 1966; that month, the Grateful Dead played at the Trips Festival, an early psychedelic rock concert.
The name "Grateful Dead" was chosen from a dictionary. According to Phil Lesh, in his autobiography, "... picked up an old Britannica World Language Dictionary...... In that silvery elf-voice he said to me,'Hey, how about the Grateful Dead?'" The definition there was "the soul of a dead person, or his angel, showing gratitude to someone who, as an act of charity, arranged their burial". According to Alan Trist, director of the Grateful Dead's music publisher company Ice Nine, Garcia found the name in the Funk & Wagnalls Folklore Dictionary, when his finger landed on that phrase while playing a game of Fictionary. In the Garcia biography, Captain Trips, author Sandy Troy states that the band was smoking the psychedelic DMT at the time; the term "grateful dead" appears in folktales of a variety of cultures. Other supporting personnel who signed on early included Rock Scully, who heard of the band from Kesey and signed on as manager after meeting them at the Big Beat Acid Test. "We were living off of Owsley's good graces at that time....
Trip was he wanted to design equipment for us, we were going to have to be in sort of a lab situation for him to do it", said Garcia. One of the group's earliest major performances in 1967 was the Mantra-Rock Dance—a musical event held on January 29, 1967, at the Avalon Ballroom by the San Francisco Hare Krishna temple; the Grateful Dead performed at the event along with the Hare Krishna founder Bhaktivedanta Swami, poet Allen Ginsberg, bands Moby Grape and Big Brother and the Holding Company with Janis Joplin, donating proceeds to the Krishna temple. The band's first LP, The Grateful Dead, was released on Warner Brothers in 1967. Classically trained trumpeter Phil Lesh performed on bass guitar. Bob Weir, the youngest original member of the group, played r
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
Dunedin is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, the principal city of the Otago region. Its name comes from the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland; the urban area of Dunedin lies on the central-eastern coast of Otago, surrounding the head of Otago Harbour, the harbour and hills around Dunedin are the remnants of an extinct volcano. The city suburbs extend out into the surrounding valleys and hills, onto the isthmus of the Otago Peninsula, along the shores of the Otago Harbour and the Pacific Ocean. Dunedin was the largest New Zealand city by territorial land area until superseded by Auckland with the formation of the Auckland Council in November 2010. Archaeological evidence points to lengthy occupation of the area by Māori prior to the arrival of Europeans; the province and region of Otago takes its name from the Ngai Tahu village of Otakou at the mouth of the harbour, which became a whaling station in the 1830s. In 1848 a Scottish settlement was established by the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland.
Between 1855 and 1900 many thousands of Scots emigrated to the incorporated city. Dunedin became wealthy beginning in the 1860s. In the mid-1860s, between 1878 and 1881, it was New Zealand's largest urban area; the city population at 5 March 2013 was 120,246. While Tauranga, Napier-Hastings and Hamilton have eclipsed the city in size of population since the 1980s to make it only the seventh-largest urban area in New Zealand, Dunedin is still considered one of the four main cities of New Zealand for historic and geographic reasons. Dunedin has a diverse economy, which includes manufacturing and technology-based industries as well as education and tourism; the city's most important activity centres around tertiary education—Dunedin is home to the University of Otago, New Zealand's oldest university, the Otago Polytechnic. Students account for a large proportion of the population. In 2014 Dunedin was designated as a UNESCO City of Literature. Archaeological evidence shows the first human occupation of New Zealand occurred between 1250–1300 AD, with population concentrated along the southeast coast.
A camp site at Kaikai Beach, near Long Beach, has been dated from about that time. There are numerous archaic sites in what is now Dunedin, several of them large and permanently occupied in the 14th century; the population contracted but expanded again with the evolution of the Classic culture which saw the building of several pā, fortified settlements, notably Pukekura at, about 1650. There was a settlement in what is now central Dunedin occupied as late as about 1785 but abandoned by 1826. There were Maori settlements at Whareakeake, Purakaunui and Huriawa to the north, at Taieri Mouth and Otokia to the south, all inside the present boundaries of Dunedin. Māori tradition tells first of a people called Kahui Tipua living in the area Te Rapuwai, semi-legendary but considered to be historical; the next arrivals were Waitaha followed by Kāti Māmoe late in the 16th century and Kai Tahu who arrived in the mid-17th century. These migration waves have been represented as'invasions' in European accounts but modern scholarship has cast doubt on that.
They were migrations like those of the European which incidentally resulted in bloodshed. The sealer John Boultbee recorded in the 1820s that the'Kaika Otargo' were the oldest and largest in the south. Lieutenant James Cook stood off what is now the coast of Dunedin between 25 February 1770 and 5 March 1770, naming Cape Saunders and Saddle Hill, he reported penguins and seals in the vicinity, which led sealers to visit from the beginning of the 19th century. The early years of sealing saw a feud between sealers and local Māori from 1810 to 1823, the "Sealers' War" sparked by an incident on Otago Harbour, but William Tucker became the first European to settle in the area in 1815. Permanent European occupation dates from 1831, when the Weller brothers founded their whaling station at Otago, modern Otakou, on the Otago Harbour. Epidemics badly reduced the Māori population. By the late 1830s the Harbour had become an international whaling port. Wright & Richards started a whaling station at Karitane in 1837 and Johnny Jones established a farming settlement and a mission station, the South Island's first, at Waikouaiti in 1840.
The settlements at Karitane and Waikouaiti have endured making modern Dunedin one of the longest European settled territories in New Zealand. In 1844, the Deborah, captained by Thomas Wing and carrying his wife Lucy and a representative of the New Zealand Company, Frederick Tuckett, sailed south to determine the location of a planned Free Church settlement. After inspecting several areas around the eastern coast of the south island, Tuckett selected the site which would become known as Dunedin; the Lay Association of the Free Church of Scotland, through a company called the Otago Association, founded Dunedin at the head of Otago Harbour in 1848 as the principal town of its special settlement. The name Dunedin comes from Dùn Èideann, the Scottish Gaelic name for Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland. Charles Kettle the city's surveyor, instructed to emulate the ch