5th century BC
The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. This century saw the establishment of Pataliputra as a capital of the Magadha Empire; this city would become the ruling capital of different Indian kingdoms for about a thousand years. This period saw the rise of two great philosophical schools of the east and Buddhism; this period saw Mahavira and Buddha spreading their respective teachings in the northern plains of India. This changed the socio-cultural and political dynamics of the region of South Asia. Buddhism would go on to become one of the major world religions; this period saw the work of Yaska, who created Nirukta, that would lay the foundation stone for Sanskrit grammar and is one of the oldest works on grammar known to mankind. This century is traditionally recognized as the classical period of the Greeks, which would continue all the way through the 4th century until the time of Alexander the Great; the life of Socrates represented a major milestone in Greek philosophy though his teachings only survive through the work of his students, most notably Plato and Xenophon.
The tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, as well as the comedian Aristophanes all date from this era and many of their works are still considered classics of the western theatrical canon. The Persian Wars, fought between a coalition of Greek cities and the vast Achaemenid Persian Empire was a pivotal moment in Greek politics. After having prevented the annexation of Greece by the Persians, the dominant power in the coalition, had no intention of further offensive action and considered the war over. Meanwhile, Athens counter-attacked, liberating Greek subjects of the Persian Empire up and down the Ionian coast and mobilizing a new coalition, the Delian League. Tensions between Athens, its growing imperialistic ambitions as leader of the Delian League, the traditionally dominant Sparta led to a protracted stalemate in the Peloponnesian war. Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt. 499 BC: Aristagoras, acting on behalf of the Persian Empire, leads a failed attack on the rebellious island of Naxos.
499 BC: Aristagoras instigates the Ionian Revolt, beginning the Persian Wars between Greece and Persia. 499 BC: Sardis sacked by Athenian and Ionian troops. 498 BC: Leontini subjugated by Hippocrates of Gela. 498 BC: Alexander I succeeds his father Amyntas I as king of Macedon. 496 BC: Battle of Lake Regillus: A legendary early Roman victory, won over either the Etruscans or the Latins. 496 BC: Sophocles is born. 495 BC: Temple to Mercury on the Circus Maximus in Rome is built. 494 BC: The Battle of Lade, where Persians take back Ionia. 494 BC: Two tribunes of the plebs and two plebeian aediles are elected for the first time in Rome: the office of the tribunate is established. 494 BC: The year Rome changed from an Aristocratic Republic to a Liberalized Republic. 493 BC: Piraeus, the port town of Athens, is founded. 493 BC: Coriolanus captures the Volscian town of Corioli for Rome. 492 BC: First expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign that culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. 491 BC: Leotychidas succeeds his cousin Demaratus as king of Sparta.
491 BC: Gelo becomes Tyrant of Gela. 490 BC: The Battle of Marathon, where Darius I of Persia is defeated by the Athenians and Plataeans under Miltiades 490 BC: Phidippides runs 40 kilometers from Marathon to Athens to announce the news of the Greek victory. 489 BC: Cities of Rhodes unite and start construction of the new city of Rhodes. 488 BC: Leonidas I succeeds his brother Cleomenes I as king of Sparta after Cleomenes is judged insane. 487 BC: Egypt revolts against the Persians. 487 BC: Aegina and Athens go to war. 487 BC: Athenian Archonship becomes elective by lot, an important milestone in the move towards radical Athenian democracy. 486 BC: First part of the Grand Canal of China is built. 486 BC: Xerxes I succeeds Darius I as Great King of Persia. 486 BC: Egypt revolts against Persian rule. 486 BC: First Buddhist Council at Rejgaha, under the patronage of King Ajatasattu. Oral tradition established for the first time. 484 BC: Athenian playwright Aeschylus wins a poetry prize. 484 BC: Xerxes I abolishes the Kingdom of Babel and removes the golden statue of Bel.
484 BC: Persians regain control of Egypt. 483 BC: Gautama Buddha dies. 483 BC: Xerxes I of Persia starts planning his expedition against Greece 481 BC: The Isthmus of Corinth ends a war between Athens and Aegina. 480 BC: King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece. 480 BC: Cimon and his friends burn horse-bridles as an offering to Athena and join the marines 480 BC: Pleistarchus succeeds his father Leonidas I as king of Sparta. August, 480 BC: Battle of Artemisium—The Persian fleet fights an inconclusive battle with the Greek allied fleet. August 11, 480 BC: The Battle of Thermopylae, a costly victory by Persians over the Greeks. September 23, 480 BC: Battle of Salamis between Greece and Persia, leading to a Greek victory. 480 BC: Battle of Himera—The Carthaginians under Hamilcar are defeated by the Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelon of Syracuse. 480 BC: Roman troops march against the Veientines. 479 BC: The Battle of Plataea, the Greeks defeat the Persians, ending the Persian Wars. 479 BC: Battle of Mycale.
479 BC: Potidaea is struck by a tsunami. 479 BC: Chinese philosopher Confucius dies. 478 BC: Establishment of the Temple of Confucius at Qufu. 477 BC: The Delian League is inaugurated. 476 BC: Archidamus II succeeds his grandfather Leotychides, banished to Tegea, as king of Sparta. 475 BC: King Xuan of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty. 474 BC: Battle of Cumae—The Syracusans under Hiero
The majority of Egyptologists agree on the outline and many details of the chronology of Ancient Egypt. This scholarly consensus is the so-called Conventional Egyptian chronology, which places the beginning of the Old Kingdom in the 27th century BC, the beginning of the Middle Kingdom in the 21st century BC and the beginning of the New Kingdom in the mid-16th century BC. Despite this consensus, disagreements remain within the scholarly community, resulting in variant chronologies diverging by about 300 years for the Early Dynastic Period, up to 30 years in the New Kingdom, a few years in the Late Period. In addition, there are a number of "alternative chronologies" outside scholarly consensus, such as the "New Chronology" proposed in the 1990s, which lowers New Kingdom dates by as much as 350 years, or the "Glasgow Chronology", which lowers New Kingdom dates by as much as 500 years. Scholarly consensus on the general outline of the conventional chronology current in Egyptology has not fluctuated much over the last 100 years.
For the Old Kingdom, consensus fluctuates by as much as a few centuries, but for the Middle and New Kingdoms, it has been stable to within a few decades. This is illustrated by comparing the chronology as given by two Egyptologists, the first writing in 1906, the second in 2000; the disparities between the two sets of dates result from additional discoveries and refined understanding of the still incomplete source evidence. For example, Breasted adds a ruler in the Twentieth dynasty that further research showed did not exist. Following Manetho, Breasted believed all the dynasties were sequential, whereas it is now known that several existed at the same time; these revisions have resulted in a lowering of the conventional chronology by up to 400 years at the beginning of Dynasty I. Forming the backbone of Egyptian chronology are the regnal years as recorded in Ancient Egyptian king lists. Surviving king lists are either comprehensive but have significant gaps in their text, or are textually complete but fail to provide a complete list of rulers for a short period of Egyptian history.
The situation is further complicated by occasional conflicting information on the same regnal period from different versions of the same text. Regnal periods have to be pieced together from inscriptions, which will give a date in the form of the regnal year of the ruling pharaoh, yet this only provides a minimum length of that reign and may or may not include any coregencies with a predecessor or successor. In addition, some Egyptian dynasties overlapped, with different pharaohs ruling in different regions at the same time, rather than serially. Not knowing whether monarchies were simultaneous or sequential results in differing chronological interpretations. Where the total number of regnal years for a given ruler is not known, Egyptologists have identified two indicators to deduce that total number: for the Old Kingdom, the number of cattle censuses. A number of Old Kingdom inscriptions allude to a periodic census of cattle, which experts at first believed took place every second year. However, further research has shown that these censuses were sometimes taken in consecutive years, or after two or more years had passed.
The Sed festival was celebrated on the thirtieth anniversary of a pharaoh's ascension, thus rulers who recorded celebrating one could be assumed to have ruled at least 30 years. However, once again, this may not have been standard practice in all cases. In the early days of Egyptology, the compilation of regnal periods was hampered by a profound biblical bias on the part of Egyptologists; this was most pervasive before the mid 19th century, when Manetho's figures were recognized as conflicting with biblical chronology, based on Old Testament references to Egypt. In the 20th century, such biblical bias has been confined to alternative chronologies outside the scholarly mainstream. A useful way to work around these gaps in knowledge is to find chronological synchronisms, which can lead to a precise date. Over the past decades, a number of these have been found, although they are of varying degrees of usefulness and reliability. Seriation, i.e. archeological sequences. This does not fix a person or event to a specific year, but establishing a sequence of events can provide indirect evidence to provide or support a precise date.
For example, some inscribed stone vessels of the rulers of the first two dynasties were collected and deposited in storage galleries beneath and sealed off when the Step Pyramid of Djoser, a Pharaoh of the Third Dynasty, was built. Another example are blocks from the Old Kingdom bearing the names of several kings, which were reused in the construction of Middle Kingdom pyramid-temples at Lisht in the structures of Amenemhat I; the third pylon at Karnak, built by Amenhotep III contained as "fill" material from the kiosk of Sesostris I, along with various stelae of the Second Intermediate Period and the Eighteenth Dynasty of the New Kingdom. Synchronisms with other chronologies, the most important of these being with the Assyrian and Babylonian chronologies, but synchronisms with the Hittites, ancient Palestine, in the final period with ancient Greece, are used; the earliest such synchronism is in the 18th century
Ab urbe condita
Ab urbe condita, or Anno urbis conditæ abbreviated as AUC in either case, is a convention, used in antiquity and by classical historians to refer to a given year in Ancient Rome. Ab urbe condita means "from the founding of the City," while anno urbis conditæ means "in the year since the City's founding." Therefore, the traditional year of the foundation of Rome, 753 BC, would be written AUC 1, while AD 1 would be AUC 754. The foundation of the Empire in 27 BC would be AUC 727. Usage of the term was more common during the Renaissance, when editors sometimes added AUC to Roman manuscripts they published, giving the false impression that the convention was used in antiquity. In reality, the dominant method of identifying years in Roman times was to name the two consuls who held office that year. In late antiquity, regnal years were in use, as was the Diocletian era in Roman Egypt after AD 293, in the Byzantine Empire after AD 537, following a decree by Justinian; the traditional date for the founding of Rome, 21 April 753 BC, is due to Marcus Terentius Varro.
Varro may have used the consular list and called the year of the first consuls "ab urbe condita 245," accepting the 244-year interval from Dionysius of Halicarnassus for the kings after the foundation of Rome. The correctness of this calculation has not been confirmed. From the time of Claudius onward, this calculation superseded other contemporary calculations. Celebrating the anniversary of the city became part of imperial propaganda. Claudius was the first to hold magnificent celebrations in honor of the anniversary of the city, in AD 48, the eight hundredth year from the founding of the city. Hadrian and Antoninus Pius held similar celebrations, in AD 121, in AD 147 and AD 148, respectively. In AD 248, Philip the Arab celebrated Rome's first millennium, together with Ludi saeculares for Rome's alleged tenth sæculum. Coins from his reign commemorate the celebrations. A coin by a contender for the imperial throne, explicitly states "ear one thousand and first", an indication that the citizens of the empire had a sense of the beginning of a new era, a Sæculum Novum.
The Anno Domini year numbering was developed by a monk named Dionysius Exiguus in Rome in AD 525, as a result of his work on calculating the date of Easter. Dionysius did not use the AUC convention, but instead based his calculations on the Diocletian era; this convention had been in use since AD 293, the year of the tetrarchy, as it became impractical to use regnal years of the current emperor. In his Easter table, the year AD 532 was equated with the 248th regnal year of Diocletian; the table counted the years starting from the presumed birth of Christ, rather than the accession of the emperor Diocletian on 20 November AD 284, or as stated by Dionysius: "sed magis elegimus ab incarnatione Domini nostri Jesu Christi annorum tempora praenotare". Blackburn and Holford-Strevens review interpretations of Dionysius which place the Incarnation in 2 BC, 1 BC, or AD 1, it has been calculated that the year AD 1 corresponds to AUC 754, based on the epoch of Varro. Thus, AUC 1 = 753 BC AUC 753 = 1 BC AUC 754 = AD 1 AUC 1000 = AD 247 AUC 1229 = AD 476 AUC 2206 = AD 1453 AUC 2753 = AD 2000 AUC 2772 = AD 2019 List of Latin phrases
Kali Yuga in Hinduism is the last of the four stages the world goes through as part of a'cycle of yugas' described in the Sanskrit scriptures. The other ages are called Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dvapara Yuga. Kali Yuga is associated with the demon Kali; the "Kali" of Kali Yuga means "strife", "discord", "quarrel" or "contention". According to Puranic sources, Krishna's departure marks the end of Dvapara Yuga and the start of Kali Yuga, dated to 17/18 February 3102 BCE. According to the Surya Siddhanta, Kali Yuga began at midnight on 18 February 3102 BCE; this is considered the date on which Lord Krishna left the earth to return to Vaikuntha. This information is placed at the temple of the place of this incident. According to the astronomer and mathematician Aryabhatta the Kali Yuga started in 3102 BCE, he finished his book "Aryabhattiya" in 499 CE, in which he gives the exact year of the beginning of Kali Yuga. He writes that he wrote the book in the "year 3600 of the Kali Age" at the age of 23; as it was the 3600th year of the Kali Age when he was 23 years old, given that Aryabhatta was born in 476 CE, the beginning of the Kali Yuga would come to 3102 BCE.
According to KD Abhyankar, the starting point of Kali Yuga is an rare planetary alignment, depicted in the Mohenjo-Daro seals. Going by this alignment the year 3102 BCE is off; the actual date for this alignment is 7 February of 3104 BCE. There is sufficient proof to believe that Vrdhha Garga knew of precession at least by 500 BCE. Garga had calculated the rate of precession to within 30 % of; the common belief until Swami Sri Yukteswar Giri had analyzed the dating of the Yuga cycles was that the Kali Yuga would last for 432,000 years after the end of the Dwapara Yuga. This originated during the puranic times when the famous astronomer Aryabhatta recalculated the timeline by artificially inflating the traditional 12,000 year figure with a multiplication of 360, represented as the number of "human years" that make up a single "divine year"; this was a purposeful miscalculation due to conflicts with one of the preeminent astronomer of the time Brahmagupta. However, both the Mahabharata and the Manu Smriti have the original value of 12,000 years for one half of the Yuga cycle.
Contemporary analysis of historical data from the last 11 millennia matches with the indigenous Saptarishi Calendar. The length of the transitional periods between each Yuga is unclear, can only be estimated based on historical data of past cataclysmic events. Using a 300 year period for transitions, Kali Yuga has either ended in the past 100 to 200 years, or is to end soon sometime in the next 100 years. Other authors, such as the revered Hindu guru Swami Sri Yukteswar in his book The Holy Science, as well as the influential Yogi Paramhansa Yogananda, believe that the Kali Yuga has ended, that we are now in an ascending Dvapara Yuga; this calculation is supported by modern day spiritual masters such as Sadhguru Jaggi Vasudev. Hindus believe that human civilization degenerates spiritually during the Kali Yuga, referred to as the Dark Age because in it people are as far away as possible from God. Hinduism symbolically represents morality as an Indian bull. Common attributes and consequences are spiritual bankruptcy, mindless hedonism, breakdown of all social structure and materialism, unrestricted egotism and maladies of mind and body.
In Satya Yuga, the first stage of development, the bull has four legs, but in each age morality is reduced by one quarter. By the age of Kali, morality is reduced to only a quarter of that of the golden age, so that the bull of Dharma has only one leg; the Mahabharata War and the decimation of Kauravas thus happened at the "Yuga-Sandhi", the point of transition from one yuga to another. The scriptures mention Sage Narada to have momentarily intercepted the demon Kali on his way to the Earth when Duryodhana was about to be born in order to make him an embodiment of arishadvargas and adharma in preparation of the era of decay in values and the consequent havoc. A discourse by Markandeya in the Mahabharata identifies some of the attributes of Kali Yuga. In relation to rulers, it lists: Rulers will become unreasonable: they will levy taxes unfairly. Rulers will no longer see it as their duty to promote spirituality, or to protect their subjects: they will become a danger to the world. People will start seeking countries where wheat and barley form the staple food source.
"At the end of Kali-yuga, when there exist no topics on the subject of God at the residences of so-called saints and respectable gentlemen of the three higher varnas and when nothing is known of the techniques of sacrifice by word, at that time the Lord will appear as the supreme chastiser." (Srimad-Bhagavatam With regard to human relationships, Markandeya's discourse says: Avarice and wrath will be common. Humans will display animosity towards each other. Ignorance of dharma will occur. People will see nothing wrong in that. Lust will be viewed as acceptable and sexual intercourse will be seen as the central requirement of life. Sin will increase exponentially, while virtue will cease to flourish. People will become addicted to intoxicating drugs. Gurus will no longer be respected and their students will attempt
4th century BC
The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of epoch, or historical period; this century marked the height of Classical Greek civilization in all of its aspects. By the year 400 Greek philosophy, art and architecture had spread far and wide, with the numerous independent Greek colonies that had sprung up throughout the lands of the eastern Mediterranean. Arguably the most important series of political events in this period were the conquests of Alexander, bringing about the collapse of the once formidable Persian Empire and spreading Greek culture far into the east. Alexander dreamed of an east/west union, but when his short life ended in 323 BC, his vast empire was plunged into civil war as his generals each carved out their own separate kingdoms, thus began the Hellenistic age, a period characterized by a more absolute approach to rule, with Greek kings taking on royal trappings and setting up hereditary successions. While a degree of democracy still existed in some of the remaining independent Greek cities, many scholars see this age as marking the end of classical Greece.
In India, the Mauryan Empire was founded in 322 BC by Chandragupta Maurya who expanded his power westwards across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers in the wake of the withdrawal westward by the armies of Alexander. China in the 4th century BC entered an era of constant warfare known as the Warring States period; the period saw the rapid rise of large states over smaller ones thanks to technological advancement. Though the period has been characterized by historians as being excessively violent compared to the Spring and Autumn period, it was punctured by several cultural and social growths through the expansion of several different sects of Confucianism and Taoism, the formulation of Legalist thought. Oldest Brāhmī script dates from this period. Brāhmī is the ancestor of Brahmic scripts, used in much of Southeast Asia. Romans build their first aqueduct. Chinese use the handheld trigger crossbow for the first time; the first crossbow, the gastraphetes, is invented at Syracuse.
Burnt brick'or fired bricks' were first used in Medeterranean Civilizations. Donkey-powered mills or ` Pompeiian Mills' were first used in Italy. In Greece, Aristotle proposes the division of the known sciences. Torque with lion's-head terminals, from Susa was made, it is now in Paris. Daric, a coin first minted under Darius I of Persia is made, it is now kept in Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Second half of the 4th century BC – Tomb II, so called Tomb of Philip II of Macedon, Macedonia is made. Starting in the year 309 BC, the Chinese historian Sima Qian wrote that the Qin-employed engineer Bi Ling of the newly conquered State of Shu in Sichuan had the shoulder of a mountain cut through, making the'Separated Hill' that abated the Mo River, excavated two canals in the plain of Chengdu; the significance of this was phenomenal, as it allowed the new Guardian irrigation system to populate an area of some 40 by 50 miles with over five million people, still in use today. The Chinese astronomer Gan De divides the celestial sphere into 365¼ degrees, the tropical year into 365¼ days at a time when most astronomers used the Babylon division of the celestial sphere as 360 degrees.
First written in Sanskrit. Agnodice, female Athenian physician and midwife Alexander the Great, king of Macedon Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Macedonian diadoch Antipater, Macedonian statesman Atropates, Persian nobleman Bessus, Persian satrap of Bactria Cassander, King of Macedon Chandragupta Maurya, Founder of the "Mauryan Dynasty" Craterus, Macedonian diadoch Darius III, king of the Achaemenid Empire Demetrius Poliocretes, King of Macedon Demosthenes, Athenian statesman and orator Dhana Nanda, last emperor of the Nanda dynasty Duke Xiao of Qin, ruler of Qin Epaminondas, Theban statesman Hephaestion, Macedonian general King Wuling of Zhao, ruler of Zhao Lysimachus, Macedonian diadoh and king of Thrace Mahapadma Nanda, founding emperor of the Nanda dynasty Manius Curius Dentatus, Roman statesman Nakhthorheb, last native Pharaoh of Egypt Pang Juan, Chinese general Parmenion, Macedonian general Pelopidas, Theban statesman Perdiccas, Macedonian diadoh Philip II, King of Macedon Ptolemy I Soter, Macedonian diadoh and king of Egypt Porus, King of the Pauravas, in the Indian Subcontinent Seleucus I Nicator, Macedonian diadoh and founder of the Seleucid Empire Shang Yang, Chinese statesman Su Qin, Chinese politician and strategist Tian Ji, Chinese general Zhang Yi, Chinese strategist Apelles, Greek painter Cephisodotus the Elder, Greek sculptor Leochares, Greek sculptor Lysippos, Greek sculptor Praxiteles, Greek sculptor Scopas, Greek sculptor and architect Demetrius of Phalerum, Greek rhetorician Isocrates, Greek rhetorician and writer Menander, Greek playwright Onesicritus, Greek historical writer Qu Yuan, Chinese poet Simonides of Ceos, Greek lyric poet Xenophon, Greek historian and writer Anaximenes of Lampsacus, Greek rhetorician and historian.
Antisthenes, Greek philosopher Archytas, Greek philosopher Aristippus, Greek philosopher Aristotle, Greek philosopher Callisthenes, Greek historian Chanakya, Indian economist and political advisor Crates of Thebes, Greek philosopher Diogenes of Sinope, Greek philosopher Epicurus, Greek philosopher Mencius, Chinese philosopher Panini, Indian philosopher and writer Plato, Greek philosopher Pyrrho, Greek philosopher Socrates, Greek Philo
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon
An Olympiad is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 3rd year of the 699th Olympiad will begin in mid-summer 2019. A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games for the summer sports; the first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second in 1900, so on. The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD, but as the Gregorian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.
An ancient Olympiad was a period of four years grouped together, counting inclusively as the ancients did. Each ancient Olympic year overlapped onto two of our modern reckoning of BC or AD years, from midsummer to midsummer. Example: Olympiad 140, year 1 = 220/219 BC. Therefore, the games would have been held in July/August of 220 BC and held the next time in July/August of 216 BC, after four olympic years had been completed; the sophist Hippias was the first writer to publish a list of victors of the Olympic Games, by the time of Eratosthenes, it was agreed that the first Olympic games had happened during the summer of 776 BC. The combination of victor lists and calculations from 776 BC onwards enabled Greek historians to use the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states; the first to do so was Timaeus of Tauromenium in the third century BC. Since for events of the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, some of the dates given by historian for events before the 5th century BC are unreliable.
In the 2nd century AD, Phlegon of Tralles summarised the events of each Olympiad in a book called Olympiads, an extract from this has been preserved by the Byzantine writer Photius. Christian chroniclers continued to use this Greek system of dating as a way of synchronising biblical events with Greek and Roman history. In the 3rd century AD, Sextus Julius Africanus compiled a list of Olympic victors up to 217 BC, this list has been preserved in the Chronicle of Eusebius. Early historians sometimes used the names of Olympic victors as a method of dating events to a specific year. For instance, Thucydides says in his account of the year 428 BC: "It was the Olympiad in which the Rhodian Dorieus gained his second victory". Dionysius of Halicarnassus dates the foundation of Rome to the first year of the seventh Olympiad, 752/1 BC. Since Rome was founded on April 21, in the last half of the ancient Olympic year, it would be 751 BC specifically. In Book 1 chapter 75 Dionysius states: "... Romulus, the first ruler of the city, began his reign in the first year of the seventh Olympiad, when Charops at Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon."
Diodorus Siculus dates the Persian invasion of Greece to 480 BC: "Calliades was archon in Athens, the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the stadion. It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece." Jerome, in his Latin translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius, dates the birth of Jesus Christ to year 3 of Olympiad 194, the 42nd year of the reign of the emperor Augustus, which equates to the year 2 BC. An Olympiad started with the holding of the games, which occurred on the first or second full moon after the summer solstice, in what we call July or August; the games were therefore a new years festival. In 776 BC this occurred on either July 23 or August 21.. Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were held by others than the Eleians; the Eleians declared such games Anolympiads, but it is assumed the winners were recorded.
During the 3rd century AD, records of the games are so scanty that historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit deriving from a sport was banned; some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad of 393AD. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the 5th century AD reckoning by Olympiads had become disused; the modern Olympiad is a period of four years, beginning at the opening of the Olympic Summer Games and ending at the opening of the next. The Olympiads are numbered consecutively from the first Games of the Olympiad celebrated in Athens in 1896; the XXXI Olympiad began on August 5, 2016 and will end on July 24, 2020. The Summer Olympics are more referred to as the Games of the Olympiad; the first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad Note, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does