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Year 439 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Festus; the denomination 439 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Battle of Guoloph: Vitalinus is defeated at the hands of Ambrosius Aurelianus and a combined force of Romano-British forces from across southern Britain. Litorius, Roman general, lays siege to Toulouse. During the decisive battle before the walls he suffers a severe defeat and is killed, only the heavy loss of Visigoths makes King Theodoric I decide to agree to a provisional restoration of the status quo. Licinia Eudoxia, wife of emperor Valentinian III, is granted the title of Augusta following the birth of their daughter Eudocia. Greek becomes an official language in the Eastern Roman Empire. Winter – Hun and Roman envoys meet at Margum, an important market town on the Sava River. After negotiations and his brother Bleda, who are present, accept a four-point peace plan.

Trading rights between the two states are confirmed and emperor Theodosius II pays an annual tribute of 700 pounds of gold. King Genseric invades Africa Proconsularis. October 19 – Carthage falls to the Vandals. Genseric establishes the Vandal Kingdom; the Vandals establish a North African granary that enables them to enforce their will on other nations, who are dependent on North Africa for grain and other food staples. Winter – The Vandals conquer Sicily, Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. Isaac the Great, Armenian apostolic patriarch, dies at Ashtishat, he helped to develop a Greek-inspired alphabet, translate the Bible, along with various Christian writings, into Armenian. The monastery of Mar Saba is founded near Bethlehem. Eudocia, Vandal queen and daughter of Valentinian III Ming Di, emperor of the Liu Song Dynasty Sabbas the Sanctified, Christian monk and saint Isaac, patriarch of Armenia Litorius, general of the Western Roman Empire Sima Maoying, empress of the Liu Song Dynasty Spearthrower Owl, ruler of Teotihuacan

Gavan Daws

Gavan Daws is an American writer and filmmaker residing in Honolulu, Hawaii. He writes about Hawaii, the Pacific, Asia. Daws is from Australia and got his B. A. in English and History from the University of Melbourne. He has a Ph. D. in Pacific History from the University of Hawaii at Manoa. His best-known works are Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands, in print since 1968. Daws co-produced and co-directed Angels of War: The People of Papua New Guinea and World War II, which won the Australian Film Institute Award for Best Documentary, his other work includes a stage play with music and choreography. He is a Fellow of the Academy of Humanities in Australia, served as the Pacific member of the UNESCO Commission on the Scientific and Cultural History of Humankind. 1968: Shoal of Time: A History of the Hawaiian Islands, New York. 1970: The Hawaiians, Island Heritage, Norfolk Island. 1973: Holy Man: Father Damien of Molokai, New York. 1980: A Dream of Islands, New York. 1981: Angels of War: The People of Papua New Guinea and World War II, Ronin Films.

Canberra. 1982: Night of the Dolphins, Deakin University, Australia. 1984: Holy Man: Father Damien of Molokai 1985: Land and Power in Hawaii, Benchmark Books, Honolulu. 1988: Hawaii: The Islands of Life, Nature Conservancy, Honolulu. 1989: Hawaii 1959-1989, Publishers Group Hawaii, Honolulu. 1994: Prisoners of The Japanese: POWs of World War II in the Pacific, William Morrow, New York. 1998: Follow The Music, FirstMedia, Santa Monica. 2000: Archipelago:The Islands of Indonesia, University of California, Berkeley. 2002: Bite The Hand: A Play, El Leon, Berkeley. 2006: Honolulu: The First Century, Mutual Publishing, Honolulu. 2008: Honolulu Stories: Voices of the Town Through the Years, Mutual Pubiishing, Honolulu. 2009: Wayfinding Through the Storm: Speaking Truth to Power at Kamehameha Schools 1993-1999, Honolulu. 2014: The Boy From Boort: Remembering Hank Nelson, Australian National University Press, Canberra. List of famous people from Hawaii Author's profile

Monique Limón

Monique Limón is an American politician serving in the California State Assembly. She is a Democrat representing the 37th Assembly District, encompassing over half of the County of Santa Barbara, as well as nearly a quarter of the County of Ventura. Monique earned a bachelor's degree from a master's degree from Columbia University, she served six years on the Santa Barbara Unified School District Board of Education. Additionally she served in the capacity of Assistant Director for the McNair Scholars Program at the University of California, Santa Barbara prior to serving in the Assembly, she is a former Commissioner on the Santa Barbara County Commission for Women. 2010–2016: Santa Barbara Unified School Board Trustee 2017–2018: Elected to the Assembly. Official website Campaign website

Herbster, Wisconsin

Herbster is a census-designated place in the Town of Clover in Bayfield County, United States, located on the south shore of Lake Superior. Herbster is 7 miles east of Port Wing and 8 miles west of Cornucopia on Wisconsin Highway 13, the main route through the community; the primary north/south route is by Lenawee Road / Forest Road 262, leading from Lake Superior to the Chequamegon National Forest. As of the 2010 census, its population was 104. Herbster has an area of all of it land; the Cranberry River joins the lake in the middle of the community. The unique ecosystems of Bark Point and Bark Bay sit just to the east of Herbster. Herbster's ZIP code is 54844. According to legend, Herbster was named after Billy Herbster. Herbster School closed its doors in 1990, but its historic log gymnasium remains open as a community center and town hall. School children from Herbster now attend school in Port Wing at South Shore School District. Logging remained the force in Herbster's economy throughout the 20th century, driven by the Isaksson family, who still operate the sawmill and remain the largest landowners in the area.

Today, service trades and a growing tourist industry have emerged as major players in the Herbster economy. Herbster has one restaurant at the crossroad of Lenawee Road and Highway 13. There are gift shops along Highway 13. Master cabinetmaker Howard Bowers ran a woodworking shop until his death in 2009. Community website

Enigmatic scale

The enigmatic scale is an unusual musical scale, with elements of both major and minor scales, as well as the whole-tone scale. It was published in a Milan journal as a musical challenge, with an invitation to harmonize it in some way. Italian composer Giuseppe Verdi, who invented the scale returned to composition with this "arbitrary scale" in his "Ave Maria", in response to a challenge printed in the Milan Gazzetta musicale to employ a musical conundrum; the "Ave Maria", compiled as part of the Quattro Pezzi Sacri, has been described as "that still incomprehensible into-one-another-gliding of harmonies over the entirely'unnatural' scala enigmatica". The piece features the scale both in its harmonies and as a cantus firmus throughout the short piece in whole-note values in the bass and each successively higher voice accompanying, "queer counterpoint far-fetched and difficult of intonation. The version of the scale starting on C is as follows: C, D♭, E, F♯, G♯, A♯, B, CThe scale has a general formula of: 1 – ♭2 – 3 – ♯4 – ♯5 – ♯6 – 7With the musical steps as following: Semitone, Tone and a half, Tone, Semitone, Semitone.

The scale lacks a perfect fourth and a perfect fifth above the starting note. Both the fourth and fifth degrees of a scale form the basis of standard chord progressions, which help establish the tonic; the scale was used by guitarist Joe Satriani in his piece "The Enigmatic" from Not of This Earth, Monte Pittman with the song "Missing" on "The Power Of Three", by pianist Juan María Solare in his piano miniature "Ave Verdi". It was used in the song "Enigma" from the 1989 album The Spin by the Yellowjackets composed by Russell Ferrante and Jimmy Haslip. Hewitt, Michael. 2013. Musical Scales of the World; the Note Tree. ISBN 978-0957547001

Harry Paddon

Henry Locke Paddon, known as Harry Paddon was a British doctor and medical missionary in Canada. Paddon was the son of Henry Wadham Locke Paddon and his wife Catherine Van Sommer, he was born in Thornton Heath on 9 August 1881. There were four children in the family: their mother died four days after his birth, of what was known as milk fever. For a period after her death they were brought up by their paternal grandparents, the Paddons. In 1883, their father suffered a breakdown that saw him permanently confined to an asylum, they were fostered by their maternal grandparents, the Van Sommers, in Wimbledon Park: first the two eldest girls moved there in 1883, Harry and his other sister joined them in 1888, having stayed with the Paddons in Eastbourne lodgings. Paddon was educated at Woodbridge Grammar School, Repton School under William Mordaunt Furneaux, he entered University College, Oxford in 1900. A troubled student, he graduated in 1906. Through the Fishermen's Mission, he encountered again Wilfred Grenfell, who had visited Repton.

He studied at St Thomas's Hospital, qualifying in early 1911, taking a position at the Guest Hospital in the Midlands. In 1912 Paddon moved to the hospital at Indian Harbour and Labrador founded by Grenfell, for the RNMDSF, he took on duties at Lake Melville. He married Mina Gilchrist, a nurse from New Brunswick, in 1913. In 1915 he moved to the hospital at North West River. In 1924 the hospital burned down: Paddon saw it rebuilt in a matter of months, he addressed malnutrition in the local population. In 1927, Paddon wrote the Ode to Labrador, which would be adopted as regional anthem. Paddon had a better relationship with Nain and Labrador's Moravian mission than Grenfell, was in 1930 able to bring a medical cruise in the Maraval there, his preoccupations included tuberculosis and education. He died in 1939 of a bacterial infection