Bandar-e Anzali is a city of Gilan Province, Iran. At the 2011 census, its population was 144,664. Anzali is one of the most important cities in Iran in terms of tourism and athletics; the city was home to the biggest port on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea. Bandar-e Anzali consists of an island called the surrounding lands. Tourist attractions include a clock tower called Manareh, the long harbour promenade, the water-logged delta and beach along the Sefid Rud. Anzali is an old city in ancient Iran, they are related to Kadusin, owing to their pleasant relationship with Cyprus and their cooperation in battles, they changed their name to Anzan "The Anshans of Persia", in which the Greeks called Anzaluy; this word in Pahlavi language means the variant Persian form of it is Anzalazh. Anzali Gulf was a safe harbour for trade ships and fishing boats, it was renamed to Pahlavi in 1935. In 1919, with the collapse of General Anton Denikin's White Russian army, eighteen of his ships sought refuge in Anzali.
On 18 May 1920, a Soviet flotilla of thirteen ships launched a surprise attack on Anzali, capturing the British garrison and the eighteen White Russian ships. This allowed for the establishment of the short-lived Persian Socialist Republic and the Persian Communist Party. Soviet authorities denied responsibility for the attack, blaming the local Russian naval commander for attacking under his own authority, its wonderful lagoon and City Hall edifice, Mian Poshte Palace and Motamedi Edifice, are its tourist attractions. Until 1980, when it was moved to Noshahr, Anzali was the site of the Caspian University of Naval Science; the structure Of Naser-al-din Shah Place, built by Moayer-ol-mamalekk and its famous Sangi Bath was destroyed by people and natural factors. A wonder of Sangi Bath was the system of durability water in its basins; some groups think. This Ghajar Structure built in two floors with the help of Mirza Abd-ol-Vahab; the Anzali Lagoon divides the Anzali Port in two parts. The city is connected by two bridges to the Beheshti Island.
There is a caviar processing factory in Bandar-e Anzali, some old ruins from 19th century and the popular Shanbeh Bazaar. Tourbebar is a village about 40 kilometers near the Anzali Lagoon. Bandar-e Anzali has a humid subtropical climate, it has the most humid climate of any city in Iran, having a climate somewhat similar in its heavy autumn and early winter rainfall, persistent high humidity and low sunshine to the Sea of Japan coast of Japan, though it receives much less summer rainfall than that region. The warm and humid weather has allowed this region to grow crops such as rice and tea that require large amounts of moisture with the extra water draining from the Elburz Mountains. Bandar-e Anzali is a center of caviar production; the preparation and marketing of, a state monopoly, handled through the Iranian Fishing Company under the control of the Finance Ministry. The public is not admitted to the immense refrigerated hangars where tons of sturgeons, some as large as 3 meters long and weighing 100 kilograms, are stored after the removal of the caviar equivalent to about one tenth of their weight.
The most popular sport in Anzali is football, the city is known as a football hub in Iran. Malavan, one of the most famous teams in Iran, is the main team of the city, they play in the second tier Azadegan League. Current and former national team player such as Sirous Ghayeghran, Saeid Ezatolahi, Mohammad Mayeli Kohan, Jalal Hosseini, Maziar Zare, Mohammad Gholami, Jalal Rafkhaei, Sosha Makani have come from Anzali. In the past, citizens of Anzali were involved in the fish trade. Rice farming and agriculture are the other traditional jobs in Anzali, are practiced in the villages surrounding the city; the majority of Anzalichi's are adherents of the Shia Islam sect, although there is a sizeable Armenian Christian minority. The people of Anzali speak Persian as the national language. Official website www.anzaliport.ir Anzali News Wikispaces has a wiki about: anzali
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army shortened to Red Army was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The army was established after the 1917 October Revolution; the Bolsheviks raised an army to oppose the military confederations of their adversaries during the Russian Civil War. Beginning in February 1946, the Red Army, along with the Soviet Navy, embodied the main component of the Soviet Armed Forces; the Red Army provided the largest land force in the Allied victory in the European theatre of World War II, its invasion of Manchuria assisted the unconditional surrender of Imperial Japan. During operations on the Eastern Front, it accounted for 75–80% of casualties the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS suffered during the war and captured the Nazi German capital, Berlin. In September 1917, Vladimir Lenin wrote: "There is only one way to prevent the restoration of the police, and, to create a people's militia and to fuse it with the army."
At the time, the Imperial Russian Army had started to collapse. 23% of the male population of the Russian Empire were mobilized. The Tsarist general Nikolay Dukhonin estimated that there had been 2 million deserters, 1.8 million dead, 5 million wounded and 2 million prisoners. He estimated the remaining troops as numbering 10 million. While the Imperial Russian Army was being taken apart, "it became apparent that the rag-tag Red Guard units and elements of the imperial army who had gone over the side of the Bolsheviks were quite inadequate to the task of defending the new government against external foes." Therefore, the Council of People's Commissars decided to form the Red Army on 28 January 1918. They envisioned a body "formed from the class-conscious and best elements of the working classes." All citizens of the Russian republic aged 18 or older were eligible. Its role being the defense "of the Soviet authority, the creation of a basis for the transformation of the standing army into a force deriving its strength from a nation in arms, furthermore, the creation of a basis for the support of the coming Socialist Revolution in Europe."
Enlistment was conditional upon "guarantees being given by a military or civil committee functioning within the territory of the Soviet Power, or by party or trade union committees or, in extreme cases, by two persons belonging to one of the above organizations." In the event of an entire unit wanting to join the Red Army, a "collective guarantee and the affirmative vote of all its members would be necessary." Because the Red Army was composed of peasants, the families of those who served were guaranteed rations and assistance with farm work. Some peasants who remained at home yearned to join the Army. If they were turned away they would prepare care-packages. In some cases the money they earned would go towards tanks for the Army; the Council of People's Commissars appointed itself the supreme head of the Red Army, delegating command and administration of the army to the Commissariat for Military Affairs and the Special All-Russian College within this commissariat. Nikolai Krylenko was the supreme commander-in-chief, with Aleksandr Myasnikyan as deputy.
Nikolai Podvoisky became the commissar for Pavel Dybenko, commissar for the fleet. Proshyan, Steinberg were specified as people's commissars as well as Vladimir Bonch-Bruyevich from the Bureau of Commissars. At a joint meeting of Bolsheviks and Left Socialist-Revolutionaries, held on 22 February 1918, Krylenko remarked: "We have no army; the demoralized soldiers are fleeing, panic-stricken, as soon as they see a German helmet appear on the horizon, abandoning their artillery and all war material to the triumphantly advancing enemy. The Red Guard units are brushed aside like flies. We have no power to stay the enemy; the Russian Civil War occurred in three periods: October 1917 – November 1918: From the Bolshevik Revolution to the First World War Armistice, developed from the Bolshevik government's nationalization of traditional Cossack lands in November 1917. This provoked the insurrection of General Alexey Maximovich Kaledin's Volunteer Army in the River Don region; the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk aggravated Russian internal politics.
The situation encouraged direct Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, in which twelve foreign countries supported anti-Bolshevik militias. A series of engagements resulted, amongst others, the Czechoslovak Legion, the Polish 5th Rifle Division, the pro-Bolshevik Red Latvian Riflemen. January 1919 – November 1919: Initially the White armies advanced: from the south, under General Anton Denikin; the Whites defeated the Red Army on each front. Leon Trotsky reformed and counterattacked: the Red Army repelled Admiral Kolchak's army in June, the armies of General Denikin and General Yudenich in October. By mid-Nove
Anapa is a town in Krasnodar Krai, located on the northern coast of the Black Sea near the Sea of Azov. Population: 58,990 ; the area around Anapa was settled in antiquity. It was a major seaport for the Natkhuay tribe of the Adyghe people and the capital of Sindica; the colony of Gorgippia was built on the site of Sinda in the 6th century BCE by Pontic Greeks, who named it after a king of the Cimmerian Bosporus. In the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, Gorgippia flourished as part of the Bosporan Kingdom, as did its guild of shipowners, which controlled maritime trade in the eastern part of the Black Sea. A fine statue of Neokles was unearthed by Russian archaeologists and is now on exhibit at the Russian Museum. Gorgippia was inhabited until the 3rd century CE; these tribes, of Circassian or Adyghe origin, gave Anapa its modern name. The Black Sea littoral was overrun by successive waves of Asiatic nomads, including the Sarmatians, Huns, Gokturks, Khazars and Tatars; the settlement was renamed Mapa by the Genoese at the turn of the 14th century.
Genoese domination lasted until the arrival of an Ottoman fleet in 1475. The Turks built a fort against the Russian Cossacks; the fortress was attacked by the Russian Empire and was all but destroyed during its last siege in 1829. The town was passed to Russia after the Treaty of Adrianople. See Russian conquest of the Caucasus#Black Sea Coast, it was included in Black Sea Okrug of Kuban Oblast and was granted town status in 1846. It was occupied by Ottomans between 1853-1856 during the Crimean War, it became part of Black Sea Governorate in 1896. Elizabeth Pilenko named as a saint in the Ukrainian Orthodox Church, was the mayor during the Russian Revolution, it became part of Kuban-Black Sea Oblast in 1920. During World War II, it was occupied and demolished by Nazi Germany with the help of Romanian troops between August 30, 1942 and September 22, 1943. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Anapa serves as the administrative center of Anapsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is, together with three rural localities, incorporated separately as the Town of Anapa—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.
As a municipal division, the territories of the Town of Anapa and of Anapsky District are incorporated as Anapa Urban Okrug. The town boasts a number of sanatoria and hotels. Anapa and several other cities along the Russian coast of the Black Sea have enjoyed a substantial increase in popularity since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, which left traditional Soviet resort cities in Abkhazia on the other side of the national border. Anapa is served by the Anapa Airport. Anapa, like the other Black Sea coast resorts, has a superb sunny summer climate. Anapa has beautiful sandy beaches. However, Anapa attracts tourists from outside Russia due to its modest infrastructure and its inconvenient accessibility from Western Europe via Moscow or Krasnodar. Anapa remains an attractive and inexpensive option for Russians who prefer traditional Russian resorts to more expensive destinations. Transportation facilities include the Anapa Airport, a railway station, an international passenger port for small-tonnage ships, a bus station, a network of highways.
Anapa has a humid subtropical climate at the lower elevations. Its average annual temperature is +9.0 °C at night. Average annual precipitation is about 560 millimeters; the Town Theater of Anapa is located on Krymskaya Street. It was opened after the reconstruction of the Town Cultural Center. There are twenty nine public libraries including four for children. In 2010 the libraries of Anapa received more than 8,000 books, magazines and newspapers were ordered costing more than 1,000,000 roubles, in addition, nine hundred CDs were purchased. There is museum of Local History on Protapova Street; the Gorgippia Archeological museum Gates of Turkish fortress Church of St. Onuphrius Lighthouse Wildlife preserve of Bolshoy Utrish south of Sukko Maria Skobtsova Valentin Mashukov Germogen Korolyov Mikhail Boyur Vitaly Astapenko Vladimir Tsukanov Anatoly Pakhomov Tatyana Yevsikova Kinoshock film festival Blue-eyed Anapa song Festival Russian coast guard academy Anapa is twinned with: Gomel, Belarus Novy Urengoy, Russia Kizlyar, Russia Управление по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Администрации Краснодарского края.
Справочная информация №34.01-707/13-03 от 23 мая 2013 г. «Реестр административно-территориальных единиц Краснодарского края».. Законодательное Собрание Краснодарского края. Закон №676-КЗ от 1 апреля 2004 г. «Об установлении границ муниципального образования город-курорт Анапа и наделении его статусом городского округа», в ред. Закона №1756-КЗ от 3 июня 2009 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые законодательные акты Краснодарского края об установлении границ муниципальных образований». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Кубанские новости", №64–65, 17 апреля 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Krasnodar Krai. Law #676-KZ of April 1, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formation of the Resort City of Anapa and on Granting It the Status of an Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #1756-
58th Combined Arms Army
The 58th Army is an army of the Russian Ground Forces, headquartered at Vladikavkaz, North Ossetia-Alania, within Russia's Southern Military District. It was formed in 1941 as part of the Soviet Union's Red Army and has been part of the Russian Army since 1995, it was first formed in the Siberian Military District in November 1941, including the 362nd, 364th, 368th, 370th, 380th, 384th Rifle Divisions and the 77th Cavalry Division and moved to the Arkhangelsk Military District, but the Army was redesignated the 3rd Tank Army in May 1942. It was reestablished within the Kalinin Front in June 1942, in July included the 16th and 27th Guards Rifle Divisions, the 215th and 375th Rifle Divisions, the 35th and 81st Tank Brigades, other support units, it was reformed in the Transcaucasian Front from the 24th Army on 28 August 1942, under General Khomenko of the NKVD. Much of its senior cadre came from the NKVD, among its missions was to keep order in the Caucasus in the Groznyi and Makhachkala regions.
This was because of a Chechen uprising that had gone on since 1941. 58th Army joined the North Caucasus Front. On 1 November 1942 it consisted of the 271st and 416th Rifle Division, the Makhachkala Division of the NKVD. Prior to the North Caucasus Front putting its main effort into the Kerch-Eltigen Operation the Army HQ was reorganised as Headquarters Volga Military District in October 1943; the headquarters was reformed in 1995 in the North Caucasus Military District from the 42nd Army Corps at Vladikavkaz. During the Second Chechen War, the Army was commanded by General Vladimir Shamanov. On 3 August 2008, five battalions of the Russian 58th Army were moved to the vicinity of Roki Tunnel that links Georgia's breakaway South Ossetia with Russia's North Ossetia. On 8 August 2008 the 58th Army crossed the border into Georgia and engaged in combat against Georgian forces, most notably in the city of Tskhinvali, its then-commander, General Anatoly Khrulyov was wounded in action. In June 2014 Ukrainian troops captured a damaged BM-21 Grad launcher, which the Ukrainians identified as equipment of the 58th Army of the Russian Federation.
Major general Sergey Kuzovlev became commander of the army on 18 August 2016. In late 2016 the Russian Ministry of Defense announced that the 42nd Guards Motor Rifle Division had been reformed from the 8th Guards Mountain Motor Rifle Brigade, the 17th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade, the 18th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade. In January 2017, 20th Guards Army commander Major general Yevgeny Nikiforov replaced Kuzovlev; the Army operates in a close coordination with the 4th Air Force and Air Defence Army of the district, includes: 42nd Motor Rifle Division – Khankala and Kalinovskaya in the Chechnya 19th Motor Rifle Division – Vladikavkaz 205th Separate Motorized Rifle Brigade – Budenovsk 136th Guards Separate Motorized Rifle Brigade – Buynaksk, Dagestan 135th Separate Motorized Rifle Regiment – Prochladny, Kabardino-Balkaria 291st Separate Artillery Brigade – Maikop – 943rd Multiple Rocket Launcher Regiment – Krasnooktabrsky 1128th Anti-Tank Regiment – Maikop 67th Separate Anti-Aircraft Rocket Brigade – Volgograd area 487th Separate Helicopter Regiment – Budenovsk 11th Separate Engineer Regiment – Kavkazskay 234th Separate Signals Regiment – Vladikavkaz 22nd Separate Regiment of Electronic Warfare- Vladikavkaz 8th Guards Mountain Motor Rifle Brigade – Borzoy 17th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade – Shali 18th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade – Khankala and Kalinovskaya, Chechnya 19th Motor Rifle Brigade – Vladikavkaz 20th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade – Volgograd 136th Guards Motor Rifle Brigade – Buynaksk 291st Artillery Brigade – Troitskaya 42nd Guards Motor Rifle Division 19th Separate Motor Rifle Brigade 136th Separate Guards Motor Rifle Brigade 4th Guards Military Base 12th Rocket Brigade 291st Artillery Brigade 67th Anti-Aircraft Rocket Brigade 100th Reconnaissance Brigade 34th Headquarters Brigade 40th NBC Protection Regiment 31st Engineer Sapper Regiment 78th Logistic Support Brigade 14th Separate Electronic Warfare Battalion Murphy, Paul J.
The Wolves of Islam: Russia and the Faces of Chechen Terror, Brassey's, 2004
Battle of the Caucasus
The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II. On 25 July 1942, German troops captured Rostov-on-Don, opening the Caucasus region of the southern Soviet Union, the oil fields beyond at Maikop and Baku, to the Germans. Two days prior, Adolf Hitler issued a directive to launch such an operation into the Caucasus region, to be named Operation Edelweiß. German forces were compelled to withdraw from the area that winter as Operation Little Saturn threatened to cut them off. North Caucasian Front - until September 1942 Transcaucasian Front Black Sea Fleet Azov Sea Flotilla Army Group A - General Field Marshal Wilhelm List 1st Panzer Army- General Paul von Kleist 17th Army - Colonel-General Richard Ruoff 3rd Romanian Army - General Petre Dumitrescu Operation Edelweiss, named after the mountain flower, was a German plan to gain control over the Caucasus and capture the oil fields of Baku during the Soviet-German War.
The operation was authorised by Hitler on 23 July 1942. The main forces included Army Group A commanded by Wilhelm List, 1st Panzer Army, 4th Panzer Army, 17th Army, part of the Luftflotte 4 and the 3rd Romanian Army. Army Group A was supported to the east by Army Group B commanded by Fedor von Bock and by the remaining 4th Air Fleet aircraft; the land forces, accompanied by 15,000 oil industry workers, included 167,000 troopers, 4,540 guns and 1,130 tanks. Several oil firms such as "German Oil on Caucasus", "Ost-Öl" and "Karpaten-Öl" had been established in Germany, they were awarded an exclusive 99-year lease to exploit the Caucasian oil fields. For this purpose, a large number of pipes—which proved useful to Soviet oil industry workers—were delivered. A special economic inspection "A", headed by Lieutenant-General Nidenfuhr was created. Bombing of the oil fields was forbidden. To defend them from destruction by Soviet units under the command of Nikolai Baibakov and Semyon Budyonny, an SS guard regiment and a Cossack regiment were formed.
The head of the Abwehr developed Operation Schamil, which called for landing in the Grozny and Maikop regions. They would be supported by the local fifth column. After neutralizing the Soviet counter-attack in the Izyum-Barvenkovsk direction the German Army Group A attacked towards the Caucasus; when Rostov-on-Don, nicknamed "The Gates of Caucasus," fell on 23 July 1942, the tank units of Ewald von Kleist moved across the Caucasian Mountain Range. The "Edelweiss" division commander, Hubert Lanz, decided to advance through the gorges of rivers of the Kuban River basin and by crossing the Marukhskiy Pass, Uchkulan reach the Klukhorskiy Pass, through the Khotyu-tau Pass block the upper reaches of the Baksan River and the Donguz-Orun and Becho passes. Concurrently with the outflanking maneuvers, the Caucasian Mountain Range was supposed to be crossed through such passes as Sancharo and Marukhskiy to reach Kutaisi, Zugdidi and the Soviet Georgian capital city of Tbilisi; the units of the 4th German Mountain Division, manned with Tyroleans, were active in this thrust.
They succeeded in advancing 30 km toward Sukhumi. To attack from the Kuban region, capture the passes that led to Elbrus, cover the "Edelweiss" flank, a vanguard detachment of 150 men commanded by Captain Heinz Groth, was formed. From the Old Karachay through the Khurzuk aul and the Ullu-kam Gorge the detachment reached the Khotyu-tau Pass, which had not been defended by the Soviet troops. Khotyu-tau gained a new name — "The Pass of General Konrad"; the starting point of the operation on the Krasnodar-Pyatigorsk-Maikop line was reached on 10 August 1942. On 16 August the battalion commanded by von Hirschfeld reached the Kadar Gorge. On 21 August troops from the 1st Mountain Division planted the flag of Nazi Germany on the summit of Mount Elbrus, the highest peak in the Caucasus and Europe. 3 August 1942 - Wehrmacht takes Stavropol 10 August 1942 - Wehrmacht takes Maykop 12 August 1942 - Wehrmacht takes Krasnodar 25 August 1942 - Wehrmacht takes Mozdok 11 September 1942 - Wehrmacht and Romanian Army take Novorossiysk End of September 1942 - Wehrmacht blitzkrieg stopped at two Chechen-Ingush ASSR towns: Malgobek and Ordzhonikidze There were no military operations in the region in 1941.
But the region was affected by warfare elsewhere in the Soviet Union. In his memoirs, Soviet Transcaucasian Front commander Ivan Tiulenev recounts how thousands of civilians attempted to flee from Ukraine to the comparatively safe Caspian ports, such as Makhachkala and Baku; the Caucasus area became a new area of industry when 226 factories were evacuated there during the industrial evacuations undertaken by the Soviet Union in 1941. After the Grozny to Kiev line was captured during Axis advances, a new link between Moscow and Transcaucasia was established with the construction of the new railway line running from Baku to Orsk, bypassing the front line Grozny, while a shipping line was maintained over the Caspian Sea through the town of Krasnovodsk in Turkmenistan. In 1942, the German Army launched Operation Edelweiss, aimed at advancing to the oil field of Azerbaijan; the German offensive slowed as it entered the mountains in the southern Caucasus and did not reach all of its 1942 objectives.
After the Soviet breakthroughs in the region around Stali
World War II
World War II known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries; the major participants threw their entire economic and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China, it included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, the only use of nuclear weapons in war. Japan, which aimed to dominate Asia and the Pacific, was at war with China by 1937, though neither side had declared war on the other. World War II is said to have begun on 1 September 1939, with the invasion of Poland by Germany and subsequent declarations of war on Germany by France and the United Kingdom.
From late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Finland and the Baltic states. Following the onset of campaigns in North Africa and East Africa, the fall of France in mid 1940, the war continued between the European Axis powers and the British Empire. War in the Balkans, the aerial Battle of Britain, the Blitz, the long Battle of the Atlantic followed. On 22 June 1941, the European Axis powers launched an invasion of the Soviet Union, opening the largest land theatre of war in history; this Eastern Front trapped most crucially the German Wehrmacht, into a war of attrition. In December 1941, Japan launched a surprise attack on the United States as well as European colonies in the Pacific. Following an immediate U. S. declaration of war against Japan, supported by one from Great Britain, the European Axis powers declared war on the U.
S. in solidarity with their Japanese ally. Rapid Japanese conquests over much of the Western Pacific ensued, perceived by many in Asia as liberation from Western dominance and resulting in the support of several armies from defeated territories; the Axis advance in the Pacific halted in 1942. Key setbacks in 1943, which included a series of German defeats on the Eastern Front, the Allied invasions of Sicily and Italy, Allied victories in the Pacific, cost the Axis its initiative and forced it into strategic retreat on all fronts. In 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained its territorial losses and turned toward Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in Central China, South China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy and captured key Western Pacific islands; the war in Europe concluded with an invasion of Germany by the Western Allies and the Soviet Union, culminating in the capture of Berlin by Soviet troops, the suicide of Adolf Hitler and the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945.
Following the Potsdam Declaration by the Allies on 26 July 1945 and the refusal of Japan to surrender under its terms, the United States dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on 6 and 9 August respectively. With an invasion of the Japanese archipelago imminent, the possibility of additional atomic bombings, the Soviet entry into the war against Japan and its invasion of Manchuria, Japan announced its intention to surrender on 15 August 1945, cementing total victory in Asia for the Allies. Tribunals were set up by fiat by the Allies and war crimes trials were conducted in the wake of the war both against the Germans and the Japanese. World War II changed the political social structure of the globe; the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The Soviet Union and United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the nearly half-century long Cold War. In the wake of European devastation, the influence of its great powers waned, triggering the decolonisation of Africa and Asia.
Most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic expansion. Political integration in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities and create a common identity; the start of the war in Europe is held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred and the two wars merged in 1941; this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935; the British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the fo
Transcaucasian Military District
The Transcaucasian Military District, a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces, traces its history to May 1921 and the incorporation of Armenia and Georgia into the Soviet Union. It was disbanded by being redesignated as a Group of Forces in the early 1990s after the Soviet Union collapse; the military district formed as a basis of the modern day armed forces of Armenia and Georgia. It was formed from the Red Army's Separate Caucasian Army, which became the Red Banner Caucasian Army in August 1923. On 17 May 1935 the Red Banner Caucasus Army was redesignated the Transcaucasian Military District; the Georgian and Azerbaijani national formations, plus units from the 11th Soviet Red Army, all joined the new district about this time. In July 1936 the District's formations and units received designations according to the countrywide numbering scheme and became: the 9th Mountain Rifle Division, named for the Central Executive Committee of the Georgian SSR. On 22 June 1941 the District consisted of the 3rd, 23rd Rifle Corps and 40th Rifle Corps, the 28th Mechanised Corps, which included the 6th and 54th Tank Divisions and the 236th Motorised Division, five unattached divisions – the 63rd, 76th, 77th Rifle, the 17th Mountain Cavalry Division and the 24th Cavalry Division, three fortified regions.
On 1 August 1941 the 46th Army was formed from the 3rd Rifle Corps headquarters. 45th Army was formed from the 23rd Rifle Corps. 45th and 46th Armies guarded the Turkish border. The 44th Army was formed from the 40th Rifle Corps and the 47th Army formed from the 27th Mechanized Corps. Both armies were deployed on the Iranian border. On 23 August, the military district became the Transcaucasus Front. District headquarters was subordinated to the front's military council and directed the formation of new units, it was disbanded on 14 September 1941. On 28 January 1942, the military district was reformed when the Caucasian Front was divided into the Transcaucasian Military District and the Crimean Front; the district was commanded by Ivan Tyulenev and included the 45th and 46th Armies, as well as 4 rifle divisions and a rifle brigade. On 28 April 1942, the district became the second formation of the Transcaucasian Front. On 9 July 1945, the Baku Military Districts were formed from the Transcaucasian Front.
Tbilisi Military District Headquarters was in Tbilisi and was formed from the Transcaucasian Front headquarters. The district controlled forces in the Armenian SSRs; the district was commanded by former 27th Army commander. The headquarters of the Baku Military District was formed from 69th Army headquarters and was located in Baku; the district controlled forces in the Azerbaijan SSR and Dagestan ASSR. It was commanded by former 69th Army commander. In October 1945, Army General Ivan Maslennikov took command. On 15 November 1945, control of forces in the Nakhichevan ASSR was transferred from the Tbilisi Military District to the Baku Military District. Lieutenant General Mikhail Ozimin became Tbilisi Military District commander in April 1946. In May 1946, both districts became part of the Transcaucasian Military District, commanded by Maslennikov. After the war the Transcaucasus Front reverted to being a part of the Headquarters Transcaucasus Military District, in Tbilisi. In 1979 Scott and Scott reported the District' headquarters address as Tbilisi-4, Ulitsa Dzneladze, Dom 46.
The District became part of the Southern Direction, headquartered in Baku and including the North Caucasus and Turkestan Military Districts, in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Komandarm 2nd rank Mikhail Lewandowski Komkor Nikolay Kuibyshev Marshal of the Soviet Union Alexander Yegorov Komkor Ivan Tyulenev Lieutenant General Mikhail Yefremov Lieutenant General Dmitry Kozlov Lieutenant General Vladimir Lvov Maslennikov, Army General.