Christopher Michael Pratt is an American actor. He rose to prominence for his television roles as Andy Dwyer in the NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation, for which he received critical acclaim and was nominated for the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series in 2013, he starred earlier in his career as Bright Abbott in The WB drama series Everwood and has roles in Wanted, Jennifer's Body, The Five-Year Engagement, Zero Dark Thirty, Delivery Man, Her. Pratt achieved leading man status in 2014 after starring in two critically and commercially successful films, Warner Animation Group's The Lego Movie as Emmet Brickowski and Marvel Studios' Guardians of the Galaxy as Star-Lord. In 2015, he starred in Jurassic World, the fourth installment in the Jurassic Park franchise, his most financially successful film up until the release of Avengers: Infinity War. In 2015, Time named Pratt one of the 100 most influential people in the world on the annual Time 100 list. Pratt continued his leading man run in 2016 with The Magnificent Seven and Passengers.
He reprises his role as Star-Lord in the Marvel Cinematic Universe in Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2, Avengers: Infinity War and its upcoming sequel, Avengers: Endgame. Christopher Michael Pratt was born in Virginia, the youngest child of Kathleen Louise, who worked at a Safeway supermarket, Daniel Clifton Pratt, who worked in mining and remodeling houses. Pratt's father died in 2014 from multiple sclerosis, his mother is of Norwegian descent. When Pratt was three years old, the family moved to Washington. Pratt placed fifth in a high school state wrestling tournament, recalling that when his wrestling coach asked him what he wished to do with his life, he said "'I don't know, but I know I'll be famous and I know I'll make a shit ton of money.' I had no idea how. I'd done nothing proactive." He graduated from Lake Stevens High School in 1997. Pratt dropped out of community college halfway through the first semester and, after working as a discount ticket salesman and daytime stripper, he ended up homeless in Maui, sleeping in a van and a tent on the beach.
He told The Independent, "It's a pretty awesome place to be homeless. We just drank and smoked weed and worked minimal hours, just enough to cover gas and fishing supplies." He recalled listening to the Dr. Dre album 2001 daily, to the point. During his time in Maui, he worked for Christian missionary organization Jews for Jesus. At 19 years old, Pratt was waiting tables at the Bubba Gump Shrimp Company restaurant in Maui when he was discovered by actress and director Rae Dawn Chong, she cast him in her directorial debut, the short horror film Cursed Part 3, filmed in Los Angeles. Pratt's first regular television role was as Harold Brighton "Bright" Abbott on the series Everwood. After Everwood's cancellation, he joined the cast of The O. C. for its fourth season, playing activist Winchester "Ché" Cook. He had an appearance in the 2008 action film Wanted, where James McAvoy hits him with a keyboard. In 2009, Pratt began playing Andy Dwyer on the NBC comedy series Recreation. Meant to be a temporary character, producers liked Pratt so much they asked him to become a series regular.
This would become his breakout character. Pratt portrayed Oakland Athletics first baseman/catcher Scott Hatteberg in the 2011 film Moneyball, he was told that he was too fat to play Hatteberg, as he had gained 40 pounds, which Pratt attributed to the cooking of his then-girlfriend, actress Anna Faris. Deciding to lose weight, he worked out continuously checking to see if the part was cast, losing a total of 30 pounds; when he felt he had lost enough, he sent a photo of himself to the casting director and won the part. Prior to the release of Moneyball, Pratt was typecast as youthful and somewhat immature characters. In Moneyball, he played a dramatic role as a father and dejected baseball player who once feared his career was over and who had the difficult task of learning a new defensive position, he gained back the weight he had lost to appear in the film 10 Years lost it again to portray a Navy SEAL in the film Zero Dark Thirty. He played the co-worker of Joaquin Phoenix character in Spike Jonze's sci-fi romance Her in December 2013.
Although Pratt had been known until that point for playing supporting characters, was best known as his portly Parks and Recreation character, he headlined two feature films in 2014: Emmet Brickowski in The Lego Movie, which grossed $469.1 million. Pratt had turned down the role of Peter Quill in 2013, explaining that he did not "want another Captain Kirk or Avatar moment"; the film's casting director, Sarah Finn, suggested Pratt to director James Gunn, who had struggled to cast that role and dismissed the idea. Despite this, Finn arranged for a meeting between the two, at which point Gunn was convinced that Pratt was perfect for the role. Pratt won over Marvel Studios President Kevin Feige, despite having gained weight again for the comedy film Delivery Man; the role was part of a multi-film deal. Bruce Diones of The New Yorker noted, "Pratt, overflowing with charisma, plays the leader of the pack of misfits, his blissed-out space cowboy (with a love f
Shadowhunters known as Shadowhunters: The Mortal Instruments, is an American supernatural drama television series developed by Ed Decter, based on the popular book series The Mortal Instruments written by Cassandra Clare. It premiered in North America on Freeform on January 12, 2016. Filmed in Toronto, Canada, the series follows Clary Fray, who finds out on her eighteenth birthday that she is not who she thinks she is, but rather comes from a long line of Shadowhunters, human-angel hybrids who hunt down demons, it is the second adaptation of the novel series, after the 2013 film The Mortal Instruments: City of Bones, which like the series was produced by Constantin Film. The debut season of Shadowhunters has received mixed responses from critics; the pilot episode attracted the largest audience for Freeform in more than two years. The show has received numerous award nominations, winning one GLAAD Award, four Teen Choice Awards and two People's Choice awards. In March 2016, the series was renewed for a second season of 20 episodes, which premiered on January 2, 2017.
In August 2016, showrunner Ed Decter exited the series over "creative differences". Todd Slavkin and Darren Swimmer were named as Decter's replacements. In April 2017, Freeform renewed the show for a third season of 20 episodes, which premiered on March 20, 2018. In June 2018, Freeform canceled the series after three seasons, but ordered two extra episodes to properly conclude the series' story; the final episode will air on May 6, 2019. Clary Fray has just enrolled at Brooklyn Academy of Arts. On her eighteenth birthday, she learns that she is a Shadowhunter, a human born with angelic blood who protects humans from demons and rogue downworlders; that night, Clary's mother, Jocelyn, is abducted by a group of rogue Shadowhunters called the Circle. Their leader is Jocelyn's ex-husband, Valentine Morgenstern, Clary's father. With her mother missing, Clary turns to Luke, a person she trusted, only to be "betrayed". Clary joins up with a group of Shadowhunters to save her mother and discovers powers she never knew she possessed.
Clary is thrown into the world of demon hunting with the mysterious and attractive Shadowhunter Jace, her loyal and geeky friend Simon. Now living amongst the fair folk, warlocks and werewolves, Clary begins a journey of self-discovery as she learns more about her past and what her future may hold. In 2010, Screen Gems announced that they were going into production on the film adaptation of City of Bones, the first book in The Mortal Instruments series, with hopes of starting a successful film franchise. Production on a film adaptation of the second book, City of Ashes, was due to start in September 2013, but was delayed to 2014, cancelled, after the first film failed to recoup its budget. On October 12, 2014, at Mipcom, Constantin confirmed that The Mortal Instruments will return as a television series with Ed Decter as showrunner. Constantin Film and TV head Martin Moszkowicz told The Hollywood Reporter that, "It makes sense to do as a TV series. There was so much from the book. In the series we'll be able to go deeper and explore this world in greater detail and depth."
The producers hope to adapt the entire book series. In February 2015, book series author Cassandra Clare announced via Twitter that the television series would be called Shadowhunters rather than The Mortal Instruments. In March 2015, ABC Family picked up Shadowhunters straight-to-series; the series was renewed for a second season in March 2016, consisting of 20 episodes, which premiered on January 2, 2017. In April 2017, it was announced; the first half of ten episodes premiered on March 20, 2018. On June 4, 2018, Freeform canceled the series after three seasons, but ordered two extra episodes to properly conclude the series' story. In August 2016, soon before filming on the second season was to begin, showrunner Ed Decter exited the series over "creative differences". Todd Slavkin and Darren Swimmer, who were former showrunners on Smallville, were announced as Decter's replacements in August 2016. On Twitter, Cassandra Clare announced that she would not be part of casting decisions, would not be expecting any of the original film cast to return.
On April 20, 2015, ABC revealed Dominic Sherwood as the first member of the Shadowhunters cast. On May 1, 2015, it was announced that Emeraude Toubia would be taking the role of Isabelle Lightwood and Alberto Rosende would be joining the cast as Simon Lewis. On May 6, it was reported. Two days on May 8, Matthew Daddario and Isaiah Mustafa were cast as Alec Lightwood and Luke Garroway, respectively. Harry Shum, Jr. and Alan van Sprang joined the cast on May 15, as Magnus Bane and Valentine Morgenstern. On May 18, it was announced. On May 28, Jon Cor was announced to play Hodge Starkweather, a Shadowhunter and former member of the Circle. David Castro was reported to be portraying vampire Raphael Santiago on June 4. Shortly after, on June 9, Lisa Marcos announced she would be joining the cast as Captain Vargas, a new character created for the series by Ed Decter. On June 12, producer McG's official Twitter account stated that Kaitlyn Leeb had been cast to play the vampire, Camille Belcourt. On June 16, Jade Hassouné was reported to be portraying Meliorn.
On August 8, Stephanie Bennett was cast as the new character Lydia Branw
BTS known as the Bangtan Boys, is a seven-member South Korean boy band formed by Big Hit Entertainment in 2013. The name became a backronym for Beyond the Scene in July 2017; the band won several New Artist of the Year awards for the track "No More Dream" and gained prominence with their subsequent albums Dark & Wild, The Most Beautiful Moment in Life, Part 2 and The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever. The latter two entered the U. S. Billboard 200, The Most Beautiful Moment in Life: Young Forever won the Album of the Year award at the 2016 Melon Music Awards, their second full Korean album, sold more than 1.5 million copies, making it BTS's first "million seller". BTS made their debut on the Billboard Hot 100 with the track "DNA" from the EP Love Yourself: Her, which peaked at #67. Another track from the EP, the remix version of "Mic Drop", peaked at #28 on the Billboard Hot 100. Both tracks are certified Gold by the Recording Industry Association of America, a first for any Korean group and the second Korean act overall after Psy.
Their third album, Love Yourself: Tear, debuted at #1 on the Billboard 200 making them as of 2019 the first and only Korean act to achieve this. Love Yourself: Answer sold over 1.9 million copies on Gaon Album Chart in August 2018, breaking the chart's all-time monthly record set by Love Yourself: Tear. On November 9, 2018, Love Yourself: Answer became the first Korean album certified Gold and the single "MIC Drop" became the first track by a Korean group certified Platinum in the United States. In Korea they have sold over ten million albums, with five million sold in 2018. Known for their large social media presence, BTS were the most retweeted celebrities in the world for 2017 and 2018. In October 2016, Billboard placed BTS # 1 on another first for a Korean group. In May 2017, they won the Top Social Artist Award at the Billboard Music Awards, becoming the first Korean group to win a BBMA. On November 20, 2017, Guinness World Records revealed that BTS had earned a spot in their 2018 edition for "having the world's most Twitter engagements for a music group".
In 2018, BTS became #1 on the Forbes Korea Power Celebrity list, which ranks South Korea's most powerful and influential celebrities. They became the youngest recipients of the Order of Cultural Merit from the South Korean government. In September 2018, BTS gave a speech at the United Nations as ambassadors for UNICEF and announced "Generation Unlimited", a new campaign focused on "youth development with empowering messages", they were featured on the cover of Time magazine's international edition as'Next Generation Leaders'. In a December 2018 study conducted by the Hyundai Research Institute, it was revealed that BTS are worth more than $3.6 billion USD to South Korea's economy each year, were the reason one in every 13 foreign tourists visited the country earlier that year. The septet co-writes and produces much of their output, to which some media outlets have attributed their success, their music features references to literature and psychological concepts. In addition, there is an alternative universe storyline running through their music videos, called the BTS Universe, or BU.
Some of the recurring themes that appear in their albums include mental health, the troubles of school-age youth, the journey towards loving oneself, individualism. The group's name, BTS, stands for the Korean expression Bangtan Sonyeondan meaning "Bulletproof Boy Scouts". According to member J-Hope, the name signifies the group's desire "to block out stereotypes and expectations that aim on adolescents like bullets". In Japan, they are known as Bōdan Shōnendan. In July 2017, BTS announced that their name would stand for "Beyond the Scene" as part of their new brand identity; this extended their name to mean "growing youth BTS, going beyond the realities they are facing, going forward." BTS first began its formation in 2010 after Big Hit Entertainment CEO Bang Si-hyuk met with group leader RM and was impressed with his rapping. BTS was supposed to be a hip hop group similar to YG Entertainment's 1TYM, but between their initial formation and their debut Bang Si-hyuk decided that the contemporary youth needed instead "a hero who can lend them a shoulder to lean on without speaking a single word".
The group was meant to debut in 2011 and featured on several tracks by artists such as 2AM and Lee Seung-gi before their debut was postponed and the group was reorganized into a more traditional idol group. The lineup was finalized with Jin, Suga, J-Hope, RM, Jimin, V, Jungkook in 2012. Six months prior to their debut, they began to gain attention for their presence on various social media websites, as well as song covers on YouTube and SoundCloud; the group's debut single album 2 Cool 4 Skool, the first installment in their "school trilogy" series, was released with its lead single "No More Dream" on June 12, 2013. While the album peaked at number five on the Gaon Album Chart and sold over 145,000 copies, "No More Dream" and the subsequent single "We Are Bulletproof Pt. 2" were not major hits, with the album selling only 24,000 copies in 2013. Expanding their endeavors into Japan, "No More Dream" was re-recorded in Japanese and released on June 4, 2014; the second part to the "school trilogy" was the extended play O!
RUL8,2?, released on September 11, 2013, along with "N. O" as its single; the EP has sold over 160,000 copies to date, including 34,000 copies in its release year, peaked at number four. That same month, BTS starred in their own variety show, SBS MTV's Rookie King Channel Bangtan, based
John Roger Stephens, known professionally as John Legend, is an American singer, record producer, piano player, actor. Prior to the release of Legend's debut album, Get Lifted, he had collaborated with established artists and signed to Kanye West's GOOD Music. Legend has sung on Jay-Z's "Encore", Alicia Keys's "You Don't Know My Name", Dilated Peoples' "This Way", Slum Village's "Selfish", Fort Minor's "High Road", played piano on Lauryn Hill's "Everything Is Everything". Legend's single "All of Me" from his fourth studio album Love in the Future was a Billboard Hot 100 number-one hit. In 2007, Legend received the Hal David Starlight Award from the Songwriters Hall of Fame. Legend won the Academy Award for Best Original Song and Golden Globe Award in 2015 for co-writing the song "Glory" from the film Selma, he has won ten Grammy Awards. In 2017, Legend received a Tony Award for co-producing Jitney for the Broadway stage. In 2018, Legend portrayed Jesus Christ in the NBC adaptation of the Andrew Lloyd Webber/Tim Rice rock opera Jesus Christ Superstar.
He received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for his acting role, won for his role as a producer of the show, making him one of 15 people and the first black man to have won an Emmy, Grammy and Tony. Legend is the second youngest to achieve the EGOT status. Legend was born on December 1978, in Springfield, Ohio, he is one of four children of Phyllis Elaine, a seamstress, Ronald Lamar Stephens, a factory worker at International Harvester. Legend was homeschooled by his mother. At the age of four, he performed with his church choir, he began playing the piano at age seven. At the age of 12, Legend attended Springfield North High School, from which he graduated salutatorian of his class four years later. According to Legend, he was offered admission to Harvard University and scholarships to Georgetown University and Morehouse College, he attended the University of Pennsylvania, where he studied English with an emphasis on African-American literature. While in college, Legend served as president and musical director of a co-ed jazz and pop a cappella group called Counterparts.
His lead vocals on the group's recording of Joan Osborne's "One of Us" received critical acclaim, landing the song on the track list of the 1998 Best of Collegiate a Cappella compilation CD. Legend was a member of the prestigious senior societies Sphinx Senior Society and Onyx Senior Honor Society while an undergraduate at Penn. While in college, Legend was introduced to Lauryn Hill by a friend. Hill hired him to play piano on "Everything Is Everything", a song from her album The Miseducation of Lauryn Hill. During this period, he began to hold a number of shows around Philadelphia expanding his audience base to New York, Boston and Washington, D. C, he graduated from college in 1999, thereafter began producing and recording his own music. He released two albums independently. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania, Legend began working as a management consultant for the Boston Consulting Group, he subsequently began sending his work to various record labels. In 2001, Devo Springsteen introduced Legend to up-and-coming hip-hop artist Kanye West.
After signing to West's label, he chose his stage name from an idea, given to him by poet J. Ivy, due to what he perceived as an "old-school sound". J. Ivy stated, "it reminds me of that music from the old school. You sound like one of the legends; as a matter of fact, that's what I'm going to call you from now on! I'm going to call you John Legend." After J. Ivy continued to call him by the new moniker "John Legend", others caught on, including Kanye West. Despite Legend's reluctance to adopt a stage name, he announced his new artist name as John Legend. Legend released his debut album, Get Lifted, on GOOD Music in December 2004, it featured production by Kanye West, Dave Tozer, will.i.am, debuted at number 7 on the US Billboard 200, selling 116,000 copies in its first week. It went on to sell 540,300 copies in the United States and was certified gold by the RIAA. An international success, Get Lifted reached number one on the Norwegian Albums Chart and peaked within the top ten in the Netherlands and Sweden, resulting in worldwide sales of 850,000 copies.
Critically acclaimed, it won the 2006 Grammy Award for Best R&B Album, earned Legend another two nominal awards for Best New Artist and Best Male R&B Vocal Performance. Altogether, the album produced four singles, including debut single "Used to Love U", which entered the top 30 of the New Zealand and UK Singles Chart, Grammy Award-winning "Ordinary People" which peaked at 24 on the Billboard Hot 100. John Legend co-wrote Janet Jackson's "I Want You", certified platinum and received a nomination for Best Female R&B Vocal Performance at the 47th Annual Grammy Awards. A sought after collaborator, Legend was featured on several records the following years, he appeared on albums by Fort Minor, Sérgio Mendes, Jay Z, Mary J. Blige, The Black Eyed Peas, Stephen Colbert, Rich Boy, MSTRKRFT, Fergie, among others. Legend tentatively worked with Michael Jackson on a future album for which he had written one song. In August 2006, Legend appeared in an episode of Sesame Street, he performed a duet with Hoots the Owl.
He performed during the pregame show of Super Bowl XL in Detroit and the halftime show at the 2006 NBA All-Star Game. In O
Incredibles 2 is a 2018 American computer-animated superhero film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and distributed by Walt Disney Pictures. Written and directed by Brad Bird, it is a sequel to The Incredibles and the second full-length installment of the franchise; the story follows the Parr family as they try to restore the public's trust in superheroes while balancing their family life, only to combat a new foe who seeks to turn the populace against all superheroes. Craig T. Nelson, Holly Hunter, Sarah Vowell and Samuel L. Jackson reprise their roles from the first film. Michael Giacchino returned to compose the score. Following the success of The Incredibles, Bird postponed development on a sequel to work on other films, he attempted to distinguish the script from superhero films and superhero television series released since the first film, focusing on the family dynamic rather than the superhero genre. Incredibles 2 premiered in Los Angeles on June 5, 2018, was theatrically released in the United States on June 15, 2018, in Disney Digital 3-D, Dolby Cinema, IMAX and IMAX 3D formats.
The film received positive reviews and praise for its animation and musical score. The film made $182.7 million in its opening weekend, setting the record for best debut for an animated film, has grossed over $1.2 billion worldwide, making it the fourth highest-grossing film of 2018, the second highest-grossing animated film and the 15th highest-grossing film of all-time. Incredibles 2 was named by the National Board of Review as the Best Animated Film of 2018; the film was nominated for Best Animated Feature Film at the 76th Golden Globe Awards and 91st Academy Awards, but lost both awards to another computer animated superhero film, Spider-Man: Into the Spider-Verse. Following the events of the first film, the Incredibles and Lucius Best a.k.a Frozone battle the Underminer, who has just appeared to terrorize Municiberg. Though they prevent the destruction of City Hall, they are unable to stop him from robbing a bank and escaping; the collateral damage caused by the incident outrages the government and prompts them to shut down the Superhero Relocation Program, leaving the Parrs without financial assistance.
Violet's love interest Tony Rydinger discovers her superhero identity, forcing agent Rick Dicker to erase his memory of her. Frozone informs Mr. Incredible and Elastigirl of an offer from Winston Deavor, a wealthy businessman, he and his sister Evelyn propose sending the heroes on secret missions which will be recorded and publicized to regain public trust in superheroes. Due to Mr. Incredible's tendency to accidentally cause collateral damage, Winston chooses Elastigirl for the initial missions. While Elastigirl is away, Bob struggles with his new role as a stay-at-home parent: Dash has trouble with math homework, Violet becomes withdrawn after Tony fails to show up for their first date due to his memory wipe, Jack-Jack wreaks havoc with his burgeoning superpowers, he takes Jack-Jack to Edna Mode. Meanwhile, on her missions, Elastigirl encounters a mysterious supervillain called the Screenslaver, who projects hypnotic images via TV screens, she tracks him down to his hideout in an apartment building, unmasks him as a pizza deliveryman who claims to have no recollection of his actions.
At a party celebrating the Screenslaver's arrest, Winston announces a summit of world leaders to legalize superheroes, hosted aboard his luxury hydrofoil yacht, the Everjust. Unsettled by the ease with which she captured the Screenslaver, Elastigirl realizes that he was being controlled by a pair of mind-control goggles. Evelyn forces the goggles onto Elastigirl, revealing herself to be the mastermind behind the Screenslaver. Evelyn explains that she has hated superheroes since Gazerbeam and Fironic failed to save her father's murder by burglars; the event led her to conclude that superheroes have taken independence from society, who in turn had become dangerously over-reliant on superheroes. She plans to sabotage her brother's summit and cause a catastrophe that will tarnish the reputation of superheroes, ensuring they remain outlawed forever. Using Elastigirl, she lures Bob into a trap sends another group of hypnotised superheroes invited to the summit to subdue the Parr children. Frozone is overwhelmed and placed under Evelyn's control.
Violet and Jack-Jack escape with the help of the Incredibile, a high-tech car once owned by Mr. Incredible, reach Winston's yacht. On board, the hypnotized Mr. Incredible and Frozone recite a vindictive manifesto on air to paint superheroes as a threat, they subdue the ship's crew, aim the hydrofoil at Municiberg, destroy the controls. The Parr children reach them, Jack-Jack removes Elastigirl’s goggles, she in turn frees Frozone. The Incredibles and Frozone release the other mind-controlled superheroes by destroying their goggles work together to prevent the Everjust from crashing into the city by turning the ship. Evelyn is apprehended by Elastigirl and arrested. Due to their actions, superheroes around the world regain legal status. Tony accompanies Violet to a movie with the family; when the Parrs spot a high-speed pursuit of gunmen by the police, Violet leaves Tony at the theater, the Incredibles give chase in a remodeled red Incredibile. Craig T. Nelson as Bob Parr / Mr. Incredible, the father of the family who possesses super strength and limited invulnerability.
Holly Hunter as Helen Parr / Elastigirl, the mother of the family who has the ability to stretch her body into many shapes and forms. Sarah Vowell as Violet Parr, the family's
Santa Monica, California
Santa Monica is a beachfront city in western Los Angeles County, United States. Situated on Santa Monica Bay, it is bordered on three sides by the city of Los Angeles – Pacific Palisades to the north, Brentwood on the northeast, West Los Angeles on the east, Mar Vista on the southeast, Venice on the south; the Census Bureau population for Santa Monica in 2010 was 89,736. Due in part to an agreeable climate, Santa Monica became a famed resort town by the early 20th century; the city has experienced a boom since the late 1980s through the revitalization of its downtown core, significant job growth and increased tourism. The Santa Monica Pier and Pacific Park remain popular destinations. Santa Monica was long inhabited by the Tongva people. Santa Monica was called Kecheek in the Tongva language; the first non-indigenous group to set foot in the area was the party of explorer Gaspar de Portolà, who camped near the present-day intersection of Barrington and Ohio Avenues on August 3, 1769. Named after the Christian saint Monica, there are two different accounts of how the city's name came to be.
One says it was named in honor of the feast day of Saint Monica, but her feast day is May 4. Another version says it was named by Juan Crespí on account of a pair of springs, the Kuruvungna Springs, that were reminiscent of the tears Saint Monica shed over her son's early impiety. In Los Angeles, several battles were fought by the Californios. Following the Mexican–American War, Mexico signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which gave Mexicans and Californios living in state certain unalienable rights. US government sovereignty in California began on February 2, 1848. In the 1870s the Los Angeles and Independence Railroad, connected Santa Monica with Los Angeles, a wharf out into the bay; the first town hall was a modest 1873 brick building a beer hall, now part of the Santa Monica Hostel. It is Santa Monica's oldest extant structure. By 1885, the town's first hotel was the Santa Monica Hotel. Amusement piers became enormously popular in the first decades of the 20th century and the extensive Pacific Electric Railroad brought people to the city's beaches from across the Greater Los Angeles Area.
Around the start of the 20th century, a growing population of Asian Americans lived in and around Santa Monica and Venice. A Japanese fishing village was near the Long Wharf while small numbers of Chinese lived or worked in Santa Monica and Venice; the two ethnic minorities were viewed differently by White Americans who were well-disposed towards the Japanese but condescending towards the Chinese. The Japanese village fishermen were an integral economic part of the Santa Monica Bay community. Donald Wills Douglas, Sr. built a plant in 1922 at Clover Field for the Douglas Aircraft Company. In 1924, four Douglas-built planes took off from Clover Field to attempt the first aerial circumnavigation of the world. Two planes returned after covering 27,553 miles in 175 days, were greeted on their return September 23, 1924, by a crowd of 200,000; the Douglas Company kept facilities in the city until the 1960s. The Great Depression hit Santa Monica deeply. One report gives citywide employment in 1933 of just 1,000.
Hotels and office building owners went bankrupt. In the 1930s, corruption infected Santa Monica; the federal Works Project Administration helped build several buildings, most notably City Hall. The main Post Office and Barnum Hall were among other WPA projects. Douglas's business grew astronomically with the onset of World War II, employing as many as 44,000 people in 1943. To defend against air attack, set designers from the Warner Brothers Studios prepared elaborate camouflage that disguised the factory and airfield; the RAND Corporation began as a project of the Douglas Company in 1945, spun off into an independent think tank on May 14, 1948. RAND acquired a 15-acre campus between the Civic Center and the pier entrance; the completion of the Santa Monica Freeway in 1966 brought the promise of new prosperity, though at the cost of decimating the Pico neighborhood, a leading African American enclave on the Westside. Beach volleyball is believed to have been developed by Duke Kahanamoku in Santa Monica during the 1920s.
The Santa Monica Looff Hippodrome is a National Historic Landmark. It sits on the Santa Monica Pier, built in 1909; the La Monica Ballroom on the pier was once the largest ballroom in the US and the source for many New Year's Eve national network broadcasts. The Santa Monica Civic Auditorium was an important music venue for several decades and hosted the Academy Awards in the 1960s. McCabe's Guitar Shop is a leading acoustic performance space as well as retail outlet. Bergamot Station is a city-owned art gallery compound; the city is home to the California Heritage Museum and the Angels Attic dollhouse and toy museum. The New West Symphony is the resident orchestra of Barnum Hall, they are resident orchestra of the Oxnard Performing Arts Center and the Thousand Oaks Civic Arts Plaza. Santa Monica has three main shopping districts: Montana Avenue on the north side, the Downtown District in the city's core, Main Street on the south end; each has personality. Montana Avenue is a stretch of luxury boutique stores and small offices that features more upscale shopping.
The Main Street district offers an eclectic mix of clothing and other specialty retail. The Downtown District is the home of the Third Street Promenade, a major outdoor pedestrian-on
CBS is an American English language commercial broadcast television and radio network, a flagship property of CBS Corporation. The company is headquartered at the CBS Building in New York City with major production facilities and operations in New York City and Los Angeles. CBS is sometimes referred to as the Eye Network, in reference to the company's iconic symbol, in use since 1951, it has been called the "Tiffany Network", alluding to the perceived high quality of CBS programming during the tenure of William S. Paley, it can refer to some of CBS's first demonstrations of color television, which were held in a former Tiffany & Co. building in New York City in 1950. The network has its origins in United Independent Broadcasters Inc. a collection of 16 radio stations, purchased by Paley in 1928 and renamed the Columbia Broadcasting System. Under Paley's guidance, CBS would first become one of the largest radio networks in the United States, one of the Big Three American broadcast television networks.
In 1974, CBS dropped its former full name and became known as CBS, Inc. The Westinghouse Electric Corporation acquired the network in 1995, renamed its corporate entity to the current CBS Broadcasting, Inc. in 1997, adopted the name of the company it had acquired to become CBS Corporation. In 2000, CBS came under the control of Viacom, formed as a spin-off of CBS in 1971. In late 2005, Viacom split itself into two separate companies and re-established CBS Corporation – through the spin-off of its broadcast television and select cable television and non-broadcasting assets – with the CBS television network at its core. CBS Corporation is controlled by Sumner Redstone through National Amusements, which controls the current Viacom. CBS operated the CBS Radio network until 2017, when it merged its radio division with Entercom. Prior to CBS Radio provided news and features content for its portfolio owned-and-operated radio stations in large and mid-sized markets, affiliated radio stations in various other markets.
While CBS Corporation owns a 72% stake in Entercom, it no longer owns or operates any radio stations directly, though CBS still provides radio news broadcasts to its radio affiliates and the new owners of its former radio stations. The television network has more than 240 owned-and-operated and affiliated television stations throughout the United States; the company ranked 197th on the 2018 Fortune 500 of the largest United States corporations by revenue. The origins of CBS date back to January 27, 1927, with the creation of the "United Independent Broadcasters" network in Chicago by New York City talent-agent Arthur Judson; the fledgling network soon needed additional investors though, the Columbia Phonograph Company, manufacturers of Columbia Records, rescued it in April 1927. Columbia Phonographic went on the air on September 18, 1927, with a presentation by the Howard L. Barlow Orchestra from flagship station WOR in Newark, New Jersey, fifteen affiliates. Operational costs were steep the payments to AT&T for use of its land lines, by the end of 1927, Columbia Phonograph wanted out.
In early 1928 Judson sold the network to brothers Isaac and Leon Levy, owners of the network's Philadelphia affiliate WCAU, their partner Jerome Louchheim. None of the three were interested in assuming day-to-day management of the network, so they installed wealthy 26-year-old William S. Paley, son of a Philadelphia cigar family and in-law of the Levys, as president. With the record company out of the picture, Paley streamlined the corporate name to "Columbia Broadcasting System", he believed in the power of radio advertising since his family's "La Palina" cigars had doubled their sales after young William convinced his elders to advertise on radio. By September 1928, Paley bought out the Louchhheim share of CBS and became its majority owner with 51% of the business. During Louchheim's brief regime, Columbia paid $410,000 to A. H. Grebe's Atlantic Broadcasting Company for a small Brooklyn station, WABC, which would become the network's flagship station. WABC was upgraded, the signal relocated to 860 kHz.
The physical plant was relocated – to Steinway Hall on West 57th Street in Manhattan, where much of CBS's programming would originate. By the turn of 1929, the network could boast to sponsors of having 47 affiliates. Paley moved right away to put his network on a firmer financial footing. In the fall of 1928, he entered into talks with Adolph Zukor of Paramount Pictures, who planned to move into radio in response to RCA's forays into motion pictures with the advent of talkies; the deal came to fruition in September 1929: Paramount acquired 49% of CBS in return for a block of its stock worth $3.8 million at the time. The agreement specified that Paramount would buy that same stock back by March 1, 1932 for a flat $5 million, provided CBS had earned $2 million during 1931 and 1932. For a brief time there was talk that the network might be renamed "Paramount Radio", but it only lasted a month – the 1929 stock market crash sent all stock value tumbling, it galvanized Paley and his troops, who "had no alternative but to turn the network around and earn the $2,000,000 in two years....
This is the atmosphere in which the CBS of today was born." The near-bankrupt movie studio sold its CBS shares back to CBS in 1932. In the first year of Paley's wa