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45 Eugenia

Eugenia is a large asteroid of the asteroid belt. It is famed as one of the first asteroids to be found to have a moon orbiting it, it is the second known triple asteroid, after 87 Sylvia. Eugenia was discovered on 27 June 1857 by the Franco-German amateur astronomer Hermann Goldschmidt, his instrument of discovery was a 4-inch aperture telescope located in his sixth floor apartment in the Latin Quarter of Paris. It was the forty-fifth minor planet to be discovered; the preliminary orbital elements were computed by Wilhelm Forster in Berlin, based on three observations in July, 1857. The asteroid was named by its discoverer after Empress Eugenia di Montijo, the wife of Napoleon III, it was the first asteroid to be named after a real person, rather than a figure from classical legend, although there was some controversy about whether 12 Victoria was named for the mythological figure or for Queen Victoria. Eugenia is a large asteroid, with a diameter of 214 km, it is an F-type asteroid, which means that it is dark in colouring with a carbonaceous composition.

Like Mathilde, its density appears to be unusually low, indicating that it may be a loosely packed rubble pile, not a monolithic object. Eugenia appears to be anhydrous. Lightcurve analysis indicates that Eugenia's pole most points towards ecliptic coordinates = with a 10° uncertainty, which gives it an axial tilt of 117°. Eugenia's rotation is retrograde, rotating backward to its orbital plane. In November 1998, astronomers at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope on Mauna Kea, discovered a small moon orbiting Eugenia; this was the first time. The moon is much smaller than Eugenia, about 13 km in diameter, takes five days to complete an orbit around it; the discoverers chose the name "Petit-Prince". This name refers to the Prince Imperial. However, the discoverers intended an allusion to the children's novella The Little Prince by Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, about a young prince who lives on an asteroid. A second, smaller satellite that orbits closer to Eugenia than Petit-Prince has since been discovered and provisionally named S/2004 1.

It was discovered by analyses of three images acquired in February 2004 from the 8.2 m VLT "Yepun" at the European Southern Observatory Cerro Paranal, in Chile. The discovery was announced in IAUC 8817, on 7 March 2007 by Franck Marchis and his IMCCE collaborators, it orbits the asteroid at about ~700 km, with an orbital period of 4.7 days. Dactyl and Ida, another asteroid and asteroid moon system catalogued by astronomers Florence, another dual-moon asteroid confirmed only in September 2017. Johnston Archive data Astronomical Picture of Day 14 October 1999 SwRI Press Release Orbit of Petit-Prince, companion of Eugenia Shape model derived from lightcurve 14 frames of Eugenia primary taken with the Keck II AO from Dec 2003 to Nov 2011 45 Eugenia at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site Ephemeris · Observation prediction · Orbital info · Proper elements · Observational info 45 Eugenia at the JPL Small-Body Database Close approach · Discovery · Ephemeris · Orbit diagram · Orbital elements · Physical parameters

29th International Emmy Awards

The 29th International Emmy Awards took place on November 19, 2001, at the Sheraton Hotel in New York City, United States, hosted by American television personality Tom Bergeron. The nominees for the 29th International Emmy Awards were announced by International Academy of Television Arts and Sciences, on October 8, 2001, at a press conference at MIPCOM in Cannes; the United Kingdom won four of the six categories. The Channel 4 took the Emmy prize in the popular arts category for his So Graham Norton series. ITV drama Dirty Tricks, starring Martin Clunes, was named best drama, while the arts documentary award went to Channel 4's The Miles Davis Story. A filmed version of the Andrew Lloyd Webber musical, Jesus Christ Superstar, whose cast featured Rik Mayall, was the winner in the performing arts section; the other two trophies — children and young people, documentary — went to Canada for CBC’s Street Cents and the Netherlands for KRO’s North Korea, respectively. International Academy of Television Arts & Sciences official website 29th International Emmy Awards on IMDb Int’l Emmy noms unveiled

Mongo people

The Mongo people are a Bantu ethnic group who live in the equatorial forest of Central Africa. They are the second largest ethnic group in the Democratic Republic of Congo influential in its north region. A diverse collection of sub-ethnic groups, they are residents of a region north of the Kasai and the Sankuru Rivers, south of the main Congo River bend, their highest presence is in the province of Équateur and the northern parts of the Bandundu Province. The Mongo people, despite their diversity, share a common legend wherein they believe that they are the descendants of a single ancestor named Mongo, they share similarities in their language and social organization, but have differences. Anthropologists first proposed the Mongo unity as an ethnic group in 1938 by Boelaert, followed by a major corpus on Mongo people in 1944 by Vanderkerken – the governor of Équateur; the Mongo people traditionally speak the Mongo language or one of the related languages in the Bantu Mongo family, in the Niger-Congo family of languages.

The Lingala language, however replaces Mongo in urban centers. This language has about 200 dialects, these are found clustered regionally as well as based on Mongo sub-ethnic groups such as Bolia, Bongandu, Iyaelima, Mbole, Nkutu, Sengele, Songomeno and Tetela-Kusu, Bakutu and many others; the historic roots of the Mongo people is ancient Egypt, but they settled along the rainy and humid river valleys of northern and western Congo in early centuries of the 1st millennium. Farming of staples such as yam and banana was established by about 1000 CE; the Belgian colonial rule impacted the traditions and religious beliefs of the Mongo people, they predominantly converted to one of numerous denominations of Christianity found in Congo. The influence of Islamic missionary activity from northern Africa has been a source of deep resentment for the Christian Mongo people, leading to a history of conflicts between them and some Muslim ethnic groups found in the neighboring northeastern regions of Congo.

According to Alexander Reid, the Mongo people suffered during the active slave capture and export in the 18th and 19th centuries, where "thousands of Mongo people as captured slaves passed through the Zanzibar route by the Arabs". A system of enslavement and slave trade led by Arab incursions, state Patrick Harries and David Maxwell and impacted the Mongo people before the colonial period; the arrival of Belgium as a colonial ruler, with its Leupoldian exploitation model, combined with imported diseases such as sleeping sickness and syphilis, decimated the Mongo people over the colonial history. The colonial period brought an ecological and economic change from the introduction of cocoa, rubber plantations as well as trapping of animals as pets and for zoos. Given the equatorial forests they live in, like neighboring ethnic groups, the Mongo people cultivate cassava and banana as staple foods; this is supplemented with wild-plant and edible-insects gathering, seasonal vegetables and beans and hunting.

The society is patrilineal, traditionally based on a joint family household called Etuka with twenty to forty members, derived from an ancestor lineage. The male elder of the Etuka is called Tata. A cluster of Etuka form a village of the Mongo people. Disputes and covenants between lineages were resolved through goods or inter-marriages; some sub-ethnic groups found in the southern parts of Congo have had a chief, instead of being a collection of lineages, with the chief known as Bokulaka. Traditional religion of the Mongo people is one of ancestor worship, belief in God, belief in nature spirits, fertility rites, with shamanic practices such as magic and witchcraft. Mongo artistic achievements, musical instruments and carvings show richness and high sophistication. Like many ancient cultures, the Mongo people have used the oral tradition to preserve and transmit knowledge to the next. Polygamy has been a part of the Mongo culture into the modern age, though missionaries have attempted to curb this part after their conversion to Christianity.

The musician Jupiter Bokondji is of Mongo descent. Belgian colonial empire Slavery in Africa Zebola

Phytophthora lacustris

Phytophthora lacustris is an oomycete plant pathogen. P. lacustris has a wide host range as well as a wide geographical range, being found worldwide. Known hosts for P. lacustris include members of the genera Salix and Prunus. The genus Salix includes willow and poplar trees and the genus Prunus includes many economically important shrubs and trees such as peach, cherry, almond and apricot. P. lacustris causes dieback in alder trees. Other symptoms that are caused by P. lacustris include fine root damage as well as bark lesions. P. lacustris is an oomycete that does not have a sexual life cycle, meaning the formation of oospores has not been observed. It lacks chlamydospores; this means the only spores produced by P. lacustris are the asexual zoospores which are formed in the sporangia. It is an opportunistic pathogen with a wide range of allowable temperatures; this allows it to lay dormant in soil or water as well as cause latent infections in hosts for years, waiting for unfavorable host conditions to become symptomatic.

Flooding or other forms of running water, such as irrigation canals, is favorable for the discharge and dispersal of zoospores from the sporangia which inoculate the host via the root system. P. lacustris has been found to be a colonizer of dead plant material, showing saprotrophic characteristics. The optimal temperature for growth of P. lacustris on artificial media ranged from 28°-33 °C, while the minimum and maximum temperatures for growth to occur were 2°-4 °C and 36°-37 °C respectively. This is wider range than other taxonomically similar Phytophthora species; the wide tolerable temperature range that allows growth to occur allows P. lacustris to be present at a wide range of latitudes in nature. P. lacustris is an aquatic pathogen that disperses via irrigation waterways. During inoculation method trials, P. lacustris was discovered to be more pathogenic when the host was inoculated through contaminated water in the root system than through an underbark inoculation. These results suggest.

More evidence for this is that P. lacustris is found in riparian habitats, or the area of land near a river or stream, which are susceptible to flooding

British Insurance Services

British Insurance Services is an insurance provider based in Southport, offering payment protection insurance and home insurance. The company is an online-only insurance provider which sells its policies independently of loan providers, it is a subsidiary of Towergate Underwriting Group Limited, had gross written premiums of around £12 million as of 2012. The company was set up in 2003 under the name Burgesses, it changed its name to British Insurance in 2005, after gaining permission from the Secretary of State for Industry to use the word ‘British’ in the company title. In 2006 the company was reported to be insuring three sisters from Inverness, against the possibility of a virgin birth, it had provided a £1 million policy to cover the cost of child-raising in the event of one of them giving birth to the Second Coming of Christ. The company told BBC News Online, it withdrew the policy in 2006 following complaints. The company insured a football fan for £1 million against suffering severe mental trauma if England were knocked out of the 2006 World Cup prematurely.

British Insurance was acquired by Towergate in 2008 for an estimated £25 million. Existing staff, including the founders, were retained as part of the deal. Simon Burgess continued as managing director until 2010. Following his departure, Nel Mooy was appointed as managing director. In 2013, the business was transferred within the Towergate Group and is now a trading style of Southport-based income protection and household insurance provider Paymentshield Limited; the company's awards include: The Money Awards: Outstanding Achievement Award. Personal Finance: Outstanding Online Insurance Provider. Mortgage Finance Gazette: Best Overall Insurance Provider and Ambassador Award Mortgage Finance Gazette: Excellence in Treating Customers Fairly Investment International: Best Mortgage Payment Protection Insurance Provider What Mortgage: Best Online Insurance Provider Investment International: Best Overall Insurance Provider Global Business Excellence: Outstanding Consumer Champion Company website

Richard MacDonnell (scholar)

Richard MacDonnell LL. D. D. D. S. F. T. C. D. was an Irish cleric and academic, who became was the Reformist 29th Provost of Trinity College Dublin. He was the projector of Sorrento Terrace, today known as the most expensive row of houses in Ireland. MacDonnell, of the Tynekill MacDonnells of Leinster, was the son of Robert MacDonnell of High Park, near Douglas, County Cork, Susanna Nugent of Ardmore, County Waterford, of the Cloncoskraine Nugents in the same county. For much of his life, his father had been prosperous, with a revenue appointment at Cork found for him by George Lowther, a family friend. Instead of retirement, he found property prices died disappointed. Educated at Trinity College Dublin, MacDonnell was elected a scholar in 1803. In 1808 he was elected a lay Fellow at Trinity, he was awarded his LL. D. in 1813, but gave up his legal career to take holy orders the same year. The rest of his career was spent at Trinity College, where he was a Senior Fellow of the College, Professor of Oratory and an "efficient" Bursar, bringing the accounts of the collegiate estates into satisfactory order.

In 1852, George Villiers, 4th Earl of Clarendon, Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland, appointed him the 29th Provost of Trinity College Dublin, succeeding Franc Sadleir, he took up residence at the Provost's House. He held the position for 15 years until his death in 1867. From 1820 to 1827 he was the Donegall Lecturer in Mathematics at Trinity College Dublin. MacDonnell advocated Catholic Emancipation, at a time, his broad views encompassed both politics and education, the significant changes he brought about are testament to firmness of character. His period of office is noted for the number of new statutes brought in, which transformed the college code of laws, it gave Trinity "a fresh impetus in its career and usefulness". Another source described him as'clever but lazy'. MacDonnell was said to have had'an excellent dry sense of humour', demonstrated on one occasion when showing a lady around the impressive Trinity College Library, Dublin. She, clasping her hands together, exclaimed,'Oh Mr. Provost, pray Mr. Provost, have you read all these books?', to which he replied,'in time my dear lady, in time'.

On another occasion, after the plates had been cleared between the courses of a dinner he was hosting, his butler placed a sugar cube on his bald head. Engaging his guests on a serious subject, his parrot would by have flown into the dining room and seated itself on the Provost's head to eat the sugar cube, as the Provost continued with his philosophical musings, giving the impression of being unfazed. MacDonnell had inherited Knocklyon House near Dalkey, but after his mother died there the previous year, in 1837 he leased it out and bought a plot of land by the sea front at Dalkey, where he built a new country retreat, Sorrento Cottage, now owned by The Edge of the Irish rock band U2. Named after Sorrento on the Bay of Naples, the allure of Sorrento Terrace is its situation and the view across Killiney Bay to the Wicklow Mountains, the Great Sugar Loaf taking the place of Mount Vesuvius. In the early 1840s, MacDonnell devised a plan for the construction of 22 houses right into the corner near the boundaries of the cottage, a huge undertaking at the time, stalled immediately due to the Irish Potato Famine - the family having decided to help those around them rather than themselves.

In 1845, the family had built the first and largest of the terrace residences,'Sorrento House', MacDonnell leased the rest of the land to his son, Hercules Henry Graves MacDonnell, who from the 1850s built the remaining houses at a price of £1,000 each. The family stipulated that each house had to adhere to the design of architects Frederick Darley and Nathaniel Montgomery; the houses today are known as'millionaire's row', famous for being the most expensive row of houses in Ireland. In 1810, Richard MacDonnell married Jane Graves, daughter of the Very Rev. Richard Graves, sister of Robert James Graves, they were the parents of fourteen children, including Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell and Major-General Arthur Robert MacDonnell. He was the uncle of Francis Brinkley and Richard Charles Mayne, the uncle and guardian of Edmund Allen Meredith, the principal of McGill University in Montreal