Kirov, Kirov Oblast
Kirov is a city and the administrative center of Kirov Oblast, located on the Vyatka River. As of the 2010 Census, its population was 473,695, it was known as Khlynov, Vyatka. Khlynov was first mentioned in 1374, it was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Moscow in 1489 and became known throughout Russia for its clay statuettes and whistles. It was managed by Khanate of Kazan and was known as "Hılın"; the town's oldest surviving monument is the Assumption Cathedral, an imposing structure surmounted by five globular domes. In 1780, Catherine the Great made it the seat of Vyatka Governorate; the town served as a place of exile, notably for Alexander Herzen, Alexander Vitberg, Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin. By the end of the 19th century, it was an important station on the Trans-Siberian railway. In December 1934, it was renamed for the Soviet leader Sergey Kirov, assassinated on December 1. However, whilst the name Kirov has remained since the dissolution of the Soviet Union, numerous institutions such as the university bear the former name of Vyatka.
Kirov is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with 134 rural localities, incorporated as the City of Kirov—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts; as a municipal division, the City of Kirov is incorporated as Kirov Urban Okrug. Kirov is a major transport river port, it is served by Kirov Pobedilovo airport. During the 1990s this airport for several years provided only irregular service. During the 2003-2006 summer seasons there were signs of a revival in air transportation as several companies attempted to establish flight routes from Kirov to Moscow and Krasnodar. Since 2006 Kirov airport has been used by a local company operating flights to Moscow; the Kirov River port went bankrupt in the late 1990s and all its river boats were sold to other regions. Kirov is a center of machine building. Kirov Regional Museum Kirov Regional Art Museum in honor V. M. and A. M. VasnetsovVyatka Museum of Art, one of the oldest museums in Russia, was founded in 1910 by local artists.
The idea of creation belongs to natives of Vyatka land, brothers artists Viktor Vasnetsov and Apollinary Vasnetsov. At the core of the collection — works that received the most part in the 1910-1920s from the State Museum Fund, private collections and as gifts — from patrons and artists. Today the museum has more than fifteen thousand exhibits and is located in four buildings in Kirov downtown. Museum of K. E. Tsiolkovsky, Aviation & Space Vyatka cabinet of curiosities Kirov diorama House-Museum of M. E. Saltykov-Shchedrin Museum of A. Green House-Museum of N. Khokhryakova Kirov exhibition hall Kirov Planetarium Vyatka paleontological museum Kirov Oblast Drama Theater Kirov State Puppet Theater Kirov State Theater of Young Spectators "Theater of the Spasskaya" Kirov State CircusAccording to a report in Pravda dated January 4, 2005, Kirov is known as the "city of twins" for the unusually high number of multiple births there. According to a report, the city is home to a high concentration of red-haired individuals.
Rodina plays in the highest division of Russian Bandy League. Their home arena has a capacity of 7500, it was the venue of the national final in 2013. Rodina-2 will participate in the Russian Rink Bandy Cup 2017. Kirov is the home of Vyatka University, Vyatka University for the Humanities, Vyatka Agricultural Academy and Kirov State Medical Academy. Kirov has a humid continental climate. Kirov is twinned with: Siedlce, Poland Anna Alminova, middle distance runner Yuri Ardashev, theater director, actor Ekaterina Atalik, chess player Mikhail Bagayev, association football player Aleksey Borovitin, ski jumper Yevgeny Charushin, author of children's literature Oksana Domnina, ice dancer Vyacheslav Dryagin, Nordic combined skier Boris Farmakovsky, archaeologist Bl. Leonid Feodorov, first Exarch of the Russian Byzantine Catholic Church Matvey Gusev, astronomer Maria Isakova, speed skater Kirill Khaliavin, ice dancer Lev Knyazev, writer Olga Kuragina, athlete Alexey Kuzmichev, businessman Boris Kuznetsov, lawyer Andrei Malykh, association football player Ksenia Monko, ice dancer Sergey Obukhov, bandy player Svetlana Pletnyova, archaeologist Aleksei Pugin, association football player Ivan Shefer, ice dancer Yekaterina Shikhova, speed skater Alexei Sitnikov, ice dancer Alexander Stolbov, painter Nikolai Tchaikovsky, politician Mikhail Tyufyakov, association football player and manager Vladimir Urin, theater director, actor Yuri Vshivtsev, association football player Valentin Yanin, archaeologist Julia Zlobina, ice dancer Кировская городская Дума.
Решение №42/19 от 29 июня 2005 г. «Об Уставе муниципального образования "Город Киров"», в ред. Решения №40/5 от 25 сентября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Устав муниципального образования "Город Киров", принятый Решением Кировской городской Думы от 29.06.2005 №42/19». Вступил в силу в соответствии со статьёй 56. Опубликован: "Вятский край", №130, 13 июля 2005 г. (Kirov City Duma. Decision #42/19 of June 29, 2005 On the Charter of the Municipal Formation of the "City of Kirov", as am
Krasny Oktyabr (steel plant)
Volgogradskiy Metallurgicheskiy Zavod Krasny Oktyabr is a Russian closed joint-stock company which maintains the Krasny Oktyabr factory, one of the largest Russian metallurgy facilities. The company's factory was established on April 30, 1897. After the Bolshevik Revolution the factory became known as Red October; the factory provided steel for the Stalingrad Tractor Factory. It was destroyed in the battle of Stalingrad, but was restored by 1946. During the Soviet time it was awarded the Order of the Red Banner of Labour; the company entered bankruptcy proceedings in 2009. In 2013 it came under the ownership of Dmitry Gerasimenko. In 2016 Gerasimenko was detained in Cyprus on fraud charges, over the alleged theft of a $65 million loan from VTB Bank. Official website
14th Rifle Division (Soviet Union)
The 14th Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Red Army, formed twice. Formed in Moscow in 1922, the division spent most of the interwar period at Vladimir. After moving to the Kola Peninsula during the Winter War, the division fought on that front during the Continuation War. After the end of the Continuation War it became the 101st Guards Rifle Division; the division reformed in 1955 from the 180th Rifle Division but became the 88th Motor Rifle Division in 1957. It was formed in Moscow on 1 July 1922; the division headquarters and the 40th Rifle Regiment were stationed at Vladimir. The 41st Rifle Regiment was in the 42nd Rifle Regiment at Kovrov; the division transferred to the Leningrad Military District in Vologda during the late 1930s. Its regiments were deployed in Vologda and Cherepovets. In September 1939, the regiments were each expanded to division strength, resulting in the formation of the 88th Rifle Division and 168th Rifle Division. On 11 September 1939, its headquarters moved to Murmansk.
During the Winter War, it covered the Soviet border on the northern and northeastern coast of the Kola Peninsula as part of the Murmansk Group. It saw World War II operational service from 22 June 1941 to 14 Nov 1944. On 22 Jun 1941, the division was stationed on the part of the front length of 300 kilometers along the coast of the Kola Peninsula from Cape Saint Nose to the island Kildin, it appears to have been part of the 14th Army. On the night of 22 Jun 1941, the two regiments of the division and a reconnaissance battalion were deployed to the border with Finland, occupied the area from the Barents Sea to Ukhta. On 25 June 1941 the division was reinforced by two regiments of the 52nd Rifle Division. On 29 Jun 1941, parts of Mountain Corps Norway after an artillery preparation and with bomber support launched an attack on the division; the main forces struck at the 95th Rifle Regiment, unable to hold strike, more - in retreat, if not escape to the village Tytivka, dragging approached the position of 325th Rifle Regiment of the same division.
The enemy was stopped by the divisional together with parts of the 23rd Fortified Region and supported by the Northern Fleet and the approaching 52nd Rifle Division at the Turn of River West Face. On 14 Jul 1941, the 325th Rifle Regiment landed from Northern Fleet ships in the amphibious landing on the north - west coast of the Great Western People Bay, where it fought heroically until 2 August 1941. On this day, the regiment was evacuated from the beachhead and moved by ship to the main forces of division in the southern part of the Great Western People Bay; the 135th Rifle Regiment, separated from the main force of the division, was converted to the 254th Separate Marine Rifle Brigade. The German troops were unable to penetrate the border in their positions. On 8 Sep 1941, the division was forced to retreat further, releasing a small bridgehead on the eastern bank of the River. By October 1941 the front line was stabilized at the bend of the Zapadnaya Litsa River. On 22 Oct 1941 Wehrmacht on the orders passed on the defensive.
Enemy at the division site has moved only about 30-60 kilometers, a record minimum advancement and satellites of Germany for all time the Second World War. Until October 1944 the front line remained unchanged; the division fought in small-scale battles. During late April and May 1942, the division participated in the unsuccessful Murmansk Offensive with other units. On 7 Oct 1944 the division took part in the Petsamo-Kirkenes Operation, advanced on the main line of attack, taking part in the liberation of the cities Pechenga Tarnet, Kirkenes, it was awarded the honorific "Pechenga". After the operation the division was put in reserve. On 1 November 1944 it was part of 131st Rifle Corps as part of Karelian Front. On 30 December 1944 it was transformed into the 101st Guards Rifle Division. In 1955, the 180th Rifle Division was renamed the 14th Rifle Division in Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy, part of the 10th Guards Rifle Corps. On 17 May 1957, the 88th Motor Rifle Division was formed in Belgorod-Dnestrovskiy, Odessa Oblast, from the 14th Rifle Division.
It became the 180th Motor Rifle Division in 1965. The division's first formation included the following units. 95th Rifle Regiment 325th Rifle Regiment 135th Rifle Regiment 155th Rifle Regiment 143rd Light Artillery Regiment 241st Howitzer Artillery Regiment 149th Separate Anti-Tank Battalion 364th Separate Mortar Battalion 35th Reconnaissance Company 14th Engineer Battalion 112th Separate Communications Battalion 75th Medical Battalion 139th Motor Company 285th Field Bakery 203rd Divisional Veterinary Hospital 669th Field Post Office 185th Field Cash Office of the State Bank Feskov, V. I.. I.. A.. A.. Вооруженные силы СССР после Второй Мировой войны: от Красной Армии к Советской. Tomsk: Scientific and Technical Literature Publishing. ISBN 9785895035306
Korosten is a historic city and a large railway node in the Zhytomyr Oblast of northern Ukraine. It is located on the Uzh River. Korosten serves as the administrative center of the Korosten Raion, though administratively it is not part of the raion and is incorporated as a city of regional significance, its population is 64,256 , 63525. The city was founded over a millennium ago and was the capital of the Drevlyans, an ancient Slavic tribe, incorporated into Kievan Rus′; the name may be derived from the word korost'brushwood, shrubbery'. During World War II, Korosten was occupied by the German Army from August 7, 1941 to December 28, 1943; the city was destroyed during the war. After the nuclear incident in Chernobyl, around 90 kilometers away, in May 1986, the city was declared a zone of voluntary evacuation, as it had suffered considerable fallout. Korosten Industrial Park is an industrial zone within the city. Total area — 246 hectares. Conceptual design of the park was developed by Czech design bureau DHV.
The project envisages the creation of the territory of the KIP high-tech enterprises, enterprises of light and medium industrial production - the assembly, surface processing, light engineering and electrical industries. The project is designed for 10 years and is divided into three phases: Conduct communications: roads, electricity, water supply, sanitation. Construction of a plant manufacturing MDF boards is complete; this plant will become the first manufacturer of MDF boards in Ukraine. Annually on the third Saturday of September in the city park International potato pancakes festival is held. During the festival, competitions in “potato pancakes triathlon” is held. Triathlon includes such contests: "Potato pancakes powerlifting" - squat with two heavy jugs full of pancakes. At the festival works a potato pancakes school:experienced cooks will teach everyone to cook these pancakes. However, the main intrigue of the festival is the competition for the tastiest pancake. Jury determines the winner.
For a few hryvnias each taster can thus become a member of the jury. Various competitions, tasting traditional Polesia beverages, performances by folk music ensembles are conducted. September 25, 2010 the festival was held for the third time. Korosten is twinned with: Mazyr in Belarus Noyabrsk in Russia Kłobuck in Poland Svitlovodsk in Ukraine Anenii Noi in Moldova Kraśnik in Poland Charvieu-Chavagneux in France Sloviansk in Ukraine Official website Korosten: a small town with a great history Information on the city of Korosten Изучи Коростень @ Ukrainian. Travel Find out Korosten @ Ukrainian. Travel Віднайди Коростень @ Ukrainian. Travel
62nd Army (Soviet Union)
The 62nd Order of Lenin Army was a field army established by the Soviet Union's Red Army during the Second World War. Formed as the 7th Reserve Army as part of the Reserve of the Supreme High Command in May 1942, the formation was designated as the 62nd Army the following month. After an epic combat performance in the Battle of Stalingrad, the 62nd Army was granted Guards status and renamed the 8th Guards Army in April 1943; the 7th Reserve Army was formed 28 May 1942 as part of the Stavka Reserve. Within one month, this force had been redesignated the 62nd Army. From mid August 1942 until late January 1943, the 62nd Army, under the command of General Vasily Chuikov, fought in the Battle of Stalingrad. 62nd Army conducted an epic defense of the city against repeated and desperate attacks by the German 6th Army. The Army, along with the 64th Army, was operating under the Soviet Stalingrad Front. After the German assault at Stalingrad had come to utter disaster, the 62nd Army was uniquely awarded the Order of Lenin, granted Guards status as the 8th Guards Army.
On 13 September 1942 the Army composition was: 33rd, 35th Guards, 87th, 98th, 112th, 131st, 196th, 229th, 244th, 315th, 399th Rifle Divisions 10th, 38th, 42nd, 115th, 124th, 129th, 149th Rifle Brigades post 9-27-1942 193rd Rifle Division 23rd Tank Corps 20th Tank Destroyer Brigade 115th Fortified Region twelve artillery and mortar regiments On 1 November 1942 during the height of the Battle of Stalingrad, the 62nd Army commanded the 13th, 37th, 39th Guards Rifle Divisions, the 45th, 95th, 112th, 138th, 193rd, 284th and 308th Rifle Divisions, the 42nd, 92nd, 115th, 124th, 149th, 160th Rifle Brigades, the 84th Tank and 2nd Motor Rifle Brigades, the 115th Fortified Region, 20 regiments of howitzer, antitank, mortar and anti-aircraft artillery among other support units. Many of these formations were burnt-out shells by the end of the Battle of Stalingrad, with many formations reduced to less than 5% of its original manpower. On 16 April 1943, the 62nd Army became the 8th Guards Army. Jul 1942 to Aug 1942: Major General V. Ia.
Kolpakchi Aug 1942 to Sep 1942: Lieutenant General A. I. Lopatin Sep 1942 to Apr 1943: Lieutenant General V. I. Chuikov Bonn, Keith E. ed.. Slaughterhouse: The Handbook of the Eastern Front. Bedford, Pennsylvania: Aberjona Press. ISBN 9780971765092. Erickson, John; the Road to Stalingrad. London: Cassell Military Paperbacks. ISBN 9780304365418. Glantz, David M. Companion to Colossus Reborn. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0-7006-1359-5. Poirier, Robert G.. The Red Army Order of Battle in the Great Patriotic War. Novato: Presidio Press. ISBN 0-89141-237-9
Soviet invasion of Poland
The Soviet invasion of Poland was a military operation by the Soviet Union without a formal declaration of war. On 17 September 1939, the Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east, sixteen days after Germany invaded Poland from the west. Subsequent military operations lasted for the following 20 days and ended on 6 October 1939 with the two-way division and annexation of the entire territory of the Second Polish Republic by Germany and the Soviet Union; the Soviet invasion of Poland was secretly approved by Germany following the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 23 August 1939. The Red Army, which vastly outnumbered the Polish defenders, achieved its targets encountering only limited resistance; some 320,000 Polish prisoners of war had been captured. The campaign of mass persecution in the newly acquired areas began immediately. In November 1939 the Soviet government ostensibly annexed the entire Polish territory under its control; some 13.5 million Polish citizens who fell under the military occupation were made into new Soviet subjects following show elections conducted by the NKVD secret police in the atmosphere of terror, the results of which were used to legitimize the use of force.
A Soviet campaign of political murders and other forms of repression, targeting Polish figures of authority such as military officers and priests, began with a wave of arrests and summary executions. The Soviet NKVD sent hundreds of thousands of people from eastern Poland to Siberia and other remote parts of the Soviet Union in four major waves of deportation between 1939 and 1941. Soviet forces occupied eastern Poland until the summer of 1941, when they were driven out by the German army in the course of Operation Barbarossa; the area was under German occupation until the Red Army reconquered it in the summer of 1944. An agreement at the Yalta Conference permitted the Soviet Union to annex all of their Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact portion of the Second Polish Republic, compensating the People's Republic of Poland with the southern half of East Prussia and territories east of the Oder–Neisse line; the Soviet Union enclosed most of the conquered annexed territories into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic.
After the end of World War II in Europe, the USSR signed a new border agreement with the Soviet-backed and installed Polish communist puppet state on 16 August 1945. This agreement recognized the status quo as the new official border between the two countries with the exception of the region around Białystok and a minor part of Galicia east of the San river around Przemyśl, which were returned to Poland. Several months before the invasion, in early 1939 the Soviet Union began strategic alliance negotiations with the United Kingdom, France and Romania against the crash militarization of Nazi Germany under Adolf Hitler; the USSR played a double game by secretly engaging in parallel talks with Germany. The negotiations with the Western democracies failed much to soviet disappointment:when the Soviet Union insisted that Poland and Romania give Soviet troops transit rights through their territory as part of a collective security arrangement; the terms were rejected, thus giving Josef Stalin a free hand in pursuing the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact with Adolf Hitler, signed on 23 August 1939.
The non-aggression pact contained a secret protocol dividing Northern and Eastern Europe into German and Soviet spheres of influence in the event of war. One week after the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, German forces invaded Poland from the west and south on 1 September 1939. Polish forces withdrew to the southeast where they prepared for a long defence of the Romanian Bridgehead and awaited the French and British support and relief that they were expecting. On 17 September 1939 the Soviet Red Army invaded the Kresy regions in accordance with the secret protocol. At the opening of hostilities several Polish cities including Dubno, Łuck and Włodzimierz Wołyński let the Red Army in peacefully, convinced that it was marching on in order to fight the Germans. General Juliusz Rómmel of the Polish Army issued an unauthorised order to treat them like an ally before it was too late; the Soviet government announced it was acting to protect the Ukrainians and Belarusians who lived in the eastern part of Poland, because the Polish state – according to Soviet propaganda – had collapsed in the face of the Nazi German attack and could no longer guarantee the security of its own citizens.
Facing a second front, the Polish government concluded that the defence of the Romanian Bridgehead was no longer feasible and ordered an emergency evacuation of all uniformed troops to then-neutral Romania. The result of the Paris Peace Conference did little to decrease the territorial ambitions of parties in the region. Józef Piłsudski sought to expand the Polish borders as far east as possible in an attempt to create a Polish-led federation to counter any potential imperialist intentions on the part of Russia or Germany. At the same time, the Bolsheviks began to gain the upper hand in the Russian Civil War and started to advance westward towards the disputed territories with the intent of assisting other Communist movements in Western Europe; the border skirmishes of 1919 progressively escalated into the Polish–Soviet War in 1920. Following the Polish victory at the Battle of Warsaw, the Soviets sued for peace and the war ended with an armistice in October 1920; the parties signed the formal peace treaty, the Peace of Riga, on 18 March 1921, dividing the disputed territories between Poland and Soviet Russia.
In an action that determined the Soviet-Polish border during the interwar period, the Soviets offered the Polish peace delegation territorial concessions in the contested borderland areas resembling the border between th
Odessa Operation (1919)
The Odessa operation or the Odessa landing was a successful amphibious military operation by the White Armed Forces of South Russia against the troops of the Red Army and the Odessa garrison on 20 - 24 August 1919. The success of the operation would have been impossible without a coordinated anti-Bolshevik insurrection in the city itself; the operation was carried out in the development of the "Moscow directive" of the AFSR. Between December 1918 and April 1919, French and Greek troops had taken over control of Odessa during the Southern Russia Intervention. On April 7 1919, they evacuated the city when the pro-Bolshevik Army of Ataman Nikifor Grigoriev approached. In May a Red Defence Committee of the Odessa Military District was established under command of Boris Krajewski, Ivan Klimenko and Yan Gamarnik, they had 2 divisions at their disposal, the 45th and 47th, a garrison of some 5,000 untrained men. The position of Odessa, as the most south-western point of Soviet power, was vulnerable. From the sea it was blocked by the naval forces of the Entente.
From land at any time, the Petliurists, Whites or Makhnovists and insurgent peasants of suburban villages could cut it off from the center. Red Odessa of that time, in the words of Comrade Ivan Klimenko, one of the leaders of the Defence Committee of the city, lived all the time in a condition of evacuation. On July 18, the White Army took Nikolaev. In late July and early August and cholera epidemics began to develop in the city, which became acute. By August 10, 1,130 cases of cholera were registered, the death rate among the diseased was 47%; the situation was aggravated by a severe sanitary and hygienic situation by an acute lack of clean water. Furthermore, at the end of July 1919 a powerful peasant uprising flared up in the villages around Odessa, the cause of, the mobilization into the Red Army of the entire male population between 18 and 45; the leaders of the insurgents contacted the command of the White Volunteer Army. Wishing to take advantage of the moment, the command of the AFSR, which had retaken the Crimea in June 1919, planned to conduct an amphibious operation from there as soon as possible, hoping to rely on the forces of the insurgents.
The fleet of the AFSR was centered around the Cruiser Ochakov and commanded by captain 1st rank Pavel Osteletsky. On August 22, at noon, a squadron of the Royal Navy of Great Britain, including light Cruiser HMS Caradoc, joined the AFSR squadron. In the city a White Guard underground organisation had been created under command of A. P. Sablin, it was divided into dozens of units, each of, assigned to a separate sector of the city. The commander of the Red "Black Sea Fleet", A. Sheykovsky became a supporter of the Volunteers and managed to equip the coastal batteries in the Odessa region with sympathisers; as a result, the batteries went over to the Whites without firing a single shot. However, the initial plans of the AFSR command - to conduct joint actions with the rebel peasants - did not come true. Having gathered all the forces at its disposal, the “Defence Committee” managed to crush the uprising, “drowning it in blood”. Moreover, the Odessa Checka managed to get on the trail of the White underground organization in the city and on the eve of the landing of troops to arrest their leaders - Colonel Sablin, lieutenants Markov and Nakashidze.
Despite these circumstances, the landing went ahead. Early in the morning of August 23, the landing force, under command of Nikolai Shilling, disembarked near Chornomorsk, south of Odessa; the landing was not detected by the Soviet troops. The White landing forces advanced in 6 columns towards the city; the first Red battery it encountered went over to the side of the Whites. After learning about the landing, all the highest Red commanders, Yan Gamarnik, Boris Krajewski and Iona Yakir, fled the city by noon. Due to the flight of the entire command, there was no one left to organise the defence or evacuation of the city, which led to the fact that many Soviet soldiers fell into the hands of the rebels. By 15 o'clock information had been received that Red forces were concentrating in the area of the Artillery school, some 600 men with six howitzers and one armored car; this information was transmitted to the British squadron. The Russian cruiser Ochakov and HMS Caradoc opened fire and achieved a number of successful hits, which led to panic amongst the Soviet unit, which scattered in all directions.
At about 17 o'clock at the intersection of the road from Moldavanka to Arcadia with the tram line, a new concentration of Red forces was observed, some 800 men preparing for an attack on the landing party. But soon it was scattered by accurate artillery fire from the ships. At 17h30, the forward detachment resumed its advance towards Odessa and reached the railway lines that bend around the city and, in view of the coming darkness, stopped for the night. Meanwhile, according to the agreement with the White underground, the heavy battery in Arcadia, which had gone over to the AFSR, fired three shots in the direction of Odessa, the signal for the beginning of the uprising. Throughout the city, the rebels seized buildings and freed the 4 imprisoned leaders of the uprising; the rebels chased the Red units from the port area and began to move along the Marazlievskaya and Kanatnaya streets towards the railway station, clearing Red quarter after quarter. There was no particular resistance anywhere.
By 2300 hours, the entire eastern part of the city from the seashore to Pushkinska Street