1.
45 (number)
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45 is the natural number following 44 and followed by 46. Forty-five is a number, and in particular the sum of all the decimal digits. It is the smallest triangle number which can be written as the sum of two squares and it is also a hexagonal and 16-gonal number. 45 is the positive integer with a prime factorization of the form p2q. 33 is the sum of 45 and the aliquot sequence of 45 is. Since the greatest prime factor of 452 +1 =2026 is 1013, in base 10, it is a Kaprekar number and a Harshad number. The duration of Saros series 45 was 1280.1 years, the Saros number of the lunar eclipse series which began on −1369 August 19 and ended on 182 March. The duration of Saros series 45 was 1550.6 years, a card game, Forty-five.45, a 2006 motion picture. In the United States,45 is often a reference to one of two specific.45 caliber cartridges— the.45 Colt or the.45 ACP, in years of marriage, the sapphire wedding anniversary. Forty Five a Big Finish 2008 audio play made for the forty fifth anniversary of the British science fiction television show Doctor Who, issue 45 of The North Briton was thought to be seditious but its publisher, John Wilkes, was celebrated as a champion of liberty. The number 45 was used as a symbol of support for him, banquets were held with a theme of 45 while many items were produced showing the number or featuring it in some way. For example, a wig was produced with 45 curls
2.
39 (number)
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39 is the natural number following 38 and preceding 40. Thirty-nine is the sum of consecutive primes and also is the product of the first, among small semiprimes only three other integers share this attribute. 39 also is the sum of the first three powers of 3, given 39, the Mertens function returns 0. 39 is the smallest natural number which has three partitions into three parts which all give the product when multiplied. 39 is the 12th distinct semiprime and the 4th in the family and it is the last member of the third distinct biprime pair. 39 has a sum of 17 which is itself a prime. 39 is the 4th member of the 17-aliquot tree and it is a perfect totient number. The thirteenth Perrin number is 39, which comes after 17,22,29, since the greatest prime factor of 392 +1 =1522 is 761, which is obviously more than 39 twice,39 is a Størmer number. The F26A graph is a graph with 39 edges. The atomic number of yttrium Astronomy Messier object Open Cluster M39, the duration of Saros series 39 was 1298.1 years, and it contained 73 lunar eclipses. The retired jersey number of baseball player Roy Campanella The book series The 39 Clues revolves around 39 clues hidden around the world. Glorious 39 is a 2009 drama film set at the beginning of World War II In the CBS reality show Survivor, the number of episodes done during its one season in 1955-1956 of The Honeymooners television series is commonly referred to as the Classic 39. I-39 is the 39th shortest of the two digit Interstates. The bowling lane normally consists of 39 wooden boards
3.
40 (number)
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Despite being related to the word four, the modern spelling of 40 is forty. The archaic form fourty is now considered a misspelling, the modern spelling possibly reflects a pronunciation change due to the horse–hoarse merger. Forty is a number, an octagonal number, and as the sum of the first four pentagonal numbers. Adding up some subsets of its divisors gives 40, hence 40 is a semiperfect number, given 40, the Mertens function returns 0. 40 is the smallest number n with exactly 9 solutions to the equation φ = n, Forty is the number of n-queens problem solutions for n =7. Since 402 +1 =1601 is prime,40 is a Størmer number,40 is a repdigit in base 3 and a Harshad number in base 10. Negative forty is the temperature at which the Fahrenheit and Celsius scales correspond. It is referred to as either minus forty or forty below, the planet Venus forms a pentagram in the night sky every eight years with it returning to its original point every 40 years with a 40-day regression. The duration of Saros series 40 was 1280.1 years, lunar eclipse series which began on -1387 February 12 and ended on -71 April 12. The duration of Saros series 40 was 1316.2 years, the number 40 is used in Jewish, Christian, Islamic, and other Middle Eastern traditions to represent a large, approximate number, similar to umpteen. In the Hebrew Bible, forty is often used for periods, forty days or forty years. Rain fell for forty days and forty nights during the Flood, spies explored the land of Israel for forty days. The Hebrew people lived in the Sinai desert for forty years and this period of years represents the time it takes for a new generation to arise. Moses life is divided into three 40-year segments, separated by his growing to adulthood, fleeing from Egypt, and his return to lead his people out, several Jewish leaders and kings are said to have ruled for forty years, that is, a generation. Examples include Eli, Saul, David, and Solomon, goliath challenged the Israelites twice a day for forty days before David defeated him. He went up on the day of Tammuz to beg forgiveness for the peoples sin. He went up on the first day of Elul and came down on the day of Tishrei. A mikvah consists of 40 seah of water 40 lashes is one of the punishments meted out by the Sanhedrin, One of the prerequisites for a man to study Kabbalah is that he is forty years old
4.
42 (number)
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42 is the natural number that succeeds 41 and precedes 43. Forty-two is a number and an abundant number, its prime factorization 2 ·3 ·7 makes it the second sphenic number. As with all numbers of this form, the aliquot sum is abundant by 12. 42 is also the second number to be bracketed by twin primes,30 is also a pronic number. 42 has a 14-member aliquot sequence 42,54,66,78,90,144,259,45,33,15,9,4,3,1,0 and is part of the aliquot sequence commencing with the first sphenic number 30. Further,42 is the 10th member of the 3-aliquot tree, additional properties of the number 42 include, It is the third primary pseudoperfect number. It is an alternating sign matrix number, that is, the number of 4-by-4 alternating sign matrices and it is the number of partitions of 10—the number of ways of expressing 10 as a sum of positive integers. It is the third pentadecagonal number and it is a meandric number and an open meandric number. It is conjectured to be the factor in the leading order term of the sixth moment of the Riemann zeta function. In particular, Conrey & Ghosh have conjectured that 1 T ∫0 T | ζ |6 d t ∼429, ∏ p 4 log 9 T. where the infinite product is over all prime numbers, p.42 is a Størmer number. Whether there are other remains a open question. 42 is a number, as σ2 = σ = 6n. 42 is the number of the original Smith number, Both the sum of its digits. The dimension of the Borel subalgebra in the exceptional Lie algebra e6 is 42,42 is a perfect score on the USA Math Olympiad and International Mathematical Olympiad. 42 is the maximum of core points awarded in International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme,42 is the sum of the first 6 positive even numbers. 42 is the number of molybdenum. 42 is the mass of one of the naturally occurring stable isotopes of calcium. The angle rounded to whole degrees for which a rainbow appears, the first half of the journey consists of free-fall acceleration, while the second half consists of an exactly equal deceleration
5.
Integer
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An integer is a number that can be written without a fractional component. For example,21,4,0, and −2048 are integers, while 9.75, 5 1⁄2, the set of integers consists of zero, the positive natural numbers, also called whole numbers or counting numbers, and their additive inverses. This is often denoted by a boldface Z or blackboard bold Z standing for the German word Zahlen, ℤ is a subset of the sets of rational and real numbers and, like the natural numbers, is countably infinite. The integers form the smallest group and the smallest ring containing the natural numbers, in algebraic number theory, the integers are sometimes called rational integers to distinguish them from the more general algebraic integers. In fact, the integers are the integers that are also rational numbers. Like the natural numbers, Z is closed under the operations of addition and multiplication, that is, however, with the inclusion of the negative natural numbers, and, importantly,0, Z is also closed under subtraction. The integers form a ring which is the most basic one, in the following sense, for any unital ring. This universal property, namely to be an object in the category of rings. Z is not closed under division, since the quotient of two integers, need not be an integer, although the natural numbers are closed under exponentiation, the integers are not. The following lists some of the properties of addition and multiplication for any integers a, b and c. In the language of algebra, the first five properties listed above for addition say that Z under addition is an abelian group. As a group under addition, Z is a cyclic group, in fact, Z under addition is the only infinite cyclic group, in the sense that any infinite cyclic group is isomorphic to Z. The first four properties listed above for multiplication say that Z under multiplication is a commutative monoid. However, not every integer has an inverse, e. g. there is no integer x such that 2x =1, because the left hand side is even. This means that Z under multiplication is not a group, all the rules from the above property table, except for the last, taken together say that Z together with addition and multiplication is a commutative ring with unity. It is the prototype of all objects of algebraic structure. Only those equalities of expressions are true in Z for all values of variables, note that certain non-zero integers map to zero in certain rings. The lack of zero-divisors in the means that the commutative ring Z is an integral domain
6.
Negative number
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In mathematics, a negative number is a real number that is less than zero. If positive represents movement to the right, negative represents movement to the left, if positive represents above sea level, then negative represents below level. If positive represents a deposit, negative represents a withdrawal and they are often used to represent the magnitude of a loss or deficiency. A debt that is owed may be thought of as a negative asset, if a quantity may have either of two opposite senses, then one may choose to distinguish between those senses—perhaps arbitrarily—as positive and negative. In the medical context of fighting a tumor, an expansion could be thought of as a negative shrinkage, negative numbers are used to describe values on a scale that goes below zero, such as the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales for temperature. The laws of arithmetic for negative numbers ensure that the common idea of an opposite is reflected in arithmetic. For example, − −3 =3 because the opposite of an opposite is the original thing, negative numbers are usually written with a minus sign in front. For example, −3 represents a quantity with a magnitude of three, and is pronounced minus three or negative three. To help tell the difference between a subtraction operation and a number, occasionally the negative sign is placed slightly higher than the minus sign. Conversely, a number that is greater than zero is called positive, the positivity of a number may be emphasized by placing a plus sign before it, e. g. +3. In general, the negativity or positivity of a number is referred to as its sign, every real number other than zero is either positive or negative. The positive whole numbers are referred to as natural numbers, while the positive and negative numbers are referred to as integers. In bookkeeping, amounts owed are often represented by red numbers, or a number in parentheses, Liu Hui established rules for adding and subtracting negative numbers. By the 7th century, Indian mathematicians such as Brahmagupta were describing the use of negative numbers, islamic mathematicians further developed the rules of subtracting and multiplying negative numbers and solved problems with negative coefficients. Western mathematicians accepted the idea of numbers by the 17th century. Prior to the concept of numbers, mathematicians such as Diophantus considered negative solutions to problems false. Negative numbers can be thought of as resulting from the subtraction of a number from a smaller. For example, negative three is the result of subtracting three from zero,0 −3 = −3, in general, the subtraction of a larger number from a smaller yields a negative result, with the magnitude of the result being the difference between the two numbers
7.
20 (number)
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20 is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. A group of twenty units may also be referred to as a score,20 is a tetrahedral number as 1,4,10,20. 20 is the basis for vigesimal number systems,20 is the third composite number comprising the product of a squared prime and a prime, and also the second member of the q family in this form. 20 has a sum of 22. Accordingly,20 is the abundant number and demonstrates an 8-member aliquot sequence. 20 is the smallest primitive abundant number,20 is the 4th composite number in the 7-aliquot tree. Two numbers have 20 as their sum, the discrete semiprime 34. Only 2 other square primes are abundant 12 and 18,20 can be written as the sum of three Fibonacci numbers uniquely, i. e.20 =13 +5 +2. The product of the number of divisors and the number of divisors of 20 is exactly 20. 20 is the number of required to optimally solve a Rubiks Cube in the worst case. 20 is the number with more than one digit that can be written from base 2 to base 20 using only the digits 0 to 9. The third magic number in physics, the IAU shower number for Coma Berenicids. The number of amino acids that are encoded by the standard genetic code. In some countries, the number 20 is used as an index in measuring visual acuity, 20/20 indicates normal vision at 20 feet, although it is commonly used to mean perfect vision. When someone is able to see only after an event how things turned out, the Baltimore Orioles and Cincinnati Reds, both for Hall of Famer Frank Robinson. The Kansas City Royals, for Frank White, the Los Angeles Dodgers, for Hall of Famer Don Sutton. The Philadelphia Phillies, for Hall of Famer Mike Schmidt, the Pittsburgh Pirates, for Hall of Famer Pie Traynor. The St. Louis Cardinals, for Hall of Famer Lou Brock, the San Francisco Giants, for Hall of Famer Monte Irvin, who played for the team when it was the New York Giants
8.
30 (number)
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30 is the natural number following 29 and preceding 31. Thirty is the sum of the first four squares, which makes it a square pyramidal number and it is a primorial and is the smallest Giuga number. 30 is the smallest sphenic number, and the smallest of the form 2 ×3 × r,30 has an aliquot sum of 42, the second sphenic number and all sphenic numbers of this form have an aliquot sum 12 greater than themselves. The aliquot sequence of 30 is 16 members long, it comprises Thirty has but one number for which it is the aliquot sum, adding up some subsets of its divisors gives 30, hence 30 is a semiperfect number. 30 is the largest number such that all smaller than itself. A polygon with thirty sides is called a triacontagon, the icosahedron and the dodecahedron are Platonic solids with 30 edges. The icosidodecahedron is an Archimedean solid with 30 vertices, and the Tutte–Coxeter graph is a graph with 30 vertices. The atomic number of zinc is 30 Messier object M30, a magnitude 8, the duration of Saros series 30 was 1496.5 years, and it contained 84 solar eclipses. Further, the Saros number of the lunar eclipse series began on June 19,1803 BC. The duration of Saros series 30 was 1316.2 years, Thirty is, Used to indicate the end of a newspaper story, a copy editors typographical notation. S. Judas Iscariot betrayed Jesus for 30 pieces of silver, one of the rallying-cries of the 1960s student/youth protest movement was the slogan, Dont trust anyone over thirty. In Franz Kafkas novel The Trial Joseph wakes up on the morning of his birthday to find himself under arrest for an unspecified crime. After making many attempts to find the nature of the crime or the name of his accuser. The number of uprights that formed the Sarsen Circle at Stonehenge, western Christianitys most prolific 20th century essayist, F. W. Also in that essay Boreham writes It was said of Keats, in tennis, the number 30 represents the second point gained in a game. Under NCAA rules for basketball, the offensive team has 30 seconds to attempt a shot. As of 2012, three of the four major leagues in the United States and Canada have 30 teams each. The California Angels baseball team retired the number in honor of its most notable wearer, Nolan Ryan, the San Francisco Giants extended the same honor to Orlando Cepeda
9.
60 (number)
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60 is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. Being three times 20, it is called three score in older literature. It is a number, with divisors 1,2,3,4,5,6,10,12,15,20,30. Because it is the sum of its divisors, it is a unitary perfect number. Being ten times a number, it is a semiperfect number. It is the smallest number divisible by the numbers 1 to 6 and it is the smallest number with exactly 12 divisors. It is the sum of a pair of twin primes and the sum of four consecutive primes and it is adjacent to two primes. It is the smallest number that is the sum of two odd primes in six ways, the smallest non-solvable group has order 60. There are four Archimedean solids with 60 vertices, the icosahedron, the rhombicosidodecahedron, the snub dodecahedron. The skeletons of these polyhedra form 60-node vertex-transitive graphs, there are also two Archimedean solids with 60 edges, the snub cube and the icosidodecahedron. The skeleton of the forms a 60-edge symmetric graph. There are 60 one-sided hexominoes, the polyominoes made from six squares, in geometry, it is the number of seconds in a minute, and the number of minutes in a degree. In normal space, the three angles of an equilateral triangle each measure 60 degrees, adding up to 180 degrees. Because it is divisible by the sum of its digits in base 10, a number system with base 60 is called sexagesimal. It is the smallest positive integer that is written only the smallest. The first fullerene to be discovered was buckminsterfullerene C60, an allotrope of carbon with 60 atoms in each molecule and this ball is known as a buckyball, and looks like a soccer ball. The atomic number of neodymium is 60, and cobalt-60 is an isotope of cobalt. The electrical utility frequency in western Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, the Philippines, Saudi Arabia, the United States, and several other countries in the Americas is 60 Hz
10.
80 (number)
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80 is the natural number following 79 and preceding 81. 80 is, the sum of Eulers totient function φ over the first sixteen integers, a semiperfect number, since adding up some subsets of its divisors gives 80. Palindromic in bases 3,6,9,15,19 and 39, a repdigit in bases 3,9,15,19 and 39. A Harshad number in bases 2,3,4,5,6,7,9,10,11,13,15 and 16 The Pareto principle states that, for many events, roughly 80% of the effects come from 20% of the causes. Every solvable configuration of the Fifteen puzzle can be solved in no more than 80 single-tile moves, the atomic number of mercury According to Exodus 7,7, Moses was 80 years old when he initially spoke to Pharaoh on behalf of his people. Today,80 years of age is the age limit for cardinals to vote in papal elections. Jerry Rice wore the number 80 for the majority of his NFL career
11.
90 (number)
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90 is the natural number preceded by 89 and followed by 91. In English speech, the numbers 90 and 19 are often confused, when carefully enunciated, they differ in which syllable is stressed,19 /naɪnˈtiːn/ vs 90 /ˈnaɪnti/. However, in such as 1999, and when contrasting numbers in the teens and when counting, such as 17,18,19. 90 is, a perfect number because it is the sum of its unitary divisors. A semiperfect number because it is equal to the sum of a subset of its divisors, a Perrin number, preceded in the sequence by 39,51,68. Palindromic and a repdigit in bases 14,17,29, a Harshad number since 90 is divisible by the sum of its base 10 digits. In normal space, the angles of a rectangle measure 90 degrees each. Also, in a triangle, the angle opposing the hypotenuse measures 90 degrees. Thus, an angle measuring 90 degrees is called a right angle, ninety is, the atomic number of thorium, an actinide. As an atomic weight,90 identifies an isotope of strontium, the latitude in degrees of the North and the South geographical poles. NFL, New York Jets Dennis Byrds #90 is retired +90 is the code for international direct dial phone calls to Turkey,90 is the code for the French département Belfort
12.
100 (number)
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100 or one hundred is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. In medieval contexts, it may be described as the hundred or five score in order to differentiate the English. The standard SI prefix for a hundred is hecto-,100 is the basis of percentages, with 100% being a full amount. 100 is the sum of the first nine prime numbers, as well as the sum of pairs of prime numbers e. g.3 +97,11 +89,17 +83,29 +71,41 +59. 100 is the sum of the cubes of the first four integers and this is related by Nicomachuss theorem to the fact that 100 also equals the square of the sum of the first four integers,100 =102 =2. 26 +62 =100, thus 100 is a Leyland number and it is divisible by the number of primes below it,25 in this case. It can not be expressed as the difference between any integer and the total of coprimes below it, making it a noncototient and it can be expressed as a sum of some of its divisors, making it a semiperfect number. 100 is a Harshad number in base 10, and also in base 4, there are exactly 100 prime numbers whose digits are in strictly ascending order. 100 is the smallest number whose common logarithm is a prime number,100 senators are in the U. S One hundred is the atomic number of fermium, an actinide. On the Celsius scale,100 degrees is the temperature of pure water at sea level. The Kármán line lies at an altitude of 100 kilometres above the Earths sea level and is used to define the boundary between Earths atmosphere and outer space. There are 100 blasts of the Shofar heard in the service of Rosh Hashana, a religious Jew is expected to utter at least 100 blessings daily. In Hindu Religion - Mythology Book Mahabharata - Dhritarashtra had 100 sons known as kauravas, the United States Senate has 100 Senators. Most of the currencies are divided into 100 subunits, for example, one euro is one hundred cents. The 100 Euro banknotes feature a picture of a Rococo gateway on the obverse, the U. S. hundred-dollar bill has Benjamin Franklins portrait, the Benjamin is the largest U. S. bill in print. American savings bonds of $100 have Thomas Jeffersons portrait, while American $100 treasury bonds have Andrew Jacksons portrait, One hundred is also, The number of years in a century. The number of pounds in an American short hundredweight, in Greece, India, Israel and Nepal,100 is the police telephone number. In Belgium,100 is the ambulance and firefighter telephone number, in United Kingdom,100 is the operator telephone number
13.
Factorization
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In mathematics, factorization or factoring is the decomposition of an object into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original. For example, the number 15 factors into primes as 3 ×5, in all cases, a product of simpler objects is obtained. The aim of factoring is usually to reduce something to “basic building blocks”, such as numbers to prime numbers, factoring integers is covered by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic and factoring polynomials by the fundamental theorem of algebra. Viètes formulas relate the coefficients of a polynomial to its roots, the opposite of polynomial factorization is expansion, the multiplying together of polynomial factors to an “expanded” polynomial, written as just a sum of terms. Integer factorization for large integers appears to be a difficult problem, there is no known method to carry it out quickly. Its complexity is the basis of the security of some public key cryptography algorithms. A matrix can also be factorized into a product of matrices of special types, One major example of this uses an orthogonal or unitary matrix, and a triangular matrix. There are different types, QR decomposition, LQ, QL, RQ and this situation is generalized by factorization systems. By the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, every integer greater than 1 has a unique prime factorization. Given an algorithm for integer factorization, one can factor any integer down to its constituent primes by repeated application of this algorithm, for very large numbers, no efficient classical algorithm is known. Modern techniques for factoring polynomials are fast and efficient, but use sophisticated mathematical ideas and these techniques are used in the construction of computer routines for carrying out polynomial factorization in Computer algebra systems. This article is concerned with classical techniques. While the general notion of factoring just means writing an expression as a product of simpler expressions, when factoring polynomials this means that the factors are to be polynomials of smaller degree. Thus, while x 2 − y = is a factorization of the expression, another issue concerns the coefficients of the factors. It is not always possible to do this, and a polynomial that can not be factored in this way is said to be irreducible over this type of coefficient, thus, x2 -2 is irreducible over the integers and x2 +4 is irreducible over the reals. In the first example, the integers 1 and -2 can also be thought of as real numbers, and if they are, then x 2 −2 = shows that this polynomial factors over the reals. Similarly, since the integers 1 and 4 can be thought of as real and hence complex numbers, x2 +4 splits over the complex numbers, i. e. x 2 +4 =. The fundamental theorem of algebra can be stated as, Every polynomial of n with complex number coefficients splits completely into n linear factors
14.
Divisor
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In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer m that may be multiplied by some other integer to produce n. In this case one says also that n is a multiple of m, an integer n is divisible by another integer m if m is a divisor of n, this implies dividing n by m leaves no remainder. Under this definition, the statement m ∣0 holds for every m, as before, but with the additional constraint k ≠0. Under this definition, the statement m ∣0 does not hold for m ≠0, in the remainder of this article, which definition is applied is indicated where this is significant. Divisors can be negative as well as positive, although sometimes the term is restricted to positive divisors. For example, there are six divisors of 4, they are 1,2,4, −1, −2, and −4,1 and −1 divide every integer. Every integer is a divisor of itself, every integer is a divisor of 0. Integers divisible by 2 are called even, and numbers not divisible by 2 are called odd,1, −1, n and −n are known as the trivial divisors of n. A divisor of n that is not a divisor is known as a non-trivial divisor. A non-zero integer with at least one divisor is known as a composite number, while the units −1 and 1. There are divisibility rules which allow one to recognize certain divisors of a number from the numbers digits, the generalization can be said to be the concept of divisibility in any integral domain. 7 is a divisor of 42 because 7 ×6 =42 and it can also be said that 42 is divisible by 7,42 is a multiple of 7,7 divides 42, or 7 is a factor of 42. The non-trivial divisors of 6 are 2, −2,3, the positive divisors of 42 are 1,2,3,6,7,14,21,42. 5 ∣0, because 5 ×0 =0, if a ∣ b and b ∣ a, then a = b or a = − b. If a ∣ b and a ∣ c, then a ∣ holds, however, if a ∣ b and c ∣ b, then ∣ b does not always hold. If a ∣ b c, and gcd =1, then a ∣ c, if p is a prime number and p ∣ a b then p ∣ a or p ∣ b. A positive divisor of n which is different from n is called a proper divisor or a part of n. A number that does not evenly divide n but leaves a remainder is called an aliquant part of n, an integer n >1 whose only proper divisor is 1 is called a prime number
15.
Greek numerals
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Greek numerals are a system of writing numbers using the letters of the Greek alphabet. These alphabetic numerals are known as Ionic or Ionian numerals, Milesian numerals. In modern Greece, they are used for ordinal numbers. For ordinary cardinal numbers, however, Greece uses Arabic numerals, attic numerals, which were later adopted as the basis for Roman numerals, were the first alphabetic set. They were acrophonic, derived from the first letters of the names of the numbers represented and they ran =1, =5, =10, =100, =1000, and =10000. 50,500,5000, and 50000 were represented by the letter with minuscule powers of ten written in the top right corner, the same system was used outside of Attica, but the symbols varied with the local alphabets, in Boeotia, was 1000. The present system probably developed around Miletus in Ionia, 19th-century classicists placed its development in the 3rd century BC, the occasion of its first widespread use. The present system uses the 24 letters adopted by Euclid as well as three Phoenician and Ionic ones that were not carried over, digamma, koppa, and sampi. The position of characters within the numbering system imply that the first two were still in use while the third was not. Greek numerals are decimal, based on powers of 10, the units from 1 to 9 are assigned to the first nine letters of the old Ionic alphabet from alpha to theta. Each multiple of one hundred from 100 to 900 was then assigned its own separate letter as well and this alphabetic system operates on the additive principle in which the numeric values of the letters are added together to obtain the total. For example,241 was represented as, in ancient and medieval manuscripts, these numerals were eventually distinguished from letters using overbars, α, β, γ, etc. In medieval manuscripts of the Book of Revelation, the number of the Beast 666 is written as χξϛ, although the Greek alphabet began with only majuscule forms, surviving papyrus manuscripts from Egypt show that uncial and cursive minuscule forms began early. These new letter forms sometimes replaced the ones, especially in the case of the obscure numerals. The old Q-shaped koppa began to be broken up and simplified, the numeral for 6 changed several times. During antiquity, the letter form of digamma came to be avoided in favor of a special numerical one. By the Byzantine era, the letter was known as episemon and this eventually merged with the sigma-tau ligature stigma. In modern Greek, a number of changes have been made
16.
Roman numerals
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The numeric system represented by Roman numerals originated in ancient Rome and remained the usual way of writing numbers throughout Europe well into the Late Middle Ages. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters from the Latin alphabet, Roman numerals, as used today, are based on seven symbols, The use of Roman numerals continued long after the decline of the Roman Empire. The numbers 1 to 10 are usually expressed in Roman numerals as follows, I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, Numbers are formed by combining symbols and adding the values, so II is two and XIII is thirteen. Symbols are placed left to right in order of value. Named after the year of its release,2014 as MMXIV, the year of the games of the XXII Olympic Winter Games The standard forms described above reflect typical modern usage rather than a universally accepted convention. Usage in ancient Rome varied greatly and remained inconsistent in medieval, Roman inscriptions, especially in official contexts, seem to show a preference for additive forms such as IIII and VIIII instead of subtractive forms such as IV and IX. Both methods appear in documents from the Roman era, even within the same document, double subtractives also occur, such as XIIX or even IIXX instead of XVIII. Sometimes V and L are not used, with such as IIIIII. Such variation and inconsistency continued through the period and into modern times. Clock faces that use Roman numerals normally show IIII for four o’clock but IX for nine o’clock, however, this is far from universal, for example, the clock on the Palace of Westminster in London uses IV. Similarly, at the beginning of the 20th century, different representations of 900 appeared in several inscribed dates. For instance,1910 is shown on Admiralty Arch, London, as MDCCCCX rather than MCMX, although Roman numerals came to be written with letters of the Roman alphabet, they were originally independent symbols. The Etruscans, for example, used
17.
Binary number
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The base-2 system is a positional notation with a radix of 2. Because of its implementation in digital electronic circuitry using logic gates. Each digit is referred to as a bit, the modern binary number system was devised by Gottfried Leibniz in 1679 and appears in his article Explication de lArithmétique Binaire. Systems related to binary numbers have appeared earlier in multiple cultures including ancient Egypt, China, Leibniz was specifically inspired by the Chinese I Ching. The scribes of ancient Egypt used two different systems for their fractions, Egyptian fractions and Horus-Eye fractions, the method used for ancient Egyptian multiplication is also closely related to binary numbers. This method can be seen in use, for instance, in the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, the I Ching dates from the 9th century BC in China. The binary notation in the I Ching is used to interpret its quaternary divination technique and it is based on taoistic duality of yin and yang. Eight trigrams and a set of 64 hexagrams, analogous to the three-bit and six-bit binary numerals, were in use at least as early as the Zhou Dynasty of ancient China. The Song Dynasty scholar Shao Yong rearranged the hexagrams in a format that resembles modern binary numbers, the Indian scholar Pingala developed a binary system for describing prosody. He used binary numbers in the form of short and long syllables, Pingalas Hindu classic titled Chandaḥśāstra describes the formation of a matrix in order to give a unique value to each meter. The binary representations in Pingalas system increases towards the right, the residents of the island of Mangareva in French Polynesia were using a hybrid binary-decimal system before 1450. Slit drums with binary tones are used to encode messages across Africa, sets of binary combinations similar to the I Ching have also been used in traditional African divination systems such as Ifá as well as in medieval Western geomancy. The base-2 system utilized in geomancy had long been applied in sub-Saharan Africa. Leibnizs system uses 0 and 1, like the modern binary numeral system, Leibniz was first introduced to the I Ching through his contact with the French Jesuit Joachim Bouvet, who visited China in 1685 as a missionary. Leibniz saw the I Ching hexagrams as an affirmation of the universality of his own beliefs as a Christian. Binary numerals were central to Leibnizs theology and he believed that binary numbers were symbolic of the Christian idea of creatio ex nihilo or creation out of nothing. Is not easy to impart to the pagans, is the ex nihilo through Gods almighty power. In 1854, British mathematician George Boole published a paper detailing an algebraic system of logic that would become known as Boolean algebra
18.
Ternary numeral system
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The ternary numeral system has three as its base. Analogous to a bit, a digit is a trit. One trit is equivalent to bits of information. Representations of integer numbers in ternary do not get uncomfortably lengthy as quickly as in binary, for example, decimal 365 corresponds to binary 101101101 and to ternary 111112. However, they are far less compact than the corresponding representations in bases such as decimal – see below for a compact way to codify ternary using nonary. The value of a number with n bits that are all 1 is 2n −1. Then N = M, N = /, and N = bd −1, for a three-digit ternary number, N =33 −1 =26 =2 ×32 +2 ×31 +2 ×30 =18 +6 +2. Nonary or septemvigesimal can be used for representation of ternary. A base-three system is used in Islam to keep track of counting Tasbih to 99 or to 100 on a hand for counting prayers. In certain analog logic, the state of the circuit is often expressed ternary and this is most commonly seen in Transistor–transistor logic using 7406 open collector logic. The output is said to either be low, high, or open, in this configuration the output of the circuit is actually not connected to any voltage reference at all. Where the signal is usually grounded to a reference, or at a certain voltage level. Thus, the voltage level is sometimes unpredictable. A rare ternary point is used to denote fractional parts of an inning in baseball, since each inning consists of three outs, each out is considered one third of an inning and is denoted as.1. For example, if a player pitched all of the 4th, 5th and 6th innings, plus 2 outs of the 7th inning, his Innings pitched column for that game would be listed as 3.2, meaning 3⅔. In this usage, only the part of the number is written in ternary form. Ternary numbers can be used to convey self-similar structures like the Sierpinski triangle or the Cantor set conveniently, additionally, it turns out that the ternary representation is useful for defining the Cantor set and related point sets, because of the way the Cantor set is constructed. The Cantor set consists of the points from 0 to 1 that have an expression that does not contain any instance of the digit 1
19.
Quaternary numeral system
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Quaternary is the base-4 numeral system. It uses the digits 0,1,2 and 3 to represent any real number. Four is the largest number within the range and one of two numbers that is both a square and a highly composite number, making quaternary a convenient choice for a base at this scale. Despite being twice as large, its economy is equal to that of binary. However, it no better in the localization of prime numbers. See decimal and binary for a discussion of these properties, as with the octal and hexadecimal numeral systems, quaternary has a special relation to the binary numeral system. Each radix 4,8 and 16 is a power of 2, so the conversion to and from binary is implemented by matching each digit with 2,3 or 4 binary digits, for example, in base 4,302104 =11001001002. Although octal and hexadecimal are widely used in computing and computer programming in the discussion and analysis of binary arithmetic and logic, by analogy with byte and nybble, a quaternary digit is sometimes called a crumb. There is a surviving list of Ventureño language number words up to 32 written down by a Spanish priest ca, the Kharosthi numerals have a partial base 4 counting system from 1 to decimal 10. Quaternary numbers are used in the representation of 2D Hilbert curves, here a real number between 0 and 1 is converted into the quaternary system. Every single digit now indicates in which of the respective 4 sub-quadrants the number will be projected, parallels can be drawn between quaternary numerals and the way genetic code is represented by DNA. The four DNA nucleotides in order, abbreviated A, C, G and T, can be taken to represent the quaternary digits in numerical order 0,1,2. With this encoding, the complementary digit pairs 0↔3, and 1↔2 match the complementation of the pairs, A↔T and C↔G. For example, the nucleotide sequence GATTACA can be represented by the quaternary number 2033010, quaternary line codes have been used for transmission, from the invention of the telegraph to the 2B1Q code used in modern ISDN circuits
20.
Quinary
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Quinary is a numeral system with five as the base. A possible origination of a system is that there are five fingers on either hand. The base five is stated from 0–4, in the quinary place system, five numerals, from 0 to 4, are used to represent any real number. According to this method, five is written as 10, twenty-five is written as 100, today, the main usage of base 5 is as a biquinary system, which is decimal using five as a sub-base. Another example of a system, is sexagesimal, base 60. Each quinary digit has log25 bits of information, many languages use quinary number systems, including Gumatj, Nunggubuyu, Kuurn Kopan Noot, Luiseño and Saraveca. Gumatj is a true 5–25 language, in which 25 is the group of 5. The Gumatj numerals are shown below, In the video game Riven and subsequent games of the Myst franchise, a decimal system with 2 and 5 as a sub-bases is called biquinary, and is found in Wolof and Khmer. Roman numerals are a biquinary system, the numbers 1,5,10, and 50 are written as I, V, X, and L respectively. Eight is VIII and seventy is LXX, most versions of the abacus use a biquinary system to simulate a decimal system for ease of calculation. Urnfield culture numerals and some tally mark systems are also biquinary, units of currencies are commonly partially or wholly biquinary. A vigesimal system with 4 and 5 as a sub-bases is found in Nahuatl, pentimal system Quibinary Yan Tan Tethera References, Quinary Base Conversion, includes fractional part, from Math Is Fun Media related to Quinary numeral system at Wikimedia Commons
21.
Senary
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The senary numeral system has six as its base. It has been adopted independently by a number of cultures. Like decimal, it is a semiprime, though being the product of the two consecutive numbers that are both prime it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size. As six is a highly composite number, many of the arguments made in favor of the duodecimal system also apply to this base-6. Senary may be considered interesting in the study of numbers, since all primes other than 2 and 3. That is, for every number p greater than 3, one has the modular arithmetic relations that either p ≡1 or 5. This property maximizes the probability that the result of an integer multiplication will end in zero, E. g. if three fingers are extended on the left hand and four on the right, 34senary is represented. This is equivalent to 3 ×6 +4 which is 22decimal, flipping the sixes hand around to its backside may help to further disambiguate which hand represents the sixes and which represents the units. While most developed cultures count by fingers up to 5 in very similar ways, beyond 5 non-Western cultures deviate from Western methods, such as with Chinese number gestures. More abstract finger counting systems, such as chisanbop or finger binary, allow counting to 99,1,023, or even higher depending on the method. The English monk and historian Bede, in the first chapter of De temporum ratione, titled Tractatus de computo, vel loquela per gestum digitorum, the Ndom language of Papua New Guinea is reported to have senary numerals. Mer means 6, mer an thef means 6 ×2 =12, nif means 36, another example from Papua New Guinea are the Morehead-Maro languages. In these languages, counting is connected to ritualized yam-counting and these languages count from a base six, employing words for the powers of six, running up to 66 for some of the languages. One example is Kómnzo with the numerals, nimbo, féta, tarumba, ntamno, wärämäkä. Some Niger-Congo languages have been reported to use a number system, usually in addition to another. For some purposes, base 6 might be too small a base for convenience. The choice of 36 as a radix is convenient in that the digits can be represented using the Arabic numerals 0–9 and the Latin letters A–Z, this choice is the basis of the base36 encoding scheme. Base36 encoding scheme Binary Ternary Duodecimal Sexagesimal Shacks Base Six Dialectic Digital base 6 clock Analog Clock Designer capable of rendering a base 6 clock Senary base conversion
22.
Octal
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The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. Octal numerals can be made from binary numerals by grouping binary digits into groups of three. For example, the representation for decimal 74 is 1001010. Two zeroes can be added at the left,1001010, corresponding the octal digits 112, in the decimal system each decimal place is a power of ten. For example,7410 =7 ×101 +4 ×100 In the octal system each place is a power of eight. The Yuki language in California and the Pamean languages in Mexico have octal systems because the speakers count using the spaces between their fingers rather than the fingers themselves and it has been suggested that the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European word for nine might be related to the PIE word for new. Based on this, some have speculated that proto-Indo-Europeans used a number system. In 1716 King Charles XII of Sweden asked Emanuel Swedenborg to elaborate a number based on 64 instead of 10. Swedenborg however argued that for people with less intelligence than the king such a big base would be too difficult, in 1718 Swedenborg wrote a manuscript, En ny rekenkonst som om vexlas wid Thalet 8 i stelle then wanliga wid Thalet 10. The numbers 1-7 are there denoted by the l, s, n, m, t, f, u. Thus 8 = lo,16 = so,24 = no,64 = loo,512 = looo etc, numbers with consecutive consonants are pronounced with vowel sounds between in accordance with a special rule. Writing under the pseudonym Hirossa Ap-Iccim in The Gentlemans Magazine, July 1745, Hugh Jones proposed a system for British coins, weights. In 1801, James Anderson criticized the French for basing the Metric system on decimal arithmetic and he suggested base 8 for which he coined the term octal. In the mid 19th century, Alfred B. Taylor concluded that Our octonary radix is, therefore, so, for example, the number 65 would be spoken in octonary as under-un. Taylor also republished some of Swedenborgs work on octonary as an appendix to the above-cited publications, in the 2009 film Avatar, the language of the extraterrestrial Navi race employs an octal numeral system, probably due to the fact that they have four fingers on each hand. In the TV series Stargate SG-1, the Ancients, a race of beings responsible for the invention of the Stargates, in the tabletop game series Warhammer 40,000, the Tau race use an octal number system. Octal became widely used in computing systems such as the PDP-8, ICL1900. Octal was an abbreviation of binary for these machines because their word size is divisible by three
23.
Duodecimal
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The duodecimal system is a positional notation numeral system using twelve as its base. In this system, the number ten may be written by a rotated 2 and this notation was introduced by Sir Isaac Pitman. These digit forms are available as Unicode characters on computerized systems since June 2015 as ↊ and ↋, other notations use A, T, or X for ten and B or E for eleven. The number twelve is written as 10 in duodecimal, whereas the digit string 12 means 1 dozen and 2 units. Similarly, in duodecimal 100 means 1 gross,1000 means 1 great gross, the number twelve, a superior highly composite number, is the smallest number with four non-trivial factors, and the smallest to include as factors all four numbers within the subitizing range. As a result, duodecimal has been described as the number system. Of its factors,2 and 3 are prime, which means the reciprocals of all 3-smooth numbers have a representation in duodecimal. In particular, the five most elementary fractions all have a terminating representation in duodecimal. This all makes it a convenient number system for computing fractions than most other number systems in common use, such as the decimal, vigesimal, binary. Although the trigesimal and sexagesimal systems do even better in respect, this is at the cost of unwieldy multiplication tables. In this section, numerals are based on decimal places, for example,10 means ten,12 means twelve. Languages using duodecimal number systems are uncommon, germanic languages have special words for 11 and 12, such as eleven and twelve in English. However, they are considered to come from Proto-Germanic *ainlif and *twalif, historically, units of time in many civilizations are duodecimal. There are twelve signs of the zodiac, twelve months in a year, traditional Chinese calendars, clocks, and compasses are based on the twelve Earthly Branches. There are 12 inches in a foot,12 troy ounces in a troy pound,12 old British pence in a shilling,24 hours in a day. The Romans used a system based on 12, including the uncia which became both the English words ounce and inch. The importance of 12 has been attributed to the number of cycles in a year. It is possible to count to 12 with the acting as a pointer
24.
Hexadecimal
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In mathematics and computing, hexadecimal is a positional numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16. It uses sixteen distinct symbols, most often the symbols 0–9 to represent values zero to nine, Hexadecimal numerals are widely used by computer system designers and programmers. As each hexadecimal digit represents four binary digits, it allows a more human-friendly representation of binary-coded values, one hexadecimal digit represents a nibble, which is half of an octet or byte. For example, a byte can have values ranging from 00000000 to 11111111 in binary form. In a non-programming context, a subscript is typically used to give the radix, several notations are used to support hexadecimal representation of constants in programming languages, usually involving a prefix or suffix. The prefix 0x is used in C and related languages, where this value might be denoted as 0x2AF3, in contexts where the base is not clear, hexadecimal numbers can be ambiguous and confused with numbers expressed in other bases. There are several conventions for expressing values unambiguously, a numerical subscript can give the base explicitly,15910 is decimal 159,15916 is hexadecimal 159, which is equal to 34510. Some authors prefer a text subscript, such as 159decimal and 159hex, or 159d and 159h. example. com/name%20with%20spaces where %20 is the space character, thus ’, represents the right single quotation mark, Unicode code point number 2019 in hex,8217. In the Unicode standard, a value is represented with U+ followed by the hex value. Color references in HTML, CSS and X Window can be expressed with six hexadecimal digits prefixed with #, white, CSS allows 3-hexdigit abbreviations with one hexdigit per component, #FA3 abbreviates #FFAA33. *nix shells, AT&T assembly language and likewise the C programming language, to output an integer as hexadecimal with the printf function family, the format conversion code %X or %x is used. In Intel-derived assembly languages and Modula-2, hexadecimal is denoted with a suffixed H or h, some assembly languages use the notation HABCD. Ada and VHDL enclose hexadecimal numerals in based numeric quotes, 16#5A3#, for bit vector constants VHDL uses the notation x5A3. Verilog represents hexadecimal constants in the form 8hFF, where 8 is the number of bits in the value, the Smalltalk language uses the prefix 16r, 16r5A3 PostScript and the Bourne shell and its derivatives denote hex with prefix 16#, 16#5A3. For PostScript, binary data can be expressed as unprefixed consecutive hexadecimal pairs, in early systems when a Macintosh crashed, one or two lines of hexadecimal code would be displayed under the Sad Mac to tell the user what went wrong. Common Lisp uses the prefixes #x and #16r, setting the variables *read-base* and *print-base* to 16 can also used to switch the reader and printer of a Common Lisp system to Hexadecimal number representation for reading and printing numbers. Thus Hexadecimal numbers can be represented without the #x or #16r prefix code, MSX BASIC, QuickBASIC, FreeBASIC and Visual Basic prefix hexadecimal numbers with &H, &H5A3 BBC BASIC and Locomotive BASIC use & for hex. TI-89 and 92 series uses a 0h prefix, 0h5A3 ALGOL68 uses the prefix 16r to denote hexadecimal numbers, binary, quaternary and octal numbers can be specified similarly
25.
Vigesimal
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The vigesimal or base 20 numeral system is based on twenty. In a vigesimal system, twenty individual numerals are used. One modern method of finding the extra needed symbols is to write ten as the letter A20, to write nineteen as J20, and this is similar to the common computer-science practice of writing hexadecimal numerals over 9 with the letters A–F. Another method skips over the letter I, in order to avoid confusion between I20 as eighteen and one, so that the number eighteen is written as J20, the number twenty is written as 1020. According to this notation,2020 means forty in decimal = + D020 means two hundred and sixty in decimal = +10020 means four hundred in decimal = + +, in the rest of this article below, numbers are expressed in decimal notation, unless specified otherwise. For example,10 means ten,20 means twenty, in decimal, dividing by three twice only gives one digit periods because 9 is the number below ten. 21, however, the adjacent to 20 that is divisible by 3, is not divisible by 9. Ninths in vigesimal have six-digit periods, the prime factorization of twenty is 22 ×5, so it is not a perfect power. However, its part,5, is congruent to 1. Thus, according to Artins conjecture on primitive roots, vigesimal has infinitely many cyclic primes, but the fraction of primes that are cyclic is not necessarily ~37. 395%. An UnrealScript program that computes the lengths of recurring periods of various fractions in a set of bases found that, of the first 15,456 primes. In many European languages,20 is used as a base, vigesimal systems are common in Africa, for example in Yoruba. Ogún,20, is the basic numeric block, ogójì,40, =20 multiplied by 2. Ogota,60, =20 multiplied by 3, ogorin,80, =20 multiplied by 4. Ogorun,100, =20 multiplied by 5, twenty was a base in the Maya and Aztec number systems. The Maya used the names for the powers of twenty, kal, bak, pic, calab, kinchil. See also Maya numerals and Maya calendar, Mayan languages, Yucatec, the Aztec called them, cempoalli, centzontli, cenxiquipilli, cempoalxiquipilli, centzonxiquipilli and cempoaltzonxiquipilli. Note that the ce prefix at the beginning means one and is replaced with the number to get the names of other multiples of the power
26.
Base 36
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The senary numeral system has six as its base. It has been adopted independently by a number of cultures. Like decimal, it is a semiprime, though being the product of the two consecutive numbers that are both prime it has a high degree of mathematical properties for its size. As six is a highly composite number, many of the arguments made in favor of the duodecimal system also apply to this base-6. Senary may be considered interesting in the study of numbers, since all primes other than 2 and 3. That is, for every number p greater than 3, one has the modular arithmetic relations that either p ≡1 or 5. This property maximizes the probability that the result of an integer multiplication will end in zero, E. g. if three fingers are extended on the left hand and four on the right, 34senary is represented. This is equivalent to 3 ×6 +4 which is 22decimal, flipping the sixes hand around to its backside may help to further disambiguate which hand represents the sixes and which represents the units. While most developed cultures count by fingers up to 5 in very similar ways, beyond 5 non-Western cultures deviate from Western methods, such as with Chinese number gestures. More abstract finger counting systems, such as chisanbop or finger binary, allow counting to 99,1,023, or even higher depending on the method. The English monk and historian Bede, in the first chapter of De temporum ratione, titled Tractatus de computo, vel loquela per gestum digitorum, the Ndom language of Papua New Guinea is reported to have senary numerals. Mer means 6, mer an thef means 6 ×2 =12, nif means 36, another example from Papua New Guinea are the Morehead-Maro languages. In these languages, counting is connected to ritualized yam-counting and these languages count from a base six, employing words for the powers of six, running up to 66 for some of the languages. One example is Kómnzo with the numerals, nimbo, féta, tarumba, ntamno, wärämäkä. Some Niger-Congo languages have been reported to use a number system, usually in addition to another. For some purposes, base 6 might be too small a base for convenience. The choice of 36 as a radix is convenient in that the digits can be represented using the Arabic numerals 0–9 and the Latin letters A–Z, this choice is the basis of the base36 encoding scheme. Base36 encoding scheme Binary Ternary Duodecimal Sexagesimal Shacks Base Six Dialectic Digital base 6 clock Analog Clock Designer capable of rendering a base 6 clock Senary base conversion
27.
Natural number
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In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting and ordering. In common language, words used for counting are cardinal numbers, texts that exclude zero from the natural numbers sometimes refer to the natural numbers together with zero as the whole numbers, but in other writings, that term is used instead for the integers. These chains of extensions make the natural numbers canonically embedded in the number systems. Properties of the numbers, such as divisibility and the distribution of prime numbers, are studied in number theory. Problems concerning counting and ordering, such as partitioning and enumerations, are studied in combinatorics, the most primitive method of representing a natural number is to put down a mark for each object. Later, a set of objects could be tested for equality, excess or shortage, by striking out a mark, the first major advance in abstraction was the use of numerals to represent numbers. This allowed systems to be developed for recording large numbers, the ancient Egyptians developed a powerful system of numerals with distinct hieroglyphs for 1,10, and all the powers of 10 up to over 1 million. A stone carving from Karnak, dating from around 1500 BC and now at the Louvre in Paris, depicts 276 as 2 hundreds,7 tens, and 6 ones, and similarly for the number 4,622. A much later advance was the development of the idea that 0 can be considered as a number, with its own numeral. The use of a 0 digit in place-value notation dates back as early as 700 BC by the Babylonians, the Olmec and Maya civilizations used 0 as a separate number as early as the 1st century BC, but this usage did not spread beyond Mesoamerica. The use of a numeral 0 in modern times originated with the Indian mathematician Brahmagupta in 628, the first systematic study of numbers as abstractions is usually credited to the Greek philosophers Pythagoras and Archimedes. Some Greek mathematicians treated the number 1 differently than larger numbers, independent studies also occurred at around the same time in India, China, and Mesoamerica. In 19th century Europe, there was mathematical and philosophical discussion about the nature of the natural numbers. A school of Naturalism stated that the numbers were a direct consequence of the human psyche. Henri Poincaré was one of its advocates, as was Leopold Kronecker who summarized God made the integers, in opposition to the Naturalists, the constructivists saw a need to improve the logical rigor in the foundations of mathematics. In the 1860s, Hermann Grassmann suggested a recursive definition for natural numbers thus stating they were not really natural, later, two classes of such formal definitions were constructed, later, they were shown to be equivalent in most practical applications. The second class of definitions was introduced by Giuseppe Peano and is now called Peano arithmetic and it is based on an axiomatization of the properties of ordinal numbers, each natural number has a successor and every non-zero natural number has a unique predecessor. Peano arithmetic is equiconsistent with several systems of set theory
28.
Wedderburn-Etherington number
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The Wedderburn–Etherington numbers are an integer sequence named for Ivor Malcolm Haddon Etherington and Joseph Wedderburn that can be used to count certain kinds of binary trees. The first few numbers in the sequence are 0,1,1,1,2,3,6,11,23,46,98,207,451,983,2179,4850,10905,24631,56011. These numbers can be used to solve problems in combinatorial enumeration. The nth number in the sequence counts The number of unordered rooted trees with n leaves in all nodes including the root have either zero or exactly two children. These trees have been called Otter trees, after the work of Richard Otter on their combinatorial enumeration and they can also be interpreted as unlabeled and unranked dendrograms with the given number of leaves. The number of unordered rooted trees with n nodes in which the root has degree zero or one and all other nodes have at most two children. Trees in which the root has at most one child are called planted trees, in chemical graph theory, these trees can be interpreted as isomers of polyenes with a designated leaf atom chosen as the root. The number of different ways of organizing a single-elimination tournament for n players, the pairings of such a tournament may be described by an Otter tree. For instance x 5 can be grouped into binary multiplications in three ways, as x, x, or and this was the interpretation originally considered by both Etherington and Wedderburn. An Otter tree can be interpreted as an expression in which each leaf node corresponds to one of the copies of x. In this algebraic structure, each grouping of x n has as its one of the n-leaf Otter trees. The formula for even values of n is more complicated than the formula for odd values in order to avoid double counting trees with the same number of leaves in both subtrees. Young & Yung use the Wedderburn–Etherington numbers as part of a design for a system containing a hidden backdoor. In this way, the uses a very small number of bits. Their scheme allows these trees to be encoded in a number of bits that is close to the lower bound while still allowing constant-time navigation operations within the tree
29.
Centered triangular number
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A centered triangular number is a centered figurate number that represents a triangle with a dot in the center and all other dots surrounding the center in successive triangular layers. The centered triangular number for n is given by the formula 3 n 2 +3 n +22, each centered triangular number from 10 onwards is the sum of three consecutive regular triangular numbers. Also each centered triangular number has a remainder of 1 when divided by three and the quotient is the regular triangular number. The sum of the first n centered triangular numbers is the constant for an n by n normal magic square for n >2. A centered triangular prime is a triangular number that is prime. The first few centered triangular primes are 19,31,109,199,409, lancelot Hogben, Mathematics for the Million. Republished by W. W. Norton & Company, ISBN 978-0-393-31071-9 Weisstein, Eric W. Centered Triangular Number
30.
Euler's totient function
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In number theory, Eulers totient function counts the positive integers up to a given integer n that are relatively prime to n. It is written using the Greek letter phi as φ or ϕ and it can be defined more formally as the number of integers k in the range 1 ≤ k ≤ n for which the greatest common divisor gcd is equal to 1. The integers k of this form are referred to as totatives of n. For example, the totatives of n =9 are the six numbers 1,2,4,5,7 and 8. They are all relatively prime to 9, but the three numbers in this range,3,6, and 9 are not, because gcd = gcd =3. As another example, φ =1 since for n =1 the only integer in the range from 1 to n is 1 itself, Eulers totient function is a multiplicative function, meaning that if two numbers m and n are relatively prime, then φ = φφ. This function gives the order of the group of integers modulo n. It also plays a key role in the definition of the RSA encryption system, leonhard Euler introduced the function in 1763. However, he did not at that time choose any specific symbol to denote it. In a 1784 publication, Euler studied the function further, choosing the Greek letter π to denote it, he wrote πD for the multitude of less than D. This definition varies from the current definition for the totient function at D =1 but is otherwise the same, the now-standard notation φ comes from Gausss 1801 treatise Disquisitiones Arithmeticae. Although Gauss didnt use parentheses around the argument and wrote φA, thus, it is often called Eulers phi function or simply the phi function. In 1879, J. J. Sylvester coined the term totient for this function, so it is referred to as Eulers totient function. Jordans totient is a generalization of Eulers, the cototient of n is defined as n − φ. It counts the number of positive integers less than or equal to n that have at least one factor in common with n. There are several formulas for computing φ and it states φ = n ∏ p ∣ n, where the product is over the distinct prime numbers dividing n. The proof of Eulers product formula depends on two important facts and this means that if gcd =1, then φ = φ φ. If p is prime and k ≥1, then φ = p k − p k −1 = p k −1 = p k, proof, since p is a prime number the only possible values of gcd are 1, p, p2
31.
Abundant number
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In number theory, an abundant number or excessive number is a number for which the sum of its proper divisors is greater than the number itself. The integer 12 is the first abundant number and its proper divisors are 1,2,3,4 and 6 for a total of 16. The amount by which the sum exceeds the number is the abundance, the number 12 has an abundance of 4, for example. A number n for which the sum of divisors σ>2n, or, equivalently, the sum of proper divisors s>n. The first 28 abundant numbers are,12,18,20,24,30,36,40,42,48,54,56,60,66,70,72,78,80,84,88,90,96,100,102,104,108,112,114,120, …. For example, the divisors of 24 are 1,2,3,4,6,8. Because 36 is more than 24, the number 24 is abundant and its abundance is 36 −24 =12. The smallest odd abundant number is 945, the smallest abundant number not divisible by 2 or by 3 is 5391411025 whose distinct prime factors are 5,7,11,13,17,19,23, and 29. An algorithm given by Iannucci in 2005 shows how to find the smallest abundant number not divisible by the first k primes. If A represents the smallest abundant number not divisible by the first k primes then for all ϵ >0 we have,2 − ϵ < ln A <2 + ϵ for sufficiently large k, infinitely many even and odd abundant numbers exist. The set of abundant numbers has a natural density, marc Deléglise showed in 1998 that the natural density of the set of abundant numbers and perfect numbers is between 0.2474 and 0.2480. Every multiple of a number is abundant. For example, every multiple of 6 is abundant because the divisors include 1, n/2, n/3, every multiple of an abundant number is abundant. For example, every multiple of 20 is abundant because n/2 + n/4 + n/5 + n/10 + n/20 = n + n/10, every integer greater than 20161 can be written as the sum of two abundant numbers. An abundant number which is not a number is called a weird number. An abundant number with abundance 1 is called a quasiperfect number, numbers whose sum of proper factors equals the number itself are called perfect numbers, while numbers whose sum of proper factors is less than the number itself are called deficient numbers. The abundancy index of n is the ratio σ/n, distinct numbers n1, n2. with the same abundancy index are called friendly numbers. The sequence of least numbers n such that σ > kn, in which a2 =12 corresponds to the first abundant number, if p = is a list of primes, then p is termed abundant if some integer composed only of primes in p is abundant
32.
Atomic number
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The atomic number or proton number of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom of that element. It is identical to the number of the nucleus. The atomic number identifies a chemical element. In an uncharged atom, the number is also equal to the number of electrons. The atomic number Z, should not be confused with the mass number A and this number of neutrons, N, completes the weight, A = Z + N. Atoms with the atomic number Z but different neutron numbers N. Historically, it was these atomic weights of elements that were the quantities measurable by chemists in the 19th century. Only after 1915, with the suggestion and evidence that this Z number was also the nuclear charge, loosely speaking, the existence or construction of a periodic table of elements creates an ordering of the elements, and so they can be numbered in order. Dmitri Mendeleev claimed that he arranged his first periodic tables in order of atomic weight, however, in consideration of the elements observed chemical properties, he changed the order slightly and placed tellurium ahead of iodine. This placement is consistent with the practice of ordering the elements by proton number, Z. A simple numbering based on periodic table position was never entirely satisfactory and this central charge would thus be approximately half the atomic weight. This proved eventually to be the case, the experimental position improved dramatically after research by Henry Moseley in 1913. To do this, Moseley measured the wavelengths of the innermost photon transitions produced by the elements from aluminum to gold used as a series of movable anodic targets inside an x-ray tube. The square root of the frequency of these photons increased from one target to the next in an arithmetic progression and this led to the conclusion that the atomic number does closely correspond to the calculated electric charge of the nucleus, i. e. the element number Z. Among other things, Moseley demonstrated that the series must have 15 members—no fewer. After Moseleys death in 1915, the numbers of all known elements from hydrogen to uranium were examined by his method. There were seven elements which were not found and therefore identified as still undiscovered, from 1918 to 1947, all seven of these missing elements were discovered. By this time the first four transuranium elements had also been discovered, in 1915 the reason for nuclear charge being quantized in units of Z, which were now recognized to be the same as the element number, was not understood
33.
Palladium
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Palladium is a chemical element with symbol Pd and atomic number 46. It is a rare and lustrous silvery-white metal discovered in 1803 by William Hyde Wollaston and he named it after the asteroid Pallas, which was itself named after the epithet of the Greek goddess Athena, acquired by her when she slew Pallas. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals and these have similar chemical properties, but palladium has the lowest melting point and is the least dense of them. More than half the supply of palladium and its congener platinum is used in catalytic converters, Palladium is also used in electronics, dentistry, medicine, hydrogen purification, chemical applications, groundwater treatment, and jewelry. Palladium is a key component of cells, which react hydrogen with oxygen to produce electricity, heat. Ore deposits of palladium and other PGMs are rare, recycling is also a source, mostly from scrapped catalytic converters. The numerous applications and limited supply sources result in considerable investment interest, Palladium belongs to group 10 in the periodic table, but the configuration in the outermost electron shells is atypical for group 10. Fewer electron shells are filled than the directly preceding it. The valence shell has eighteen electrons – ten more than the eight found in the shells of the noble gases from neon onward. Palladium is a soft metal that resembles platinum. It is the least dense and has the lowest melting point of the platinum group metals and it is soft and ductile when annealed and is greatly increased in strength and hardness when cold-worked. Palladium dissolves slowly in concentrated acid, in hot, concentrated sulfuric acid. It dissolves readily at room temperature in aqua regia, common oxidation states of palladium are 0, +1, +2 and +4. Palladium was first observed in 2002, Palladium films with defects produced by alpha particle bombardment at low temperature exhibit superconductivity having Tc=3.2 K. Naturally occurring palladium is composed of seven isotopes, six of which are stable, the most stable radioisotopes are 107Pd with a half-life of 6.5 million years, 103Pd with 17 days, and 100Pd with 3.63 days. Eighteen other radioisotopes have been characterized with atomic weights ranging from 90.94948 u to 122.93426 u and these have half-lives of less than thirty minutes, except 101Pd, 109Pd, and 112Pd. For isotopes with atomic mass unit values less than that of the most abundant stable isotope, 106Pd, the primary mode of decay for those isotopes of Pd with atomic mass greater than 106 is beta decay with the primary product of this decay being silver. Radiogenic 107Ag is a product of 107Pd and was first discovered in 1978 in the Santa Clara meteorite of 1976
34.
Human
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Modern humans are the only extant members of Hominina tribe, a branch of the tribe Hominini belonging to the family of great apes. Several of these hominins used fire, occupied much of Eurasia and they began to exhibit evidence of behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago. In several waves of migration, anatomically modern humans ventured out of Africa, the spread of humans and their large and increasing population has had a profound impact on large areas of the environment and millions of native species worldwide. Humans are uniquely adept at utilizing systems of communication for self-expression and the exchange of ideas. Humans create complex structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families. Social interactions between humans have established a wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals. These human societies subsequently expanded in size, establishing various forms of government, religion, today the global human population is estimated by the United Nations to be near 7.5 billion. In common usage, the word generally refers to the only extant species of the genus Homo—anatomically and behaviorally modern Homo sapiens. In scientific terms, the meanings of hominid and hominin have changed during the recent decades with advances in the discovery, there is also a distinction between anatomically modern humans and Archaic Homo sapiens, the earliest fossil members of the species. The English adjective human is a Middle English loanword from Old French humain, ultimately from Latin hūmānus, the words use as a noun dates to the 16th century. The native English term man can refer to the species generally, the species binomial Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus in his 18th century work Systema Naturae. The generic name Homo is a learned 18th century derivation from Latin homō man, the species-name sapiens means wise or sapient. Note that the Latin word homo refers to humans of either gender, the genus Homo evolved and diverged from other hominins in Africa, after the human clade split from the chimpanzee lineage of the hominids branch of the primates. The closest living relatives of humans are chimpanzees and gorillas, with the sequencing of both the human and chimpanzee genome, current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. The gibbons and orangutans were the first groups to split from the leading to the humans. The splitting date between human and chimpanzee lineages is placed around 4–8 million years ago during the late Miocene epoch, during this split, chromosome 2 was formed from two other chromosomes, leaving humans with only 23 pairs of chromosomes, compared to 24 for the other apes. There is little evidence for the divergence of the gorilla, chimpanzee. Each of these species has been argued to be an ancestor of later hominins
35.
Chromosomes
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A chromosome is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material of an organism. Prokaryotes usually have one single circular chromosome, whereas most eukaryotes are diploid, chromosomes in eukaryotes are composed of chromatin fiber. Chromatin fiber is made of nucleosomes, a nucleosome is a histone octamer with part of a longer DNA strand attached to and wrapped around it. Chromatin fiber, together with associated proteins is known as chromatin, chromatin is present in most cells, with a few exceptions, for example, red blood cells. Occurring only in the nucleus of cells, chromatin contains the vast majority of DNA, except for a small amount inherited maternally. Chromosomes are normally visible under a microscope only when the cell is undergoing the metaphase of cell division. Before this happens every chromosome is copied once, and the copy is joined to the original by a centromere resulting in an X-shaped structure, the original chromosome and the copy are now called sister chromatids. During metaphase, when a chromosome is in its most condensed state, in this highly condensed form chromosomes are easiest to distinguish and study. In prokaryotic cells, chromatin occurs free-floating in cytoplasm, as these cells lack organelles, the main information-carrying macromolecule is a single piece of coiled double-helix DNA, containing many genes, regulatory elements and other noncoding DNA. The DNA-bound macromolecules are proteins that serve to package the DNA, chromosomes vary widely between different organisms. Some species such as certain bacteria also contain plasmids or other extrachromosomal DNA and these are circular structures in the cytoplasm that contain cellular DNA and play a role in horizontal gene transfer. Chromosomal recombination during meiosis and subsequent sexual reproduction plays a significant role in genetic diversity. In prokaryotes and viruses, the DNA is often densely packed and organized, in the case of archaea, by homologs to eukaryotic histones, small circular genomes called plasmids are often found in bacteria and also in mitochondria and chloroplasts, reflecting their bacterial origins. Some use the term chromosome in a sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin in cells. However, others use the concept in a sense, to refer to the individualized portions of chromatin during cell division. The word chromosome comes from the Greek χρῶμα and σῶμα, describing their strong staining by particular dyes, schleiden, Virchow and Bütschli were among the first scientists who recognized the structures now so familiar to everyone as chromosomes. The term was coined by von Waldeyer-Hartz, referring to the term chromatin, in a series of experiments beginning in the mid-1880s, Theodor Boveri gave the definitive demonstration that chromosomes are the vectors of heredity. His two principles were the continuity of chromosomes and the individuality of chromosomes and it is the second of these principles that was so original
36.
Ethanol
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Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is the principal type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. It is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid with a characteristic odor. Its chemical formula is C 2H 6O, which can be written also as CH 3-CH 2-OH or C 2H 5-OH, ethanol is mostly produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts, or by petrochemical processes. It is a psychoactive drug, causing a characteristic intoxication. It is widely used as a solvent, as fuel, and as a feedstock for synthesis of other chemicals, the eth- prefix and the qualifier ethyl in ethyl alcohol originally come from the name ethyl assigned in 1834 to the group C 2H 5- by Justus Liebig. He coined the word from the German name Aether of the compound C 2H 5-O-C 2H5, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, Ethyl is a contraction of the Ancient Greek αἰθήρ and the Greek word ύλη. The name ethanol was coined as a result of a resolution that was adopted at the International Conference on Chemical Nomenclature that was held in April 1892 in Geneva, Switzerland. The term alcohol now refers to a class of substances in chemistry nomenclature. The Oxford English Dictionary claims that it is a loan from Arabic al-kuḥl, a powdered ore of antimony used since aniquity as a cosmetic. The use of alcohol for ethanol is modern, first recorded 1753, the systematic use in chemistry dates to 1850. Ethanol is used in medical wipes and most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels as an antiseptic, ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses. However, ethanol is ineffective against bacterial spores, ethanol may be administered as an antidote to methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning. Ethanol, often in high concentrations, is used to dissolve many water-insoluble medications, as a central nervous system depressant, ethanol is one of the most commonly consumed psychoactive drugs. The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content, small doses of ethanol, in general, produce euphoria and relaxation, people experiencing these symptoms tend to become talkative and less inhibited, and may exhibit poor judgment. Ethanol is commonly consumed as a drug, especially while socializing. The largest single use of ethanol is as a fuel and fuel additive. Brazil in particular relies heavily upon the use of ethanol as an engine fuel, gasoline sold in Brazil contains at least 25% anhydrous ethanol. Hydrous ethanol can be used as fuel in more than 90% of new gasoline fueled cars sold in the country, Brazilian ethanol is produced from sugar cane and noted for high carbon sequestration
37.
Messier object
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The Messier objects are a set of over 100 astronomical objects first listed by French astronomer Charles Messier in 1771. The number of objects in the lists he published reached 103, a similar list had been published in 1654 by Giovanni Hodierna, but attracted attention only recently and was probably not known to Messier. The first edition covered 45 objects numbered M1 to M45, the first such addition came from Nicolas Camille Flammarion in 1921, who added Messier 104 after finding a note Messier made in a copy of the 1781 edition of the catalogue. M105 to M107 were added by Helen Sawyer Hogg in 1947, M108 and M109 by Owen Gingerich in 1960, M102 was observed by Méchain, who communicated his notes to Messier. Méchain later concluded that this object was simply a re-observation of M101, though sources suggest that the object Méchain observed was the galaxy NGC5866. Messiers final catalogue was included in the Connaissance des Temps for 1784 and these objects are still known by their Messier number from this list. Messier lived and did his work at the Hôtel de Cluny. The list he compiled contains only objects found in the sky area he could observe and he did not observe or list objects visible only from farther south, such as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. A summary of the astrophysics of each Messier object can be found in the Concise Catalog of Deep-sky Objects, in early spring, astronomers sometimes gather for Messier marathons, when all of the objects can be viewed over a single night
38.
Messier 46
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Messier 46 is an open cluster in the constellation of Puppis. It was discovered by Charles Messier in 1771, dreyer described it as very bright, very rich, very large. M46 is about 5,500 light-years away, there are an estimated 500 stars in the cluster, and it is thought to be some 300 million years old. The planetary nebula NGC2438 appears to lie within the cluster near its northern edge and it is an example of a superimposed pair possibly similar to that of NGC2818. M46 is located close by to open cluster, Messier 47. M46 is about a degree east of M47 in the sky, so the two fit well in a binocular or wide-angle telescope field
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Visual magnitude
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The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. The brighter an object appears, the lower its magnitude value, the Sun, at apparent magnitude of −27, is the brightest object in the sky. It is adjusted to the value it would have in the absence of the atmosphere, furthermore, the magnitude scale is logarithmic, a difference of one in magnitude corresponds to a change in brightness by a factor of 5√100, or about 2.512. The measurement of apparent magnitudes or brightnesses of celestial objects is known as photometry, apparent magnitudes are used to quantify the brightness of sources at ultraviolet, visible, and infrared wavelengths. An apparent magnitude is measured in a specific passband corresponding to some photometric system such as the UBV system. In standard astronomical notation, an apparent magnitude in the V filter band would be denoted either as mV or often simply as V, the scale used to indicate magnitude originates in the Hellenistic practice of dividing stars visible to the naked eye into six magnitudes. The brightest stars in the sky were said to be of first magnitude, whereas the faintest were of sixth magnitude. Each grade of magnitude was considered twice the brightness of the following grade and this rather crude scale for the brightness of stars was popularized by Ptolemy in his Almagest, and is generally believed to have originated with Hipparchus. This implies that a star of magnitude m is 2.512 times as bright as a star of magnitude m +1 and this figure, the fifth root of 100, became known as Pogsons Ratio. The zero point of Pogsons scale was defined by assigning Polaris a magnitude of exactly 2. However, with the advent of infrared astronomy it was revealed that Vegas radiation includes an Infrared excess presumably due to a disk consisting of dust at warm temperatures. At shorter wavelengths, there is negligible emission from dust at these temperatures, however, in order to properly extend the magnitude scale further into the infrared, this peculiarity of Vega should not affect the definition of the magnitude scale. Therefore, the scale was extrapolated to all wavelengths on the basis of the black body radiation curve for an ideal stellar surface at 11000 K uncontaminated by circumstellar radiation. On this basis the spectral irradiance for the zero magnitude point, with the modern magnitude systems, brightness over a very wide range is specified according to the logarithmic definition detailed below, using this zero reference. In practice such apparent magnitudes do not exceed 30, astronomers have developed other photometric zeropoint systems as alternatives to the Vega system. The AB magnitude zeropoint is defined such that an objects AB, the dimmer an object appears, the higher the numerical value given to its apparent magnitude, with a difference of 5 magnitudes corresponding to a brightness factor of exactly 100. Since an increase of 5 magnitudes corresponds to a decrease in brightness by a factor of exactly 100, each magnitude increase implies a decrease in brightness by the factor 5√100 ≈2.512. Inverting the above formula, a magnitude difference m1 − m2 = Δm implies a brightness factor of F2 F1 =100 Δ m 5 =100.4 Δ m ≈2.512 Δ m
40.
Open cluster
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An open cluster is a group of up to a few thousand stars that were formed from the same giant molecular cloud and have roughly the same age. More than 1,100 open clusters have been discovered within the Milky Way Galaxy and they are loosely bound by mutual gravitational attraction and become disrupted by close encounters with other clusters and clouds of gas as they orbit the galactic center. This can result in a migration to the body of the galaxy. Open clusters generally survive for a few hundred years, with the most massive ones surviving for a few billion years. In contrast, the more massive clusters of stars exert a stronger gravitational attraction on their members. Open clusters have been only in spiral and irregular galaxies. Young open clusters may not be contained within the cloud from which they formed. Over time, radiation pressure from the cluster will disperse the molecular cloud, typically, about 10% of the mass of a gas cloud will coalesce into stars before radiation pressure drives the rest of the gas away. Open clusters are key objects in the study of stellar evolution, because the cluster members are of similar age and chemical composition, their properties are more easily determined than they are for isolated stars. A number of clusters, such as the Pleiades, Hyades or the Alpha Persei Cluster are visible with the naked eye. Some others, such as the Double Cluster, are barely perceptible without instruments, the Wild Duck Cluster, M11, is an example. The prominent open cluster the Pleiades has been recognized as a group of stars since antiquity, while the Hyades forms part of Taurus, other open clusters were noted by early astronomers as unresolved fuzzy patches of light. The Roman astronomer Ptolemy mentions the Praesepe, the Double Cluster in Perseus, however, it would require the invention of the telescope to resolve these nebulae into their constituent stars. Indeed, in 1603 Johann Bayer gave three of these clusters designations as if they were single stars, the first person to use a telescope to observe the night sky and record his observations was the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei in 1609. When he turned the telescope toward some of the nebulous patches recorded by Ptolemy, he found they were not a single star, for Praesepe, he found more than 40 stars. Where previously observers had noted only 6-7 stars in the Pleiades, in his 1610 treatise Sidereus Nuncius, Galileo Galilei wrote, the galaxy is nothing else but a mass of innumerable stars planted together in clusters. Influenced by Galileos work, the Sicilian astronomer Giovanni Hodierna became possibly the first astronomer to use a telescope to find previously undiscovered open clusters, in 1654, he identified the objects now designated Messier 41, Messier 47, NGC2362 and NGC2451. Between 1774–1781, French astronomer Charles Messier published a catalogue of objects that had a nebulous appearance similar to comets
41.
Constellation
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A constellation is formally defined as a region of the celestial sphere, with boundaries laid down by the International Astronomical Union. The constellation areas mostly had their origins in Western-traditional patterns of stars from which the constellations take their names, in 1922, the International Astronomical Union officially recognized the 88 modern constellations, which cover the entire sky. They began as the 48 classical Greek constellations laid down by Ptolemy in the Almagest, Constellations in the far southern sky are late 16th- and mid 18th-century constructions. 12 of the 88 constellations compose the zodiac signs, though the positions of the constellations only loosely match the dates assigned to them in astrology. The term constellation can refer to the stars within the boundaries of that constellation. Notable groupings of stars that do not form a constellation are called asterisms, when astronomers say something is “in” a given constellation they mean it is within those official boundaries. Any given point in a coordinate system can unambiguously be assigned to a single constellation. Many astronomical naming systems give the constellation in which an object is found along with a designation in order to convey a rough idea in which part of the sky it is located. For example, the Flamsteed designation for bright stars consists of a number, the word constellation seems to come from the Late Latin term cōnstellātiō, which can be translated as set of stars, and came into use in English during the 14th century. It also denotes 88 named groups of stars in the shape of stellar-patterns, the Ancient Greek word for constellation was ἄστρον. Colloquial usage does not draw a distinction between constellation in the sense of an asterism and constellation in the sense of an area surrounding an asterism. The modern system of constellations used in astronomy employs the latter concept, the term circumpolar constellation is used for any constellation that, from a particular latitude on Earth, never sets below the horizon. From the North Pole or South Pole, all constellations south or north of the equator are circumpolar constellations. In the equatorial or temperate latitudes, the term equatorial constellation has sometimes been used for constellations that lie to the opposite the circumpolar constellations. They generally include all constellations that intersect the celestial equator or part of the zodiac, usually the only thing the stars in a constellation have in common is that they appear near each other in the sky when viewed from the Earth. In galactic space, the stars of a constellation usually lie at a variety of distances, since stars also travel on their own orbits through the Milky Way, the star patterns of the constellations change slowly over time. After tens to hundreds of thousands of years, their familiar outlines will become unrecognisable, the terms chosen for the constellation themselves, together with the appearance of a constellation, may reveal where and when its constellation makers lived. The earliest direct evidence for the constellations comes from inscribed stones and it seems that the bulk of the Mesopotamian constellations were created within a relatively short interval from around 1300 to 1000 BC
42.
Puppis
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Puppis /ˈpʌpᵻs/ is a constellation in the southern sky. Puppis is the largest of the three constellations in square degrees and it is one of the 88 modern constellations recognized by the International Astronomical Union. Argo Navis was sub-divided in 1752 by the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille, despite the division, Lacaille kept Argos Bayer designations. Therefore Carina has the α, β and ε, Vela has γ and δ, Puppis has ζ, several extrasolar planet systems have been found around stars in the constellation Puppis, including, On July 1,2003, a planet was found orbiting the star HD70642. This planetary system is much like Jupiter with a wide, circular orbit, on May 17,2006, HD69830 was discovered to have three Neptune-mass planets, the first multi-planetary system without any Jupiter-like or Saturn-like planets. The star also hosts an asteroid belt at the region between middle planet to outer planet, on June 21,2007, the first extrasolar planet found in the open cluster NGC2423, was discovered around the red giant star NGC 2423-3. The planet is at least 10.6 times the mass of Jupiter, on September 22,2008, two Jupiter-like planets were discovered around HD60532. HD60532 b has a mass of 1.03 MJ and orbits at 0.759 AU. HD60532 c has a mass of 2.46 MJ and orbits at 1.58 AU. As the Milky Way runs through Puppis, there are a number of open clusters in the constellation. M46 and M47 are two clusters in the same binocular field. M47 can be seen with the eye under dark skies. Messier 93 is another open cluster somewhat to the south, NGC2451 is a very bright open cluster containing the star c Puppis and the near NGC2477 is a good target for small telescopes. The star Pi Puppis is the component of a bright group of stars known as Collinder 135. M46 is a open cluster with an overall magnitude of 6.1 at a distance of approximately 5400 light-years from Earth. The planetary nebula NGC2438 is superimposed, it is approximately 2900 light-years from Earth, m46 is classified as a Shapley class f and a Trumpler class III2 m cluster. This means that it is a cluster that appears distinct from the star field, however. The clusters stars, numbering between 50 and 100, have a range in brightness
43.
New General Catalogue
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The NGC contains 7,840 objects, known as the NGC objects. It is one of the largest comprehensive catalogues, as it includes all types of space objects and is not confined to, for example. Dreyer also published two supplements to the NGC in 1895 and 1908, known as the Index Catalogues, describing a further 5,386 astronomical objects. Objects in the sky of the southern hemisphere are catalogued somewhat less thoroughly, the Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue was compiled in 2009 by Wolfgang Steinicke. The original New General Catalogue was compiled during the 1880s by John Louis Emil Dreyer using observations from William Herschel and his son John, Dreyer had already published a supplement to Herschels General Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters, containing about 1,000 new objects. In 1886, he suggested building a second supplement to the General Catalogue and this led to the publication of the New General Catalogue in the Memoirs of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1888. Assembling the NGC was a challenge, as Dreyer had to deal with many contradicting and unclear reports, while he did check some himself, the sheer number of objects meant Dreyer had to accept them as published by others for the purpose of his compilation. Dreyer was a careful transcriber and made few errors himself, and he was very thorough in his referencing, which allowed future astronomers to review the original references and publish corrections to the original NGC. The first major update to the NGC is the Index Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars and it serves as a supplement to the NGC, and contains an additional 5,386 objects, collectively known as the IC objects. It summarizes the discoveries of galaxies, clusters and nebulae between 1888 and 1907, most of them made possible by photography, a list of corrections to the IC was published in 1912. The Revised New Catalogue of Nonstellar Astronomical Objects was compiled by Jack W. Sulentic and William G. Tifft in the early 1970s, and was published in 1973, as an update to the NGC. However, because the update had to be completed in just three summers, it failed to incorporate several previously-published corrections to the NGC data, and even introduced new errors. NGC2000.0 is a 1988 compilation of the NGC and IC made by Roger W. Sinnott and it incorporates several corrections and errata made by astronomers over the years. However, it too ignored the original publications and favoured modern corrections, the NGC/IC Project is a collaboration formed in 1993. It aims to identify all NGC and IC objects, and collect images, the Revised New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue is a compilation made by Wolfgang Steinicke in 2009. It is considered one of the most comprehensive and authoritative treatments of the NGC, messier object Catalogue of Nebulae and Clusters of Stars The Interactive NGC Catalog Online Adventures in Deep Space, Challenging Observing Projects for Amateur Astronomers
44.
Star
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It is primarily present in steroid-producing cells, including theca cells and luteal cells in the ovary, Leydig cells in the testis and cell types in the adrenal cortex. The aqueous phase between two membranes cannot be crossed by the lipophilic cholesterol, unless certain proteins assist in this process. It is now clear that this process is mediated by the action of StAR. The mechanism by which StAR causes cholesterol movement remains unclear as it appears to act from the outside of the mitochondria, some involve StAR transferring cholesterol itself like a shuttle. Another notion is that it causes cholesterol to be kicked out of the membrane to the inner. StAR may also promote the formation of contact sites between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes to allow cholesterol influx, another suggests that StAR acts in conjunction with PBR, causing the movement of Cl− out of the mitochondria to facilitate contact site formation. However, evidence for an interaction between StAR and PBR remains elusive, in humans, the gene for StAR is located on chromosome 8p11.2 and the protein has 285 amino acids. The signal sequence of StAR that targets it to the mitochondria is clipped off in two steps with import into the mitochondria, phosphorylation at the serine at position 195 increases its activity. The domain of StAR important for promoting cholesterol transfer is the StAR-related transfer domain, StAR is the prototypic member of the START domain family of proteins and is thus also known as STARD1 for START domain-containing protein 1. It is hypothesized that the START domain forms a pocket in StAR that binds single cholesterol molecules for delivery to P450scc, the closest homolog to StAR is MLN64. Together they comprise the StarD1/D3 subfamily of START domain-containing proteins, StAR is a mitochondrial protein that is rapidly synthesized in response to stimulation of the cell to produce steroid. Hormones that stimulate its production depend on the type and include luteinizing hormone, ACTH. At the cellular level, StAR is synthesized typically in response to activation of the second messenger system. StAR has thus far found in all tissues that can produce steroids, including the adrenal cortex, the gonads, the brain. One known exception is the human placenta, mutations in the gene for StAR cause lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia, in which patients produce little steroid and can die shortly after birth. Mutations that less severely affect the function of StAR result in nonclassic lipoid CAH or familial glucocorticoid deficiency type 3, all known mutations disrupt StAR function by altering its START domain. In the case of StAR mutation, the phenotype does not present until birth since human placental steroidogenesis is independent of StAR. At the cellular level, the lack of StAR results in an accumulation of lipid within cells
45.
Pisces (constellation)
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Pisces is a constellation of the zodiac. Its name is the Latin plural for fish and it lies between Aquarius to the west and Aries to the east. The ecliptic and the equator intersect within this constellation and in Virgo. The vernal equinox is currently located in Pisces, due south of ω Psc, van Maanens Star, at 12.36 magnitude, is located in this constellation, along with others, such as HD222410, at 7.45 magnitude. It has many clusters of stars and the associated nebulae. It was discovered by Pierre Méchain, a French astronomer, in 1780, NGC488 is an isolated face-on prototypical spiral galaxy. NGC520 is a pair of colliding galaxies located 90 million lightyears away, CL 0024+1654 is a massive galaxy cluster that lenses the galaxy behind it, creating arc-shaped images of the background galaxy. 3C31 is a galaxy and radio source in Perseus located at a distance of 237 million light-years from Earth. Its jets, caused by the black hole at its center. Pisces originates from some composition of the Babylonian constellations Šinunutu4 the great swallow in current western Pisces, in the first-millennium BC texts known as the Astronomical Diaries, part of the constellation was also called DU. NU. NU. Pisces is associated with Aphrodite and Eros, who escaped from the monster Typhon by leaping into the sea, in order not to lose each other, they tied themselves together with rope. The Romans adopted the Greek legend, with Venus and Cupid acting as the counterparts for Aphrodite, the knot of the rope is marked by Alpha Piscium, also called Al-Rischa. Linum Boreum, χ – ρ,94 – VX – η – π – ο – α Psc, linum Austrinum, α – ξ – ν – μ – ζ – ε – δ –41 –35 – ω Psc. Piscis Austrinus, ω – ι – θ –7 – β –5 – κ,9 – λ – TX Psc. However the proposal was largely neglected by other astronomers with the exception of Admiral Smyth, who mentioned it in his book The Bedford Catalogue, and it is now obsolete. The Fishes are also associated with the German legend of Antenteh, who owned just a tub and they offered him a wish, which he refused. However, his wife begged him to return to the fish and this wish was granted, but her desires were not satisfied. She then asked to be a queen and have a palace, but when she asked to become a goddess, the tub in the story is sometimes recognized as the Great Square of Pegasus
46.
Valentino Rossi
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Valentino Rossi is an Italian professional motorcycle road racer and multiple MotoGP World Champion. He is considered to be the greatest and one of the most successful racers of all time. Following his father, Graziano Rossi, Valentino started racing in Grand Prix in 1996 for Aprilia in the 125cc category, from there, he moved up to the 250cc category with Aprilia and won the 250cc World Championship in 1999. He left Yamaha to join Ducati for the 2011 season, and he suffered two winless seasons while at Ducati. Márquezs manoeuvres exasperated Rossi, prompting a response, although Lorenzo eventually stated to the media he was helped by Márquez not making serious moves trying to overtake him. However, the rivalries between Rossi and Márquez appeared to come to an end at the 2016 Catalan Grand Prix. Rossi is first in all time 500cc/MotoGP race wins standings, with 88 victories, Valentino Rossi was born in Urbino, Marche, and he was still a child when the family moved to Tavullia. Son of Graziano Rossi, a motorcycle racer, he first began riding at a very young age. Rossis first racing love was karting, fuelled by his mother, Stefanias, concern for her sons safety, Graziano purchased a kart as substitute for the bike. However, the Rossi family trait of perpetually wanting to go faster prompted a redesign, Rossi won the regional kart championship in 1990. After this he took up minimoto and before the end of 1991 had won numerous regional races, Rossi continued to race karts and finished fifth at the national kart championships in Parma. However, the high cost of racing karts led to the decision to race minimoto exclusively, through 1992 and 1993, Valentino continued to learn the ins and outs of minimoto racing. He finished ninth that race weekend, although his first season in the Italian Sport Production Championship was varied, he achieved a pole position in the seasons final race at Misano, where he would ultimately finish on the podium. By the second year, Rossi had been provided with a factory Mito by Lusuardi, in 1994, Aprilia by way of Peppino Sandroni, used Rossi to improve its RS125R and in turn allowed him to learn how to handle the fast new pace of 125 cc racing. At first he found himself on a Sandroni, with a Rotax-Aprilia engine in the 1994 Italian championship, Rossi had some success in the 1996 World Championship season, failing to finish five of the seasons races and crashing several times. Despite this, in August he won his first World Championship Grand Prix at Brno in the Czech Republic on an AGV Aprilia RS125R. He finished the season in position and proceeded to dominate the 125 cc World Championship in the following 1997 season. By 1998, the Aprilia RS250 was reaching its pinnacle and had a team of riders in Valentino Rossi, Loris Capirossi and he later concluded the 1998250 cc season in second place,23 points behind Capirossi
47.
Grand Prix motorcycles
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The FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix is the premier class of motorcycle road racing, held since 1949. Grand Prix motorcycles are purpose-built racing machines that are available for purchase by the general public nor able to be ridden legally on public roads. The championship is divided into three classes, MotoGP, Moto2 and Moto3. All three classes use four-stroke engines, in 2010 the 250cc class was replaced by the new Moto2600 cc four-stroke class. After that, MotoGP gave the four-strokes a 490cc advantage over the two-strokes, a 2 stroke engine produces power with every rotation of the crank, where as the 4 stroke engine produces power every fourth rotation. In theory, a 500cc 2stroke produces the power as a 1000cc 4 stroke. Carburation vs fuel injection, engine mapping, power/torque curves, practice showed the 4 strokes generating 10 to 15 more Hp and turning in much faster lap times then their 2 stroke counterparts. 4 stroke engines would be the choice for years to come. Moto2 and 3 are four-stroke only, a FIM Road Racing World Championship Grand Prix was first organized by the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme in 1949. The commercial rights are now owned by Dorna Sports, with the FIM remaining as the sanctioning body. Teams are represented by the International Road Racing Teams Association and manufacturers by the Motorcycle Sport Manufacturers Association, rules and changes to regulations are decided between the four entities, with Dorna casting a tie-breaking vote. In cases of technical modifications, the MSMA can unilaterally enact or veto changes by unanimous vote among its members and these four entities compose the Grand Prix Commission. There have traditionally been several races at each event for various classes of motorcycles, based on engine size, and one class for sidecars. Classes for 50 cc,80 cc,125 cc,250 cc,350 cc, and 500 cc solo machines have existed at some time, up through the 1950s and most of the 1960s, four-stroke engines dominated all classes. In part this was due to rules, which allowed a multiplicity of cylinders, in the 1960s, two-stroke engines began to take root in the smaller classes. In 1969, the FIM — citing high development costs for non-works teams — brought in new rules restricting all classes to six gears, by this time, two-strokes completely eclipsed the four-strokes in all classes. The 50 cc class was replaced by an 80 cc class, then the class was dropped entirely in the 1990s, after being dominated primarily by Spanish, the 350 cc class vanished in the 1980s. Sidecars were dropped from world events in the 1990s, reducing the field to 125s, 250s
48.
Adirondack High Peaks
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However, later surveying showed that four of the peaks in the group are actually under this elevation, and one additional peak that is close to this elevation had been overlooked. Due to tradition, no mountains were removed from or added to the group as a result of the revised elevation estimates, all except four are located in central and northern Essex County, primarily south of Lake Placid and Keene Valley. The others are just to the west in Franklin County, all the summits are on land owned by New York State as part of its Forest Preserve. Thirty-three are in a vast tract of nearly 300,000 acres known as the High Peaks Wilderness Area, others are in the adjacent Giant and Dix wilderness areas. Whiteface Mountain, which has a ski area and a toll road to its summit. Those who have climbed all 46 High Peaks are eligible to join the Adirondack Forty-Sixers club, neither Mount Marcy nor Algonquin Peak, the two highest, require technical skills, but Algonquin Peak is regarded as the more challenging climb. Gothics has one of the steepest ascents, the region contains many alpine lakes and meadows, wetlands, streams, and forests. The Eastern High Peaks Wilderness area is the most regulated area, fires are not permitted, dogs must be leashed, overnight groups are limited to eight people and day groups to 15, and bear-resistant food canisters are required from April through November. Some surveys list MacNaughton Mountain at 4,000 feet, however, more recent surveys list the mountain at 3,983 feet, and members of the 46er Club are reluctant to change the list because of tradition
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Adirondack Mountains
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The Adirondack Mountains /ædᵻˈrɒndæk/ form a massif in the northeast of Upstate New York in the United States. Its boundaries correspond to the boundaries of Adirondack Park, the mountains form a roughly circular dome, about 160 miles in diameter and about 1 mile high. The current relief owes much to glaciation, the earliest written use of the name, spelled Rontaks, was in 1724 by the French missionary Joseph-François Lafitau. He defined it as tree eaters, in the Mohawk language, Adirondack means porcupine, an animal that may eat bark. The Mohawks had no written language at the time so Europeans have used various phonetic spellings, an English map from 1761 labels it simply Deer Hunting Country and the mountains were named Adirondacks in 1837 by Ebenezer Emmons. People first arrived in the following the settlement of the Americas around 10,000 BC. The Algonquian peoples and the Mohawk nation used the Adirondacks for hunting and travel, european colonisation of the area began with Samuel de Champlain visiting what is now Ticonderoga in 1609, and Jesuit missionary Isaac Jogues visited the region in 1642. In 1664 the land came under the control of the English when New Netherland was ceded to The Crown, after the American Revolutionary War, the lands passed to the people of New York State. Needing money to war debts, the new government sold nearly all the original public acreage about 7 million acres for pennies an acre. Lumbermen were welcomed to the interior, with few restraints, resulting in massive deforestation, for the history of the area since industrialization, see The History of Adirondack Park. In 1989, part of the Adirondack region was designated by UNESCO as the Champlain-Adirondack Biosphere Reserve, the rocks of the mountains originated about two billion years ago as 50,000 feet deep sediments at the bottom of a sea near the equator. Because of continental drift these collided with Laurentia in a mountain building episode known as the Grenville orogeny, during this time the sedimentary rock was changed into metamorphic rock. It is these Proterozoic minerals and lithologies that make up the core of the massif, such minerals of interest include, wollastonite, mined near Harrisville magnetite and hematite, formerly mined at the Benson Mines, Lyon Mountain, Mineville, Tawahus, and Witherbee. Graphite, mined near Hague and Ticonderoga, garnet, mined at the Barton Mine, north of Gore Mountain. Anorthosite, visible in road cuts on the New York State Route 3 between Saranac Lake and Tupper Lake, marble zinc, The Balmat-Edwards district on the northwest flank of the massif also in St. Lawrence County was a major zinc ore deposit titanium was mined at Tawahus. Around 600 million years ago the area began to be pulled apart, as Laurentia drifted away from Baltica, faults developed, running north to north east which formed valleys and deep lakes. Examples visible today include the grabens Lake George and Schroon Lake, by this time the Grenville mountains had been eroded away and the area was covered by a shallow sea. Several thousand feet of sediment accumulated on the sea bed, trilobites were the principal life-form of the sea bed, and fossil tracks can be seen in the Potsdam sandstone floor of the Paul Smiths Visitor Interpretive Center
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46ers
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The Adirondack Forty-Sixers are an organization of hikers who have climbed all forty-six of the traditionally recognized High Peaks of the Adirondack Mountains. They are often referred to just as 46ers, the first 46ers were brothers Robert and George Marshall, and their guides and family friends Theo L. Hooper III and, Herbert Clark. The Marshalls thought up the idea after spending much of their childhood in the region and examining the collection of Verplanck Colvin maps owned by their father, Louis Marshall.75 mile. They initially planned to only the summits above 4,000 feet, of which there were 42. They climbed the 4,000 ft mountains later, on the suggestion of friends, at the time that they undertook this goal, there were no trails up many of the peaks, making this a particularly formidable accomplishment. The trio first climbed Whiteface Mountain on August 1,1918, one of the peaks, Mount Marshall in the MacIntyre Range, has since been named in honor of Bob, and the brook that is the most popular approach has been named after their guide Herbert Clark. The club later expanded its membership, and was incorporated by the State of New York as the Adirondack Forty-Sixers in 1948. Grace Hudowalski was the 46ers club historian for over sixty years, 46ers are often active within their communities, environmentally active, and globally conscious people. One of many such hikers is Neal Andrews, Neal Andrews was both a regular season 46er and winter 46er multiple times over. Some go further and re-climb all the peaks in winter, the winter 46 season is from December 21 to March 21. Winter 46ers are entitled upon completion of the winter 46 to wear the Winter 46-R rocker patch and this is a very difficult task due to the severity of winters in the Adirondacks. Some peaks, such as Gothics, can require some technical climbing skill when covered with snow, as of April 12,2013, there were 623 winter 46ers and the total membership was 7,806
51.
American football
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The offense must advance at least ten yards in four downs, or plays, or else they turn over the football to the opposing team, if they succeed, they are given a new set of four downs. Points are primarily scored by advancing the ball into the teams end zone for a touchdown or kicking the ball through the opponents goalposts for a field goal. The team with the most points at the end of a game wins, American football evolved in the United States, originating from the sports of association football and rugby football. The first game of American football was played on November 6,1869, during the latter half of the 1870s, colleges playing association football switched to the Rugby Union code, which allowed carrying the ball. American football as a whole is the most popular sport in the United States, Professional football and college football are the most popular forms of the game, with the other major levels being high school and youth football. As of 2012, nearly 1.1 million high school athletes and 70,000 college athletes play the sport in the United States annually, almost all of them men, in the United States, American football is referred to as football. The term football was established in the rulebook for the 1876 college football season. The terms gridiron or American football are favored in English-speaking countries where other codes of football are popular, such as the United Kingdom, Ireland, New Zealand, American football evolved from the sports of association football and rugby football. What is considered to be the first American football game was played on November 6,1869 between Rutgers and Princeton, two college teams, the game was played between two teams of 25 players each and used a round ball that could not be picked up or carried. It could, however, be kicked or batted with the feet, hands, head or sides, Rutgers won the game 6 goals to 4. Collegiate play continued for years in which matches were played using the rules of the host school. Representatives of Yale, Columbia, Princeton and Rutgers met on October 19,1873 to create a set of rules for all schools to adhere to. Teams were set at 20 players each, and fields of 400 by 250 feet were specified, Harvard abstained from the conference, as they favored a rugby-style game that allowed running with the ball. An 1875 Harvard-Yale game played under rugby-style rules was observed by two impressed Princeton athletes and these players introduced the sport to Princeton, a feat the Professional Football Researchers Association compared to selling refrigerators to Eskimos. Princeton, Harvard, Yale and Columbia then agreed to play using a form of rugby union rules with a modified scoring system. These schools formed the Intercollegiate Football Association, although Yale did not join until 1879, the introduction of the snap resulted in unexpected consequences. Prior to the snap, the strategy had been to punt if a scrum resulted in bad field position, however, a group of Princeton players realized that, as the snap was uncontested, they now could hold the ball indefinitely to prevent their opponent from scoring. In 1881, both teams in a game between Yale-Princeton used this strategy to maintain their undefeated records, each team held the ball, gaining no ground, for an entire half, resulting in a 0-0 tie
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46 defense
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The 46 defense is an American football defensive formation, an eight men in the box defense, with six players along the line of scrimmage. There are two players at linebacker depth playing linebacker technique, and then three defensive backs, the 46 defense was originally developed and popularized with the Chicago Bears by their defensive coordinator Buddy Ryan, who later became head coach of the Philadelphia Eagles and Arizona Cardinals. To stop a passing game, you cant stop it unless you put pressure on it, now some people are good enough to put it on with a three-man rush, well, were not. In fact, I dont know whether were good enough to put it on with a four-man rush, if we have to send eight, well send eight, but were not going to let you sit back there and pick us apart. I had to use every bit of knowledge and experience and wisdom I had to come up with plans to attack this defense. Its really the most singular innovation in defensive football in the last twenty years, the 46 defense was an innovative defense with a unique defensive front, designed to confuse and put pressure on the opposing offense, especially their quarterback. Compared to a 4-3 base defense, the 46 dramatically shifts the line to the weak side. Moreover, the weak side defensive end would be aligned one to two yards outside the offensive tackle, leaving the opposing tackle man-on-man when trying to block the pass rush. Another key feature of the 46 is that both outside linebackers tend to play on the side of the formation. To avoid confusion, the strong and weak side linebackers are often renamed the Jack and Charlie linebackers, the linebackers line up behind the linemen somewhere between one and three yards from the line of scrimmage. Ryan would use all of these rushers to out-man and overwhelm the offense, another major key to the 46 is the ability of the cornerbacks to play man free and bump and run coverage. Bump and run can allow the defense to take away the quarterbacks immediate decision-making ability, the formation was very effective in the 1980s NFL because it often negated a teams running game and forced them to throw the ball. Currently, the 46 is rarely used in professional and college football and this is largely because of multiple receiver and spread formations. The eight man line that the 46 presented was most effective against the two back, two wide receiver sets common in the 1980s. A minor weakness of the 46 defense can be too many defensive players lining up near the line of scrimmage to blitz, also, short, timed passes can be thrown before the players blitzing have a chance to reach the quarterback. In todays game, the 46 defense is often simplified to its main component of walking the strong safety up to the line of scrimmage as a man in the box to help contain the run. Defenses today may also run safety blitzes and corner blitzes at crucial moments without committing wholly to the 46 defense, up front, teams still use the concept of the T-N-T alignment, where two defensive ends are covering the guards, and a nose tackle is covering the center. In the case of a scheme, this makes it difficult for the offensive linemen to reach any of the linebackers on the second level
53.
Old Testament
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Its counterpart is the New Testament, the second part of the Christian Bible. The books that comprise the Old Testament canon differ between Christian Churches as well as their order and names. The most common Protestant canon comprises 39 books, the Catholic canon comprises 46 books, the 39 books in common to all the Christian canons corresponds to 24 books of the Tanakh, with some differences of order, and there are some differences in text. The additional number reflects the split of texts in the Christian Bibles into separate books, for example, Kings, Samuel and Chronicles, Ezra–Nehemiah, the books which are part of a Christian Old Testament but which are not part of the Hebrew canon are sometimes described as deuterocanonical. In general, Protestant bibles do not include books in its canon. The Old Testament consists of translations of many books by various authors produced over a period of centuries. The canon formed in stages, first the Pentateuch by around 400 BC, then the Prophets during the Hasmonean dynasty, and finally the remaining books. The Old Testament contains 39 or 46 or more books, divided, very broadly, into the Pentateuch, the books, the wisdom books. For the Orthodox canon, Septuagint titles are provided in parentheses when these differ from those editions, for the Catholic canon, the Douaic titles are provided in parentheses when these differ from those editions. Likewise, the King James Version references some of these books by the spelling when referring to them in the New Testament. The Talmud in Bava Batra 14b gives a different order for the books in Neviim and Ketuvim and this order is also cited in Mishneh Torah Hilchot Sefer Torah 7,15. The order of the books of the Torah is universal through all denominations of Judaism and they are present in a few historic Protestant versions, the German Luther Bible included such books, as did the English 1611 King James Version. Empty table cells indicate that a book is absent from that canon, several of the books in the Eastern Orthodox canon are also found in the appendix to the Latin Vulgate, formerly the official Bible of the Roman Catholic Church. The books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel and Kings follow, there is a broad consensus among scholars that these originated as a single work during the Babylonian exile of the 6th century BC. The two Books of Chronicles cover much the material as the Pentateuch and Deuteronomistic history and probably date from the 4th century BC. Chronicles, and Ezra–Nehemiah, were finished during the 3rd century BC. Catholic and Orthodox Old Testaments contain two to four Books of Maccabees, written in the 2nd and 1st centuries BC and these history books make up around half the total content of the Old Testament. God is consistently depicted as the one who created or put into order the world, the Old Testament stresses the special relationship between God and his chosen people, Israel, but includes instructions for proselytes as well
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Catholic
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The use of terms catholicism and catholicity is closely related to the use of term Catholic Church. The earliest evidence of the use of term is the Letter to the Smyrnaeans that Ignatius of Antioch wrote in about 108 to Christians in Smyrna. In 380, Emperor Theodosius I limited use of the term Catholic Christian exclusively to those who followed the faith as Pope Damasus I of Rome. Numerous other early writers including Cyril of Jerusalem, Augustine of Hippo further developed the use of the term catholic in relation to Christianity. In Christian theology, and specially in ecclesiology, terms Catholicism, when used with small c, terms catholicism and catholicity generally designate theological doctrine of the catholicity of the Church without denominational connotations. A common belief in Catholicism is institutional continuity with the early Christian church founded by Jesus Christ, many churches or communions of churches identify singularly or collectively as the authentic church. The Bishop of Rome was also considered to have the right to convene ecumenical councils, when the Imperial capital moved to Constantinople, Romes influence was sometimes challenged. The first great rupture in the Church followed this Council and they are often called Ancient Oriental Churches. The next major break was after the Council of Chalcedon and this Council repudiated Eutychian Monophysitism which stated that the divine nature completely subsumed the human nature in Christ. This Council declared that Christ, though one person, exhibited two natures without confusion, without change, without division, without separation and thus is both fully God and fully human, the next great rift within Christianity was in the 11th century. This division between the Western Church and the Eastern Church is called the East–West Schism, several eastern churches reunited, constituting some of the Eastern Catholic Churches. Liturgical and canonical practices vary between all these particular Churches constituting the Roman and Eastern Catholic Churches, in all these cases the beliefs and practices of Catholicism would be identical with the beliefs and practices of the Church in question. However, in Roman Catholicism, the term catholic is understood as to cover those who recognize and are in standing with the Magisterium. The sense given to the word by those who use it to distinguish their position from a Calvinistic or Puritan form of Protestantism. It is then meaningful to attempt to draw up a list of common characteristic beliefs, the Roman Catholic Church includes the 23 rites who recognize the Magisterium. Belief in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, the belief that Christ is made manifest in the elements of Holy Communion, possession of the threefold ordained ministry of Bishops, Priests and Deacons. Belief that the Church is the vessel and deposit of the fullness of the teachings of Jesus and this teaching is preserved in both written scripture and in unwritten tradition, neither being independent of the other. A belief in the necessity and efficacy of sacraments, liturgical and personal use of the Sign of the Cross The use of sacred images, candles, vestments and music, and often incense and water, in worship
55.
Book of Lamentations
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The Book of Lamentations is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem. Jeremiahs authorship is no generally accepted, although it is generally accepted that the destruction of Jerusalem by Babylon in 586 BCE forms the background to the poems. The tone is bleak, God does not speak, the degree of suffering is presented as undeserved, Lamentations consists of five distinct poems, corresponding to its five chapters. Chapter 3 has 66 verses, so that each letter begins three lines, and the poem is not acrostic but still has 22 lines. The purpose or function of this form is unknown, the book consists of five separate poems. In the first, the city sits as a desolate weeping widow overcome with miseries, in Chapter 2 these miseries are described in connection with national sins and acts of God. Chapter 3 speaks of hope for the people of God, the chastisement would only be for their good, Chapter 4 laments the ruin and desolation of the city and temple, but traces it to the peoples sins. Chapter 5 is a prayer that Zions reproach may be away in the repentance. The language fits an Exilic date, and the poems probably originated from Judeans who remained in the land, scholars are divided over whether they are the work of one or multiple authors. Lamentations combines elements of the qinah, a dirge for the loss of the city. It reflects the view, traceable to Sumerian literature of a thousand years earlier, beginning with the reality of disaster, Lamentations concludes with the bitter possibility that God may have finally rejected Israel. Sufferers in the face of grief are not urged to a confidence in the goodness of God, the poet acknowledges that this suffering is a just punishment, still God is held to have had choice over whether to act in this way and at this time. Hope arises from a recollection of Gods past goodness, but although this justifies a cry to God to act in deliverance, repentance will not persuade God to be gracious, since he is free to give or withhold grace as he chooses. In the end, the possibility is that God has finally rejected his people and may not again deliver them, if God is predictable, nevertheless, it also affirms confidence that the mercies of Yahweh never end, but are new every morning. The Book of Lamentations is recited annually by Jews on Tisha bAv, in Western Christianity, readings, chantings, and choral settings of the book are used in the Lenten religious service known as the Tenebrae. In the Church of England, readings are used at Morning and Evening Prayer on the Monday and Tuesday of Holy Week, in the Coptic Orthodox Church, the books third chapter is chanted on the twelfth hour of the Good Friday service, that commemorates the burial of Jesus. In Dunn, James D. G. Rogerson, John William, in McKenzie, Steven L. Graham, Matt Patrick. The Hebrew Bible Today, An Introduction to Critical Issues, hillers, Delbert R. Lamentations of Jeremiah
56.
Jeremiah
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Jeremiah, also called the Weeping prophet, was one of the major prophets of the Hebrew Bible. Greater detail is known about Jeremiahs life than for that of any other prophet, however, no biography of him can be written, as there are few facts available. Judaism considers the Book of Jeremiah part of its canon, christianity also regards Jeremiah as a prophet and he is quoted in the New Testament. Islam also considers Jeremiah a prophet, and his narrative is given in Islamic tradition, Jeremiahs ministry was active from the thirteenth year of Josiah, king of Judah, until after the fall of Jerusalem and the destruction of Solomons Temple in 3358 AM or 587 BC. This period spanned the reigns of five kings of Judah, Josiah, Jehoahaz, Jehoiakim, Jehoiachin, the Hebrew-language chronology Seder HaDoroth gives Jeremiahs final year of prophecy to be 3350 AM or 595BC, whereby he transmitted his teachings to Baruch ben Neriah. Jeremiah was the son of Hilkiah, a kohen from the Benjamite village of Anathoth, the difficulties he encountered, as described in the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations, have prompted scholars to refer to him as the weeping prophet. Jeremiah was called to prophetic ministry c.626 BC, Jeremiah was called by YHWH to give prophesy of Jerusalems destruction that would occur by invaders from the north. This was because Israel had been unfaithful to the laws of the covenant and had forsaken God by worshiping Baal, the people of Israel had even gone as far as building high altars to Baal in order to burn their children in fire as offerings. This nation had deviated so far from God that they had broken the covenant, Jeremiah was guided by God to proclaim that the nation of Judah would be faced with famine, plundered and taken captive by foreigners who would exile them to a foreign land. The prophetess, Huldah, was a relative and contemporary of Jeremiah while the prophets Zephaniah and Isaiah were his mentors, such was the lust of the nation for false gods that after Josiahs death, the nation would quickly return to the gods of the surrounding nations. Jeremiah was said to have appointed to reveal the sins of the people. Jeremiah resisted the call by complaining that he was only a child, however, the Lord insisted that Jeremiah go and speak, and he touched Jeremiahs mouth to place the word of the Lord there. God told Jeremiah to Get yourself ready, the character traits and practices Jeremiah was to acquire are specified in Jeremiah 1 and include not being afraid, standing up to speak, speaking as told, and going where sent. In his early ministry, Jeremiah was primarily a preaching prophet and he condemned idolatry, the greed of priests, and false prophets. Many years later, God instructed Jeremiah to write down these early oracles, Jeremiahs ministry prompted plots against him. Unhappy with Jeremiahs message, possibly for concern that it would shut down the Anathoth sanctuary, his priestly kin, however, the Lord revealed the conspiracy to Jeremiah, protected his life, and declared disaster for the men of Anathoth. When Jeremiah complains to the Lord about this persecution, he is told that the attacks on him will become worse. A priest Pashur the son of ben Immer, an official in Jerusalem had Jeremiah beaten
57.
Flag of Oklahoma
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The flag of the state of Oklahoma consists of a traditional Osage Nation buffalo-skin shield with seven eagle feathers on a sky blue field. The Osage shield is covered by two symbols of peace, the Plains-style ceremonial pipe representing Native Americans, and the olive branch representing European Americans, six golden brown crosses, Native American symbols for stars, are spaced on the shield. The blue field is inspired by the Choctaw flag adopted by the tribe in 1860, the blue field also represents devotion. The shield surmounted by the calumet and olive branch represents defensive or protective warfare, showing a love of peace by a united people. In 2001, a survey conducted by the North American Vexillological Association placed Oklahomas flag 39th in design quality out of the 72 Canadian provincial, U. S. state and U. S. territory flags ranked. The state legislature adopted the salute to the flag in 1982, I salute the Flag of the State of Oklahoma. Oklahomas first flag was adopted in 1911, four years after statehood, taking the colors red, white, and blue from the flag of the United States, the flag featured a large centered white star fimbriated in blue on a red field. The number 46 was written in blue inside the star, as Oklahoma was the state to join the Union. A contest, sponsored by the Daughters of the American Revolution, was held in 1924 to replace the flag, the winning entry by Louise Fluke, which was adopted as the state flag on April 2,1925, resembled the current flag without the word Oklahoma on it. That word was added in 1941 in an effort to combat widespread illiteracy and these unauthorized flags displayed stylized eagle feathers, incorrectly shaped crosses, an incorrectly shaped calument, wrong colors, or combinations of these and other errors. A new specialty license plate honoring the first flag was authorized by the legislature, a minimum of 100 pre-orders were required and fulfilled. Flags of the U. S. states History of the flags of the United States State of Oklahoma Symbols of the state of Oklahoma Great Seal of the state of Oklahoma Hickam, the State Flag of Oklahoma, Chronicles of Oklahoma, Vol.9, No. Oklahoma at Flags of the World
58.
Code for international direct dial
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Country calling codes or country dial in codes are telephone dialing prefixes for the member countries of the International Telecommunication Union. They are defined by the ITU-T in standards E.123, the prefixes enable international direct dialing, and are also referred to as international subscriber dialing codes. Country codes are a component of the telephone numbering plan. Country codes are dialed before the telephone number. For example, the call prefix in all countries belonging to the North American Numbering Plan is 011. On GSM networks, the prefix may automatically be inserted when the user prefixes a dialed number with the plus sign, Country calling codes are prefix codes, hence, they can be organized as a tree. In each row of the table below, the country codes given in the left-most column share the same first digit, while there is a general geographic grouping to the zones, some exceptions exist for political and historical reasons. Thus, the geographical indicators below are approximations only, countries within NANP administered areas are assigned area codes as if they were all within one country. The codes below in format +1 XXX represent area code XXX within the +1 NANP zone – not a country code. Small countries, such as Iceland, were assigned three-digit codes, since the 1980s, all new assignments have been three-digit regardless of countries’ populations.164 assigned country codes as of 15 November 2016. List of ITU-T Recommendation E.164 Dialling Procedures as of 15 December 2011, complement to Recommendation ITU-T E.164 - List of Recommendation ITU-T E.164 Assigned Country Codes. Telephone and Internet Country Codes in 10 Languages
59.
Sweden
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Sweden, officially the Kingdom of Sweden, is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe. It borders Norway to the west and Finland to the east, at 450,295 square kilometres, Sweden is the third-largest country in the European Union by area, with a total population of 10.0 million. Sweden consequently has a low density of 22 inhabitants per square kilometre. Approximately 85% of the lives in urban areas. Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden since prehistoric times, emerging into history as the Geats/Götar and Swedes/Svear, Southern Sweden is predominantly agricultural, while the north is heavily forested. Sweden is part of the area of Fennoscandia. The climate is in very mild for its northerly latitude due to significant maritime influence. Today, Sweden is a monarchy and parliamentary democracy, with a monarch as head of state. The capital city is Stockholm, which is also the most populous city in the country, legislative power is vested in the 349-member unicameral Riksdag. Executive power is exercised by the government chaired by the prime minister, Sweden is a unitary state, currently divided into 21 counties and 290 municipalities. Sweden emerged as an independent and unified country during the Middle Ages, in the 17th century, it expanded its territories to form the Swedish Empire, which became one of the great powers of Europe until the early 18th century. Swedish territories outside the Scandinavian Peninsula were gradually lost during the 18th and 19th centuries, the last war in which Sweden was directly involved was in 1814, when Norway was militarily forced into personal union. Since then, Sweden has been at peace, maintaining a policy of neutrality in foreign affairs. The union with Norway was peacefully dissolved in 1905, leading to Swedens current borders, though Sweden was formally neutral through both world wars, Sweden engaged in humanitarian efforts, such as taking in refugees from German-occupied Europe. After the end of the Cold War, Sweden joined the European Union on 1 January 1995 and it is also a member of the United Nations, the Nordic Council, Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. The modern name Sweden is derived through back-formation from Old English Swēoþēod and this word is derived from Sweon/Sweonas. The Swedish name Sverige literally means Realm of the Swedes, excluding the Geats in Götaland, the etymology of Swedes, and thus Sweden, is generally not agreed upon but may derive from Proto-Germanic Swihoniz meaning ones own, referring to ones own Germanic tribe
60.
Forty-seven Ronin
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A noted Japanese scholar described the tale as the best known example of the samurai code of honor, and as the countrys national legend. The rōnin avenged their masters honor by killing Kira, after waiting and planning for a year, in turn, they were themselves obliged to commit seppuku for committing the crime of murder. This true story was popularized in Japanese culture as emblematic of the loyalty, sacrifice, persistence, the popularity of the tale grew during the Meiji era, in which Japan underwent rapid modernization, and the legend became entrenched within discourses of national heritage and identity. Fictionalized accounts of the tale of the Forty-seven Rōnin are known as Chūshingura, the story was popularized in numerous plays, including bunraku and kabuki. Because of the laws of the shogunate in the Genroku era, which forbade portrayal of current events. The story continues to be popular in Japan to this day, each year on December 14, Sengakuji Temple holds a festival commemorating the event. The event is known in Japan as the Akō incident, sometimes referred to as the Akō vendetta. The participants in the revenge are called the Akō-rōshi or Yon-jū-shichi-shi in Japanese, literary accounts of the events are known as the Chūshingura. For many years, the version of events retold by A. B, mitford in Tales of Old Japan was considered authoritative. The sequence of events and the characters in this narrative were presented to a popular readership in the West. Nevertheless, even with plausible defects, Mitfords work remains a conventional starting point for further study, mitford appended what he explained were translations of Sengakuji documents the author had examined personally. These were proffered as proofs authenticating the factual basis of his story and these daimyō names are not fictional, nor is there any question that something actually happened in Genroku 15, on the 14th day of the 12th month. What is commonly called the Akō incident was an actual event, Asano and Kamei were to be given instruction in the necessary court etiquette by Kira Kozuke-no-Suke Yoshinaka, a powerful official in the hierarchy of Tokugawa Tsunayoshis shogunate. He became upset at them, allegedly either because of the insufficient presents they offered him, other sources say that he was naturally rude and arrogant, or that he was corrupt, which offended Asano, a devoutly moral Confucian. By some accounts, it appears that Asano may have been unfamiliar with the intricacies of the Shogunate court. Whether Kira treated them poorly, insulted them, or failed to prepare them for fulfilling specific bakufu duties, initially, Asano bore all this stoically, while Kamei became enraged and prepared to kill Kira to avenge the insults. However, Kameis quick thinking counselors averted disaster for their lord and clan by quietly giving Kira a large bribe, Kira thereupon began to treat Kamei nicely, however, Kira allegedly continued to treat Asano harshly, because he was upset that the latter had not emulated his companion. Finally, Kira insulted Asano, calling him a country boor with no manners, Kiras wound was hardly serious, but the attack on a shogunate official within the boundaries of the shoguns residence was considered a grave offence
61.
Code 46
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Code 46 is a 2003 British film directed by Michael Winterbottom, with screenplay by Frank Cottrell Boyce. It was produced by BBC Films and Revolution Films and it is a dystopic science fiction love story exploring the implications of current trends in biotechnology. The soundtrack was composed by David Holmes under the name Free Association, the film was shot on location in Shanghai, Dubai and Rajasthan, with interiors done on stage in London. The mix of locations was chosen because the juxtaposition of elements in these cities offered a believable futuristic setting. In the near future the world is divided between those who live inside, in high-density cities, and the underclass who live outside. Access to the cities is highly restricted and regulated through the use of health documents, most city residents venture outside only after dark since direct sunlight is now considered hazardous to their health. However, many residents still venture outdoors during the day, the government appears to be authoritarian and dystopian. Society is regulated by various codes, the code of the movie title prohibits genetically incestuous reproduction, which may occur as a result of the various medical technologies which have become commonplace, such as cloning. Williams assignment is to identify employees who are suspected of forging covers, after interviewing numerous Sphinx employees, he identifies a young worker named Maria Gonzalez as the forger. He is able to do this using a genetically engineered empathy virus, Maria tells William that she has the same dream each birthday, she is traveling the subway to meet someone she cannot identify. Each birthday she is one station closer to her destination, where she expects to meet the person, William is captivated by her, and instead of turning her over to security, he identifies another employee as the forger. William then meets up with Maria and they begin an affair, putting complete trust in a man who could have had her arrested, Maria reveals how she was able to smuggle papelles out of her workplace. In a nightclub they meet Damian, a naturalist who longs to travel to Delhi to study bats and he has applied for cover for eight consecutive years but has always been refused. Maria supplies Damian with a papelle, William is upset by this and indicates that he should turn Maria over to the authorities, but Maria knows he wont. William explains that there are reasons why Damian is unable to obtain the proper clearances legally. Maria believes that risks are worth taking to fulfill ones dreams. Back at her apartment, Maria shows William her memory scrapbook, other movies show her passing papelles to various people. She thinks they are beautiful and their eyes are full of desire and dreams, as Maria sleeps, William finds a forged cover in her room and takes it
62.
Tim Robbins
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Timothy Francis Tim Robbins is an American actor, screenwriter, director, producer, activist and musician. He is well known for his portrayal of Andy Dufresne in the drama film The Shawshank Redemption. Robbins was born in West Covina, California, and raised in New York City and he is the son of Mary Cecelia, an actress, and Gilbert Lee Robbins, a musician, folk singer, actor, and former manager of The Gaslight Cafe. Robbins has two sisters, Adele and Gabrielle, and a brother, David and he moved to Greenwich Village with his family at a young age, while his father pursued a career as a member of the folk music group, The Highwaymen. Robbins started performing in theater at age twelve and joined the club at Stuyvesant High School. He spent two years at SUNY Plattsburgh and then returned to California to study at the UCLA Film School, after graduation from college in 1981, Robbins founded the Actors Gang, an experimental theater group, in Los Angeles with actor friends from his college softball team. In 1982, he appeared as domestic terrorist Andrew Reinhardt in three episodes of the television program St. Elsewhere, in 1985, he guest-starred in the second episode of the television series Moonlighting, Gunfight at the So-So Corral. He also took parts in films, such as the role of frat animal Mother in Fraternity Vacation. He played in The Love Boat, as a version of one of the characters in retrospection about the Second World War. His breakthrough role was as pitcher Ebby Calvin Nuke LaLoosh in the 1988 baseball film Bull Durham which he co-starred with Susan Sarandon and Kevin Costner. He received critical acclaim and won the Best Actor Award at Cannes for his role as an amoral film executive in Robert Altmans 1992 film The Player. He made his directorial and screenwriting debut with 1992s Bob Roberts, Robbins then starred alongside Morgan Freeman in the critically acclaimed The Shawshank Redemption, which was based on Stephen Kings novella. Robbins has written, produced, and directed films with strong social content, such as the critically acclaimed capital punishment saga Dead Man Walking, starring Sarandon. The film earned him an Oscar nomination for Best Director and his next directorial effort was 1999s Depression-era musical Cradle Will Rock. Robbins has also appeared in mainstream Hollywood thrillers, such as 1999s Arlington Road and 2001s Antitrust, and in films such as The Hudsucker Proxy, Nothing to Lose. Robbins has also acted in and directed several Actors Gang theater productions, Robbins won the Best Supporting Actor Oscar and the SAG Award for his work in Mystic River, as a man traumatized from having been molested as a child. In 2005, he won the 39th annual Man of the Year Pudding Pot Award given by the Hasty Pudding Theatricals of Harvard. His most recent acting roles include a blind man who is nursed to health by a psychologically wounded young woman in The Secret Life of Words
63.
Samantha Morton
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Samantha Jane Morton is an English actress, screenwriter and director. She has been described as one of the greatest actresses of her generation, brought up in Nottingham, Morton joined the Central Junior Television Workshop, and soon began her career in British televisions in 1991. She guest-starred in Soldier Soldier and Cracker and appeared from 1995 to 1996 in the ITV series Band of Gold and she made the transition to film with lead roles in the dramas Emma, Jane Eyre and the well-received Under the Skin. The latter made director Woody Allen cast Morton in Sweet and Lowdown, which earned her nominations for the Academy Award, in the 2000s, Morton continued to draw critical praise for her performances in numerous arthouse and independent films. Her role in Morvern Callar garnered her the BIFA Award for Best Actress, and she received her second Academy Award nomination and she also found mainstream success with the science fiction thriller Minority Report. For her role in 2006s television biopic Longford, she received an Emmy Award nomination, Morton was born in Clifton, Nottingham, the third child of Pamela Freebury, a factory worker, and Peter Morton. She has six half-siblings from her parents relationships, subsequent to their 1979 divorce and she lived with her father until she was eight when she was made a ward of court, because neither of her parents could care for her and her siblings. Her father was an alcoholic and her mother was involved in a violent relationship with her second husband. The next nine years were spent in and out of foster care, under the effects of drugs, she threatened an older girl who had been bullying her. She was convicted of making threats to kill, and served 18 weeks in an attendance centre, Morton said in an interview, as a child I had a serious anger problem, but from the age of 16 Ive been trying to turn bad things into positives. Moving to London at sixteen, Morton applied to drama schools, including RADA. In 1991 she attended Clarendon College of Performing Arts to gain a BTEC award and she made her stage début at the Royal Court Theatre, and continued her television career with appearances in Peak Practice and in an episode of Cracker. At the time, she had a role in the first two series of Kay Mellors successful Band of Gold. Further television roles followed, including parts in period dramas such as Emma, Emma was a film adaptation of the novel of the same name published in 1815 about youthful hubris and the perils of misconstrued romance. The movie received positive reviews from critics and was broadcast in late 1996 on ITV. In Jane Eyre, Morton starred as a Yorkshire orphan who becomes a governess to a young French girl, like her previous small-screen projects, the 1997 film originally aired on ITV. She took on the role in the independent drama Under the Skin, directed by Carine Adler, where she played Iris. The movie garnered favorable reviews from writers, with The Guardian placing it at number 15 on its list of the Best British Films 1984—2009
64.
Days of Thunder
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Days of Thunder is a 1990 American sports action drama film released by Paramount Pictures, produced by Don Simpson and Jerry Bruckheimer and directed by Tony Scott. The cast includes Tom Cruise, Nicole Kidman, Robert Duvall, Randy Quaid, Cary Elwes, Caroline Williams, the film also features appearances by real life NASCAR racers, such as Rusty Wallace, Neil Bonnett, and Harry Gant. Commentator Dr. Jerry Punch, of ESPN, has a cameo appearance and this is the first of three films to star both Cruise and Kidman. Cole Trickle is a racer from Eagle Rock, California. His goal was to win the Indianapolis 500 but realises that You cant win at Indy without a great car and he is recruited by Chevrolet dealership tycoon Tim Daland to race for his team in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series. Daland also convinces former crew chief and car builder Harry Hogge to come out of retirement, after Trickle sets a fast time in a private test at Charlotte, Hogge builds him a new Chevrolet Lumina to drive in the Winston Cup, though the season has already started. After discovering that Cole does not understand the terminology used by NASCAR teams. This pays off at the Darlington race, when Cole uses a slingshot maneuver from the line to overtake Rowdy. The rivalry between Cole and Rowdy intensifies throughout the season until tragedy strikes, at the Firecracker 400 in Daytona, both drivers are seriously injured after their cars are destroyed in a multi-car wreck. At the same time, NASCAR president Big John, brings Rowdy and Cole together in a meeting and warns them that he, afterwards, Cole and Rowdy go out to lunch together by Big Johns persuasion, and settle their differences. Cole and Rowdy change from bitter rivals to close friends, as Cole is still undergoing therapy, Daland hires hot-shot rookie Russ Wheeler as a substitute to fill the seat. Weeks later, Cole returns to duty, with Daland now fielding two teams – the second car driven by Wheeler. Though Cole shows signs of his old self, he now himself in a rivalry with his new teammate. At North Wilkesboro, Russ gets dirty on pit road and spins Cole out to win the race, in retaliation, Cole crashes his car into Russs car following the race, resulting in Cole and Harry being fired by Daland. When Rowdy discovers that he has to undergo surgery to fix a broken blood vessel. Cole reluctantly agrees and convinces Harry to return as crew chief again, hours prior to the race, Harry discovers metal in the oil pan, a sign of engine failure, so he manages to have Daland provide him a new engine. This sets the tone for a showdown between Cole and Russ. Cole drives into victory lane, where he and Claire kiss passionately while they celebrate with his pit-crew, as he looks around to see where Harry is, he spots him sitting alone on a concrete barrier near the teams pit stall
65.
Lot (department)
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Lot is a department in the southwest of France named after the Lot River. Lot is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4,1790 and it was created from part of the province of Quercy. In 1808 some of the original southeastern cantons were separated from it to form the department of Tarn-et-Garonne and it originally extended much farther to the south and included the city of Montauban. Lot is part of the region of Occitanie and is surrounded by the departments of Corrèze, Cantal, Aveyron, Tarn-et-Garonne, Lot-et-Garonne, for a full list, see Communes of the Lot department. Settlements in the Lot include, Cahors - The prefecture of the department and it lies in a wide loop of the Lot River and is famous for its medieval bridge, the Pont Valentre. Figeac - a medieval town where Champollion, the first translator of Egyptian hieroglyphics, was born, figeac is a sub-prefecture of the department. Gourdon - a medieval town with a well preserved centre. There are many painted caves nearby, notably the Grottes de Cougnac. Gourdon is also a sub-prefecture of te department, cantons of the Lot department Communes of the Lot department French singer-songwriter Léo Ferré lived in the Lot for a while
66.
Stargate Universe
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Stargate Universe is a Canadian-American military science fiction television series and part of MGMs Stargate franchise. It follows the adventures of a present-day, multinational exploration team traveling on the Ancient spaceship Destiny several billion light years distant from the Milky Way Galaxy. They evacuated there and are now trying to out a way to return to Earth, while simultaneously trying to explore. The series, created by Brad Wright and Robert C, Cooper, premiered in the United States on Syfy on October 2,2009. The series featured an ensemble cast and was filmed in and around Vancouver, BC. A second season of 20 episodes was announced by Syfy in December 2009, the first 10 episodes of the second season were aired in the United States beginning on September 28,2010, and the final 10 were shown beginning on March 7,2011. Syfy announced on December 16,2010 that it would not be picking up Stargate Universe for a third season, the second season of SGU ended as a semi-cliffhanger. The SGC created Icarus base on a planet whose Stargate is powered by large naquadria deposits throughout the core. The team, led by Dr. Dr. Rush designs a game used across Earth to find brilliant minds to interpret the puzzle, which Eli Wallace. They are introduced to the military staff, led by Colonel Everett Young, Colonel David Telford, First Lieutenants Matthew Scott and Tamara Johansen. Dr. Rush and Eli work together to discover the means to dial the ninth chevron, Colonel Telford aids in an aerial assault of the ships with the Hammond, while the base starts dialing Earth into the Stargate, finding that the planets power core is about to explode. Dr. Rush realizes that the explosion would follow them through the back to Earth. The surviving Icarus Base members flee through the wormhole before the planet explodes and they find themselves aboard an old abandoned spacecraft made by the Ancients, which Dr. Rush finds was named Destiny. The eighty-some survivors begin to assure the safety of their team, Senator Armstrong injured and realizing he might not have long, as the rest of the team works to make the ship hospitable, Dr. The teams mission adapts in season 2, when the Ancients mission for Destiny is discovered in The Greater Good. This discovery suggested the possibility of life before or immediately after the Big Bang, Robert Carlyle as Nicholas Rush – The ships brilliant Machiavellian scientist whom producer Joseph Mallozzi had first mentioned in his blog in mid-November 2008 as Dr. David Rush. The ships crew believe Rush to be losing his mind, Carlyle explained in an interview that after Rush lost his wife to cancer, he became driven by the opportunity to explore the galaxy. Mallozzi rectified casting reports in mid-December 2008 that Rush is not the leader of the unplanned expedition and that honor falls to Colonel Everett Young
67.
United States
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Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography, climate and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci