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Manitoba Social Credit Party

The Manitoba Social Credit Party was a political party in the Canadian province of Manitoba. In its early years, it espoused the monetary reform theories of social credit, it was formed in the 1935-1936, shortly after William Aberhart's supporters formed a Social Credit government in Alberta. While the party never won many seats in the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, it maintained a presence in the legislature for most of the period from 1936 to 1973. In its earliest years, the Social Credit League took the form of a populist protest movement. Like other Social Credit parties in Canada, it became as a party of conservatism while retaining an anti-establishment message; the party's leadership was anti-socialist. The Social Credit Party ran 19 candidates in the provincial election of 1936, five of whom were elected, it did not have a leader during the election, but chose Stanley Fox to lead the parliamentary group shortly thereafter. During this period, the party supported the monetary reforms of Major Douglas, which Aberhart had been promoting in Alberta for several years.

The 1936 election produced a minority government, with 23 Liberal-Progressives, 16 Conservatives, 7 Independent Labour Party members, the 5 Social Crediters and 4 others. After early talks for a Liberal-Progressive/Conservative coalition broke down, the Social Crediters made a surprise offer to keep the outgoing Liberal-Progressive government of John Bracken in power; some party members may have hoped for a formal coalition, but this came to nothing and the party supported the government from the outside for the next four years. Fox stepped down as party leader in 1937, was replaced by S. E. Rogers. After the start of World War II, Bracken promoted a "non-partisan government" for Manitoba, in which all four major parties would hold cabinet portfolios in a demonstration of provincial unity; the plan was approved by the other parties, Social Credit joined the government in late 1940. Social Credit Member of the Legislative Assembly Norman Turnbull was sworn in as a minister without portfolio on November 4, 1940, served in this capacity until February 14, 1946.

The decision to join government caused a split in the party. Salome Halldorson crossed the floor to sit as an Opposition Social Credit MLA and won the support of Alberta Socred Premier Ernest Manning as well as the Manitoba Social Credit League which expelled the four Social Credit MLAs who supported the government. In the election of 1941, several Social Credit candidates ran in opposition to the coalition, while coalition supporters continued to call themselves Social Credit candidates; this division damaged the party's credibility with the electorate, only three Social Credit candidates were elected: Fox and Rogers. The party does not seem to have had a leader in the parliament which followed, in fact became little more than an appendage of the Liberal-Conservative coalition as the 1940s progressed. Fox and Turnbull were re-elected in the 1945 election, but the party ran only two other candidates in the rest of the province, it lost its coherence as a parliamentary force in the late 1940s, did not run any candidates in the 1949 election.

The Social Credit Party re-emerged for the election of 1953: William Bullmore was elected in the constituency of Dauphin, Gilbert Hutton won in Minnedosa. The party was again marginalized in the parliament which followed and none of its candidates were elected in the provincial elections of 1958 and 1959. Although the Social Credit parties of Alberta and British Columbia had abandoned their monetary policies by this time and Hutton continued to promote social credit during their time in parliament. During the late 1940s and the 1950s, the President of the Manitoba Social Credit League was Wilbert James Tinkler, he was the closest that the party had to an official leader in this period, as neither Bullmore nor Hutton held an official role in the legislature. Tinkler ran for provincial office on six occasions. Tinkler became the president of the Social Credit league at a time when it had only a minimal presence in the legislature, a weak provincial organization; the party had joined the governing coalition of Premier John Bracken in 1940, its parliamentary representation was subsequently regarded as little more than an adjunct to the province's Liberal-Conservative government.

Several figures within the party had campaigned against the alliance in 1941. The party's organization subsequently collapsed, it offered no candidates for election in 1949. Social Credit did not have an official political leader between 1941 and at least 1959. Tinkler, as its leading official for most of this period, was not a prominent public figure, though he did help reconstruct some semblance of a provincial network for the party, he was replaced as party president by S. S. Hunt of Dauphin in late June 1953, but appears to have regained this title in the decade. Tinkler continued to work in the party after Jacob Froese became its official leader following the 1959 election; the party received another lease on life in November 1959, when Jacob Froese won a by-election in the riding of Rhineland. Froese remained a member of the legislature until the 1973 election, when he was defeated by a Progressive Conservative candidate; the party was unable to win any other seats and Froese acted as an independent MLA during his time in parliament.

He served as party leader for most, if not all of the period from 1959 to 1977. Froese was sometimes called the "conscience of parliament", does not appear to have endorsed his party's original views on monetary refor

1984 Edgbaston Cup

The 1984 Edgbaston Cup was a women's tennis tournament played on outdoor grass courts, part of the 1984 Virginia Slims World Championship Series. The tournament took place at the Edgbaston Priory Club in Birmingham, United Kingdom and was held from 11 to 17 June 1984. Pam Shriver defeated Anne White 7–6, 6–3 It was Shriver's second singles title of the year and the 7th of her career. Leslie Allen / Anne White defeated Barbara Jordan / Elizabeth Sayers 7–5, 6–3 It was Allen's 2nd title of the year and the 6th of her career, it was White's 4th title of the year and of her career. 1984 Edgbaston Cup draws International Tennis Federation tournament details

Franconville, Val-d'Oise

Franconville is a commune in the Val-d'Oise department in Île-de-France in northern France. It is a northwestern suburb of Paris, located 17.1 km. from the center of Paris. Franconville is served by Franconville – Le Plessis-Bouchard station on Paris RER line C and on the Transilien Paris – Nord suburban rail line. Viernheim, Germany Potters Bar, England, United Kingdom Jean Daudin, french canon, translator of humanist and italian poet Petrarch, was born in Franconville. Marcel L'Enfant, post-impressionist painter has lived and worked Chaussée Jules-César in Franconville for 40 years. André Vaquier and historian, has lived in Franconville for many years. Jean Daurand, had a Café named Les Cinq Dernières Minutes in Franconville. Hassan Koubba, actor. Lorie and actress. Massacra (1987-1997], Death Metal band. Stéphane Diagana was a member of an athelic club in Franconville. Éric Rabésandratana, football-player, was a player in the FC Franconville Plessis Bouchard team. Bouchra Ghezielle, athlete Mickaël Hanany, high-jumper David Alerte, sprinter David N'Gog, football player in Liverpool FC Antoine-Alexis Cadet de Vaux, philanthropist.

Jean-François Clervoy, astronaut. Gustave-Joseph Witkowski, doctor. Jacques Baudoin, priest. Communes of the Val-d'Oise department INSEE Association of Mayors of the Val d’Oise Official website Land use

Cecil Dudgeon

Cecil Randolph Dudgeon was a Scottish Liberal Member of Parliament who joined Oswald Mosley's New Party. He was elected at the 1922 general election as MP for Galloway, re-elected unopposed in 1923, but was defeated at the 1924 general election, he was beaten again at the by-election in 1925 following the death of his Unionist successor Sir Arthur Henniker-Hughan, but regained the seat at the 1929 general election. When Parliament was dissolved for the 1931 general election, Dudgeon resigned from the Liberal Party and contested the election as a New Party candidate, he finished 4th with 986 votes. He did not stand for Parliament again. Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1918-1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. Leigh Rayment's Peerage Pages Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Cecil Dudgeon

Reginald Warneford

Reginald Alexander John Warneford, was a British Royal Naval Air Service officer who received the Victoria Cross for air-bombing a zeppelin during World War I. Warneford was born in Darjeeling, the son of an engineer on the Indian Railways, he was brought to England as a small boy and educated at King Edward VI School, Stratford-upon-Avon but when his family returned to India he continued his education at the English College, Simla. Following apprenticeship in the Merchant Marine, Warneford joined the British-India Steam Navigation Company. At the time of the outbreak of World War I, he was in Canada awaiting return to India. Instead, he sailed to Great Britain, joining the Army but straightaway transferred to the Royal Naval Air Service for pilot training. Warneford's initial training took place at Hendon, passing to Upavon where he completed his pilot training on 25 February 1915. During the course of training, the Commander of Naval Air Stations, R M Groves was quoted as saying: "This youngster will either do big things or kill himself."

Warneford's flying instructor at the time, Warren Merriam, noted his skills as a pilot but had to make special arrangements to ensure that Warneford's perceived over-confidence did not bar him from attaining a commission. Merriam took an opportunity whilst Commander Groves was visiting Hendon to ask Warneford to demonstrate his flying skills. Groves' favourable impression overcame the views of the Squadron Commander at the time who believed that Warneford would never make an officer because of his lack of discipline. Warneford was posted to 2 Wing on the Isle of Sheppey in Kent but was posted to an operational unit with 1 Wing at Veurne on the Belgian coast. Over the next few weeks, Warneford was involved in attacks on German troops and guns, as well as actions against enemy aircraft, his aggressiveness and effectiveness led to his being given his own aircraft and a roving commission. On 17 May 1915, Warneford encountered a Deutsches Heer-flown Zeppelin airship, LZ 39, setting out on a raid over the UK.

He attacked LZ39 with machine gun fire but the airship was able to ascend out of range by jettisoning ballast. On 7 June 1915 at Ghent, Warneford, flying a Morane-Saulnier Type L, attacked another German Army airship, LZ 37, he chased the airship from the coast near Ostend and, despite its defensive machine-gun fire, succeeded in dropping his bombs on it, the last of which set the airship on fire. LZ37 subsequently crashed in Sint-Amandsberg; the explosion stopped its engine. Having no alternative, Warneford had to land behind enemy lines, but after 35 minutes spent on repairs, he managed to restart the engine just as the Germans realized what was going on, after yelling "Give my regards to the Kaiser!", he was able to achieve liftoff and returned to base. On 17 June 1915, Warneford received the award of Légion d'honneur from the French Army Commander in Chief, General Joffre. Following a celebratory lunch, Warneford travelled to the aerodrome at Buc in order to ferry an aircraft for delivery to the RNAS at Veurne.

Having made one short test flight, he flew a second flight, carrying an American journalist, Henry Beach Needham, as passenger. During a climb to 200 feet, the righthand wings collapsed leading to a catastrophic failure of the airframe. Accounts suggest that neither occupant was harnessed and were both thrown out of the aircraft, suffering fatal injuries. In the case of Needham, death was instantaneous. Warneford died of his injuries on the way to hospital, he was buried at Brompton Cemetery, London on 21 June 1915 in a ceremony attended by thousands of mourners. The grave lies in front of the eastern colonnade, his Victoria Cross is displayed at the Fleet Air Arm Museum in Yeovil, England. John Cyril Porte - Squadron Commander of Hendon Aerodrome August 1914 - September 1915 Leefe Robinson - another VC recipient awarded for shooting down a German airship Location of grave and VC medal Reginald Warneford at Find a Grave Henry Beach Needham at Find a Grave