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476

Year 476 was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Armatus; the denomination 476 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. Because the fall of the Western Roman Empire occurred in 476, many historians consider it the last year of ancient history and the first year of the Middle Ages in Europe. Summer – Odoacer, chieftain of the Germanic tribes, visits the imperial palace at Ravenna, he petitions Orestes to reward his mercenaries for their services and their support of his rebellion a year earlier, by making good on his promise to grant them lands to settle permanently in Italy. Orestes refuses Odoacer leads his tribesmen in a revolt. August – Basiliscus, Roman usurper, is deposed and Zeno is restored as emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. With the support of his adviser Illus, he besieges Constantinople, but the Senate opens the gates, allowing him to resume the throne.

Basiliscus flees to sanctuary in a church, but surrenders himself and his family after extracting a solemn promise from Zeno not to shed their blood. Basiliscus is sent to a fortress in Cappadocia, where he dies from starvation. August 23 – Odoacer, age 43, is proclaimed rex Italiae by his troops, he leads his Ostrogoth army into the Po Valley, advances to Ravenna while plundering the countryside. September 4 – Romulus Augustulus, Roman usurper of the Western Roman Empire, is deposed by Odoacer at Ravenna. Odoacer spares the boy's life and gives him a pension of 6,000 solidi, but exiles him to the "Castellum Lucullanum", on the island of Megaride in the Gulf of Naples, his father Orestes had been arrested a week earlier near Piacenza, swiftly executed. This event will be romanticized in Western literature and history as the Fall of Rome, is traditionally used by historians to mark the beginning of the European Middle Ages. Julius Nepos, de jure ruler, becomes the last "Western Roman Emperor." He governs Dalmatia and Northwest Gaul until his death in 480, but has no effective power on the Italian Peninsula.

Odoacer invades Provence. He conquers the cities of Marseilles, after a victorious battle against the Burgundians; the Visigoths under King Euric march into Italy, suffer defeat against the forces of Odoacer. Emperor Zeno concludes a peace treaty between the Goths and Odoacer surrenders the newly conquered territory in Gaul. Euric pledges himself to undertake no further hostilities; the Roman Senate petitions Zeno to recognize Nepos as deposed and take the sole emperorship himself, abolishing the 91 year east/west division of the empire and recognizing Odoacer's authority in Italy. Zeno declines the first request, but names Odoacer Patricius, investing his rule with Imperial legitimacy. Winter – Zeno recognizes the full extent of the Vandal Kingdom, including all of western Africa, the Balearic Islands, Corsica and Sicily. King Gaiseric gives Sicily, with the exception of the city of Lilybaeum, to Odoacer in return for tribute; the birth of Aryabhata is traditionally regarded as the beginning of the classical period of Indian mathematics and astronomy.

Xian Wen Di, Retired Emperor of Northern Wei, is murdered by Empress Feng. She assumes regency over the young Xiao Wen Di. Peter the Fuller is restored as patriarch of Antioch. December – Aryabhata, Indian mathematician and astronomer Hilary of Galeata, Christian monk and saint August Basiliscus, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire Marcus, co-Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire August 28 – Orestes, Roman politician and regent Xian Wen Di, Chinese Emperor of Northern Wei

Nigel Auchterlounie

Nigel Auchterlounie is a British comics artist and cartoonist. His graphic novel, was published by Blank Slate Books in 2009, his artwork featured in the children's comic The Dandy writing the strips himself. For the final print Dandy celebrating its 75th anniversary, Nigel drew The Bogies, My Freaky Family, Tom Tum, Bertie Buncle and his Chemical Uncle, Joe White and the Seven Dwarves, Old King Cole, Korky the Cat and Jibber and Steve as well as writing The Jocks and the Geordies. In November 2012, Nigel Auchterlounie became the writer of Dennis the Menace as well as the writer/artist for Pup Parade for The Beano. Nigel writes Dennis the Menace and Gnasher in both the weekly comic and in the Dennis the Menace and Gnasher Megazine. Nigel both draws The Numskulls. Nigel Auchterlounie's blog Nigel Auchterlounie's portfolio at Cartoonstock

Battle of Fariskur

The Battle of Fariskur was the last major battle of the Seventh Crusade. The battle was fought on April 6, 1250, between the Crusaders led by King Louis IX of France and Egyptian forces led by Turanshah of the Ayyubid dynasty. Following an earlier Crusader defeat at the Battle of Al Mansurah, Fariskur resulted in the complete defeat of the crusader army and the capture of Louis IX. With the full support of Pope Innocent IV during the First Council of Lyon, King Louis IX of France accompanied by his brothers Charles d'Anjou and Robert d'Artois launched the Seventh Crusade against Egypt; the aims of the crusade were to defeat Egypt, destroy the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt and Syria and recover Jerusalem which the Muslims recaptured in 1244. The ships entered the Egyptian waters and the troops of the Seventh Crusade disembarked at Damietta in June 1249. Louis IX sent a letter to as-Salih Ayyub, the Ayyubid Sultan of Egypt. Emir Fakhr ad-Din Yussuf, the commander of the Ayyubid garrison in Damiette retreated to the camp of the Sultan in Ashmum-Tanah causing a great panic among the inhabitants of Damietta who fled the town leaving the bridge that connected the west bank of the Nile with Damiette intact.

After occupying the Egyptian port of Damietta in June 1249, Louis decided to march to Cairo, encouraged by the arrival of reinforcements led by his third brother Alphonse de Poitiers and the news of the death of as-Salih Ayyub. The Franks succeeded in crossing the Canal of Ashmum and launched a surprise attack against the Egyptian camp in Gideila, two miles away from Al Mansurah; the Egyptian troops in the camp, who were taken by surprise, retreated to Al Mansurah and the crusaders proceeded towards the town. The leadership of the Egyptian force passed to the Mamluk commandants Faris ad-Din Aktai, Baibars al-Bunduqdari who succeeded in reorganizing the retreating troops. Shajar al-Durr, in full charge of Egypt agreed about the plan of Baibars to defend Al Mansurah. Baibars ordered; the crusaders rushed into the town. The crusaders were besieged from all directions by the Egyptian forces and the town's population and heavy losses were inflicted upon them. Robert de Artois who took refuge in a house and William of Salisbury were among those who were killed in Al Mansurah.

Only five Knights Templar survived the battle. The crusaders were forced to retreat in disorder to Gideila where they camped within a ditch and wall. Early in the morning of February 11, the Muslim forces launched an offensive against the Franks' camp. For many weeks the Franks were forced to remain in their camp enduring an exhausting guerilla war. Many crusaders were taken to Cairo. On February 27, the new sultan, arrived in Egypt from Hasankeyf and went straight to Al Mansurah to lead the Egyptian army. Ships were transported overland and dropped in the Nile behind the ships of the crusaders cutting the reinforcement line from Damietta and besieging the crusade force of King Louis IX; the Egyptians destroyed and seized many ships and supply vessels. Soon the besieged crusaders were suffering from devastating attacks and disease; some crusaders lost faith and deserted to the Muslim side. King Louis IX proposed to the Egyptians the surrender of Damietta in exchange for Jerusalem and some towns on the Syrian coast.

The Egyptians, aware of the miserable situation of the crusaders, refused the besieged king's offer. On April 5, covered by the darkness of night, the crusaders evacuated their camp and began to flee northward towards Damietta. In their panic and haste they neglected to destroy a pontoon bridge; the Egyptians crossed the canal over the bridge and followed them to Fariskur where the Egyptians utterly destroyed the crusaders on 6 April. Thousands of crusaders were taken prisoner. King Louis IX and a few of his nobles who survived were captured in the nearby village of Moniat Abdallah where they took refuge. Louis IX surrendered to a eunuch named al-Salihi after he was promised he would not be killed and together with his two brothers Charles d'Anjou and Alphonse de Poitiers he was taken to Al Mansurah where he was imprisoned in the house of Ibrahim ben Lokman, the royal chancellor and under the guard of another eunuch named Sobih al-Moazami. King Louis' coif was exhibited in Syria. While the house of Ibrahim ben Lokman was used as a prison for Louis IX and the nobles, a camp was set up outside Al Mansurah to shelter thousands of war prisoners.

The defeat of the crusaders and the capture of King Louis IX in Fariskur created shock in France. The crusaders were circulating false information in Europe, claiming that Louis IX had defeated the Sultan of Egypt in a great battle and that Cairo had been betrayed into his hands; when the news of the French defeat reached France, a hysterical movement called the Shepherds' Crusade occurred in France. Louis IX was ransomed for 400,000 dinars. After he pledged not to return to Egypt again and surrendered Damietta to the Egyptians, he was allowed to leave on May 8, 1250, to Acre with his brothers and 12,000 war prisoners, including some from older battles, whom the Egyptians agreed to release. Many other prisoners were executed. Louis's queen, Marguerite de Provence, suffered from nightmares; the news terrified her so much, that every time she fell asleep, she fancied that her room was filled with Saracens, she would cry out, "Help! Help!" and left for Acre a few days earlier with her son, born in Damietta, called Jean Tristan.

The National Day of Damiette

Floral Park Cemetery

Floral Park Cemetery is a Jewish cemetery in South Brunswick, New Jersey, where many prominent Hassidic Rabbis are buried, including Rabbi Shlomo Halberstam and Rabbi Naftali Halberstam of Bobov, Rabbi Hershele Horowitz of Spinka, Rabbi Yechezkel Shraga Mertz, Rabbi Avigdor of Tchenstchoiv, Rabbi Pinchos Shalom Rottenberg and his son Rabbi Menachem Yisroel Rottenberg of the Kosson, Rabbi Menachem Shlomo Taub of Kaliv, Rabbi Shalom Krausz Udvary Rov. Rabbi Moses Josef Rubin of Cimpulung and Rabbi Yitzchok Issac Langner the Stretiner Rebbe of New York City; the cemetery contains many holocaust survivors including Meir Miller, Gisella Green, Irving Green, Ruchma Lesser & sister Rivka Gutter, Beatrice Roth, Jerry Hans, many others from countries such as Poland and Germany. One of the many societies represented is the first Wodzislaw Society; this was a society of holocaust survivors from Poland. Wodzislaw was one of many small villages in Poland; the society met once a month in New York City. Across the street from the Floral Park Cemetery is the Washington Cemetery.

Washington Cemetery is a separate cemetery from the Floral Park Cemetery, but both are under the same management. Many of the prominent Rabbis said to be buried in Floral Park Cemetery are buried in Washington Cemetery. Directions to the cemetery and photos can be found here: Google Maps kevarim.com

Luis de la Fuente Castillo

Luis de la Fuente Castillo is a Spanish retired footballer who played as a left back, the manager of the Spanish under-21 team. He amassed La Liga totals of 254 matches and six goals over 13 seasons, with Athletic Bilbao and Sevilla. Born in Haro, La Rioja, de la Fuente graduated from Athletic Bilbao's youth system, made his senior debut with the reserves in 1978, in Segunda División B. On 8 March 1981 he made his first-team – and La Liga – debut, coming on as a second-half substitute in a 0–0 away draw against Valencia CF. De la Fuente was promoted to the main squad in the summer of 1982, he scored his first professional goal on 26 March of the following year, netting the last in a 4–0 home rout of RC Celta de Vigo. In July 1987, de la Fuente moved to fellow league club Sevilla FC, continued to appear in the following campaigns. In 1991, he was sparingly used. De la Fuente joined Deportivo Alavés in 1993, with the side in the third tier. After one full season, he retired at the age of 33. De la Fuente's first managerial job was in the regional leagues.

In summer 2000 he was appointed at Segunda División B club CD Aurrerá de Vitoria, but was sacked in March of the following year. After a spell back at Sevilla, de la Fuente returned to Athletic. A manager of the reserves, he acted as match delegate for two years before returning to his previous duties. On 13 July 2011, de la Fuente was named Alavés coach. On 5 May 2013 he was appointed at the helm of the Spain under-19 team, who won the 2015 UEFA European Championship in Greece. De la Fuente became manager of the under-21 side in July 2018, his first competition was the 2019 European Championship in Italy, conquered after the 1–0 final defeat of Germany in Udine. Athletic Bilbao La Liga: 1982–83, 1983–84 Copa del Rey: 1983–84 Spain UEFA European Under-21 Championship: 2019 UEFA European Under-19 Championship: 2015 Luis de la Fuente at BDFutbol Luis de la Fuente manager profile at BDFutbol Luis de la Fuente at Athletic Bilbao

Flor Pálida

Flor Pálida is a song written and performed by Cuban singer-songwriter Polo Montañez. It was recorded for final studio album Guitarra Mía, it is the tenth track on the album. On the review of the album, Newsreview.com editor Christine G. K. LaPado-Breglia praised the song as "so beautiful, with its plaintive violin and heart-stirring vocals". In 2013, American recording artist Marc Anthony covered "Flor Pálida" on his album 3.0. Released as the third single from the album, Anthony's cover was arranged and produced by American musician Sergio George. Hector Aviles from Latino Music Cafe called Anthony's cover "a great tribute to Polo’s original version with his performance." New York Times editor Ben Ratliff referred "Flor Pálida" along with "Espera" and "Cautivo de Este Amor" as the "best of the kind". A. D. Amorosi of the Philadelphia Inquirer called the song "impresionante"