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479 BC

Year 479 BC was a year of the pre-Julian Roman calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rutilus; the denomination 479 BC for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. The Persian commander Mardonius, now based in Thessaly, wins support from western Arcadia, he fails. Mardonius attacks Athens once more and the Athenians are forced to retreat, whereupon he razes the city; the Spartans march north to support Athens against the Persians. August 27 The Battle of Plataea in Boeotia ends the Persian invasions of Greece as the Persian general Mardonius is routed by the Greeks under Pausanias, nephew of the former Spartan King, Leonidas I; the Athenian contingent is led by the repatriated Aristides. Mardonius is killed in the battle and the Greeks capture enormous amounts of loot. Thebes is captured shortly thereafter and the Theban collaborators executed by Pausanias. Meanwhile at sea, the Persians are defeated by a Greek fleet headed by Leotychidas of Sparta and Xanthippus of Athens in the Battle of Mycale, off the coast of Lydia in Asia Minor.

Potidaea is struck by a tsunami. In 479 BC, when Persian soldiers besieged the Greek city of Potidaea, the tide retreated much farther than usual, leaving a convenient invasion route, but this wasn't a stroke of luck. Before they had crossed halfway, the water returned in a wave higher than anyone had seen, drowning the attackers; the Potiidaeans believed. But what saved them was the same phenomenon that has destroyed countless others: a tsunami; the Roman consul Caeso Fabius proposed an agrarian law to distribute land won in recent wars amongst the plebs, but this was rejected by the senate. Ongoing hostilities between Rome and the Aequi. No major battle is fought. Ongoing hostilities between Rome and Veii; the family of the Fabii requests and is granted sole responsibility for the war, the Fabii march from Rome, establishing a fortified camp at the Cremera. August 27: Mardonius, Persian general Confucius, Chinese philosopher

Shared resource

In computing, a shared resource, or network share, is a computer resource made available from one host to other hosts on a computer network. It is a device or piece of information on a computer that can be remotely accessed from another computer via a local area network or an enterprise intranet, transparently as if it were a resource in the local machine. Network sharing is made possible by inter-process communication over the network; some examples of shareable resources are computer programs, storage devices, printers. E.g. shared file access, shared printer access, shared scanner access, etc. The shared resource is called a shared disk, shared folder or shared document The term file sharing traditionally means shared file access in the context of operating systems and LAN and Intranet services, for example in Microsoft Windows documentation. Though, as BitTorrent and similar applications became available in the early 2000s, the term file sharing has become associated with peer-to-peer file sharing over the Internet.

Shared file and printer access require an operating system on the client that supports access to resources on a server, an operating system on the server that supports access to its resources from a client, an application layer file sharing protocol and transport layer protocol to provide that shared access. Modern operating systems for personal computers include distributed file systems that support file sharing, while hand-held computing devices sometimes require additional software for shared file access; the most common such file systems and protocols are: The "primary operating system" is the operating system on which the file sharing protocol in question is most used. On Microsoft Windows, a network share is provided by the Windows network component "File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks", using Microsoft's SMB protocol. Other operating systems might implement that protocol. Samba can be used to create network shares which can be accessed, using SMB, from computers running Microsoft Windows.

An alternative approach is a shared disk file system, where each computer has access to the "native" filesystem on a shared disk drive. Shared resource access can be implemented with Web-based Distributed Authoring and Versioning; the share can be accessed by client computers through some naming convention, such as UNC used on DOS and Windows PC computers. This implies that a network share can be addressed according to the following: \\ServerComputerName\ShareNamewhere ServerComputerName is the WINS name, DNS name or IP address of the server computer, ShareName may be a folder or file name, or its path; the shared folder can be given a ShareName, different from the folder local name at the server side. For example, \\server\c$ denotes a drive with drive letter C: on a Windows machine. A shared drive or folder is mapped at the client PC computer, meaning that it is assigned a drive letter on the local PC computer. For example, the drive letter H: is used for the user home directory on a central file server.

A network share can become a security liability when access to the shared files is gained by those who should not have access to them. Many computer worms have spread through network shares. Network shares would consume extensive communication capacity in non-broadband network access; because of that, shared printer and file access is prohibited in firewalls from computers outside the local area network or enterprise Intranet. However, by means of virtual private networks, shared resources can securely be made available for certified users outside the local network. A network share is made accessible to other users by marking any folder or file as shared, or by changing the file system permissions or access rights in the properties of the folder. For example, a file or folder may be accessible only to one user, to system administrators, to a certain group of users to public, i.e. to all logged in users. The exact procedure varies by platform. In operating system editions for homes and small offices, there may be a special pre-shared folder, accessible to all users with a user account and password on the local computer.

Network access to the pre-shared folder can be turned on. In the Windows XP Home Edition operating system, english version, the preshared folder is named Shared documents with the path C:\Documents and Settings\All users\Shared documents. In Windows Vista and Windows 7, the pre-shared folder is named public documents with the path C:\Users\Public\Public documents. In home and small office networks, a decentralized approach is used, where every user may make their local folders and printers available to others; this approach is sometimes denoted a Workgroup or peer-to-peer network topology, since the same computer may be used as client as well as server. In large enterprise networks, a centralized file server or print server, sometimes denoted client–server paradigm, is used. A client process on the local user computer takes the initiative to start the communication, while a server process on the file server or print server remote computer passively waits for requests to start a communication session In large networks, a Storage Area Network approach may be used.

Online storage on a server outside the local network is an option for homes and small office networks. Shared file access should not be confuse

Hurricane Bonnie (1998)

Hurricane Bonnie was a major hurricane that made landfall in North Carolina, United States, inflicting severe crop damage. The second named storm, first hurricane, first major hurricane of the 1998 Atlantic hurricane season, Bonnie developed from a tropical wave that emerged off the coast of Africa on August 14; the wave developed, the system was designated a tropical depression on August 19. The depression began tracking towards the west-northwest, became a tropical storm the next day. On August 22, Bonnie was upgraded with a well-defined eye; the storm peaked as a Category 3 hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, around the same time, the storm slowed and turned more towards the north-northwest. A large and powerful cyclone, Bonnie moved ashore in North Carolina early on August 27, slowing as it turned northeast. After losing hurricane status, the storm moved offshore and regained Category 1-force winds, although it weakened again on entering cooler waters. Fearing a major hurricane strike, coastal locations from Florida to Virginia performed extensive preparations in advance of the storm.

In addition to tropical cyclone watches and warnings, about 950,000 people were evacuated from the Carolinas, the military evacuated and relocated hundreds of aircraft and vessels from the storm's projected path. Soldiers and guardsmen were deployed throughout those regions. Hurricane Bonnie made landfall as a borderline Category 2–Category 3 storm, with intense wind gusts of up to 104 mph and rainfall peaking at about 11 in. Reports of downed trees and powerlines, as well as structural damage such as blown-out windows and torn-off roofs, were reported. In coastal North Carolina, the storm washed ashore tens of thousands of tires, part of an artificial reef. Crop damage was extensive, but the storm was overall less severe than feared. Total damage was estimated at $1 billion. On August 14, 1998, a tropical wave emerged off the west coast of Africa just north of Dakar and moved westward across the Atlantic Ocean. Located within cool waters, a strong high pressure area steered the disturbance on a west-southwest track over warmer waters, convection started to develop.

Several small centers of rotation existed within a broad circulation, at 1200 UTC on August 19, the centers consolidated and the disturbance became sufficiently organized to be declared a tropical depression. Despite being poorly organized, winds to the north of the system's center approached tropical storm strength shortly thereafter. Ship reports revealed a closed circulation, though the center was elongated in a northwest–southeast oriented manner. Upper-level winds were favorable; the cyclone began moving on a northwestward track, just hours the center of circulation appeared to reform close to the convection, an indication of a strengthening storm, as good outflow existed over the western side of the storm. Deep convection developed closer to the center, at 1200 UTC on August 20, the depression was upgraded into Tropical Storm Bonnie as it continued its west-northwest track around the periphery of a high pressure system over the Leeward Islands. Late on August 20, the first reconnaissance plane entered the storm and found a minimum central barometric pressure of 1001 mb.

The storm brushed the Leeward Islands, although the main thunderstorm activity remained to the north of the storm over the open ocean. Bonnie began to organize its broad circulation early on August 21, within the next day the storm began to intensify; the storm began to look strong on satellite images with banding features over the north and west quadrants. The Hurricane Hunters aircraft found a minimum pressure of 987 mb and a nearly complete eyewall early on August 22, as a result, the tropical storm was upgraded to hurricane status. Bonnie slowed in forward speed; that day, storm was upgraded to a Category 2 on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale, which occurred with a substantial 15 mb drop in 8 hours. At the same time, steering currents weakened with the dissipation of the high pressure system. Bonnie became a Category 3 storm, a major hurricane, at 1200 UTC the next day, reaching its peak winds of 115 mph at the same time. A mid- to upper-level trough slowed the storm to a halt early on August 23, before a drift to the north-northwest began.

The next National Hurricane Center advisory reported that the eye was becoming more distinct and well-defined. This strengthening trend abated because the storm had churned up the waters over which it was passing, bringing cooler water to the surface as a result of the slow track. Another inhibiting factor may have been related to the same trough that caused the northward turn, though due to a large anticyclone situated over the hurricane, the weakening effects were not substantial. Despite wind shear, the large and powerful circulation resisted weakening for a time. Early on August 25, the shear and the entrainment of drier air into the hurricane took its toll on Bonnie, giving it a ragged appearance on satellite imagery, the eye became cloud-filled; the storm accelerated somewhat by August 26, early that day, it was moving at about 14 mph. An approaching mid-level trough steered Bonnie north-northeast, at 2100 UTC on August 26, the eye passed east of Cape Fear, North Carolina; the hurricane once again slowed, early the next day, it made landfall near Wilmington, North Carolina as a strong Category 2 hurricane.

Doppler weather rad

1846 in science

The year 1846 in science and technology involved some significant events, listed below. February 20 – Francesco de Vico discovers comet 122P/de Vico. June 1 – Urbain Le Verrier predicts the existence and location of Neptune from irregularities in the orbit of Uranus. August 8 – Neptune observed but not recognised by James Challis. August 31 – Urbain Le Verrier publishes full details of the predicted orbit and the mass of the new planet. September 23 – Johann Galle discovers Neptune. October 10 – William Lassell discovers Triton, Neptune's largest moon. Royal Botanic Gardens, established in Australia. Abraham Pineo Gesner develops a process to refine a liquid fuel, which he calls kerosene, from coal, bitumen or oil shale. Augustin-Louis Cauchy publishes Green's theorem. October – Dentist William T. G. Morton becomes the first person publicly to demonstrate the use of diethyl ether as a general anesthetic in what becomes known as the Ether Dome of Massachusetts General Hospital. December 21 – British surgeon Robert Liston carries out the first operation under anesthesia in Europe.

Édouard Séguin publishes Traitement moral, hygiène et éducation des idiots et des autres enfants arriérés in Paris, the earliest systematic textbook dealing with the special needs of children with developmental disabilities. Dr J. Collis Browne formulates his laudanum-based pain-relieving Chlorodyne compound while serving in the British Indian Army. January 13 – Opening of the Milan–Venice railway's 3.2 km bridge over the Venetian Lagoon between Mestre and Venice in Italy, the world's longest since 1151. June 28 – Adolphe Sax patents the saxophone. September 10 – Elias Howe is awarded the first United States patent for a sewing machine using a lockstitch design. Scottish-born engineer Robert William Thomson is granted his first patent for a pneumatic tyre, in France. William Armstrong's first hydraulic crane is erected at Newcastle upon Tyne in England. Squire Whipple introduces the trapezoidal Whipple truss for bridges in the United States. Copley Medal: Urbain Le Verrier Wollaston Medal: William Lonsdale March 1 – Vasily Dokuchaev, Russian geologist.

September 16 – Anna Kingsford, English physician, anti-vivisectionist and vegetarian. October 3 – Samuel Jean de Pozzi, French gynaecologist. December 12 – Eugen Baumann, German chemist. December 21 – Julia Lermontova, Russian chemist. January 30 – Joseph Carpue English surgeon. March 17 – Friedrich Bessel, German mathematician. August 6 – John Bostock, English physician and geologist. October 2 – Benjamin Waterhouse, American physician. Maria Medina Coeli, Italian physician

Tremont Baptist Church

Tremont Baptist Church is a historic Baptist church located at The Bronx, New York, New York. The church was built in two phases between 1904 and 1912, it is a one-story building above a raised basement in the Late Gothic Revival style. It is 50 feet tall with a 75 foot tall offset corner tower, it is faced in gray marble, features buttressed bays, pointed arch door and window openings, a high-pitched gable roof, stained glass windows. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 2009. List of New York City Designated Landmarks in The Bronx National Register of Historic Places in Bronx County, New York Tremont Baptist Church website New York City American Guild of Organists: Tremont Baptist Church

Claes Borgström

Claes Gustaf Borgström is a Swedish lawyer and Left Party politician. Up until 2013, he was a member of the Social Democratic Party. Borgström earned a law degree from Stockholm University in 1974. Thereafter, he started to work as a lawyer, he has worked on several high-profile criminal cases. Between 2000 and 2007, Borgström served the Swedish government as Equality Ombudsman. Borgström expressed his dislike of this job to his client Sture Bergwall, he described the job as boring, he would not stay for the full tenancy. After the defeat of the Social Democrats in 2006, he resigned to start a law firm, with former Social Democratic Minister of Justice Thomas Bodström as partner. Borgström himself had plans of becoming the Minister of Justice if the Social Democrats had won the election in 2010, according to his client Sture Bergwall. Claes said the following of the current Minister of Justice and his current partner: "I have no high thoughts of Thomas Bodström, it is unimaginable how the current Minister of Justice was chosen for his post.

He is a shallow person."Since 2008, he's been the Swedish Social Democratic Party's spokesperson on gender equality. Borgström thinks that all men carry a collective responsibility for violence against women, has in this context supported Gudrun Schyman's "Tax on Men", he attracted attention in March 2006 when he demanded that Sweden boycott the 2006 World Cup in Germany "in protest against the increase in the trafficking in women that the event is expected to result in". In 2010, Borgström appealed the decision to close the sexual assault case against WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange, became the legal representative of the two Swedish women against whom the Swedish police have accused Assange of sexual misconduct. However, it seems the relationship soured, he was replaced with Elisabeth Massi Fritz. In 2013, citing his dissatisfaction with what he refers to as the right-leaning changes in the Social Democratic Party, Borgström changed his party membership to the Swedish Left Party. Borgström married his former colleague Märit Borgström in 2007.

He has three children from an earlier marriage. He is the brother of journalists Annette Kerstin Vinterhed. Borgström accused of making inappropriately demeaning public statements about Julian Assange. Accessed 19 August 2012