Lieutenant-General Peregrine Lascelles spelt Lascells, was a British military officer who served in the wars of the 18th century. Court-martialled after the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745, he was exonerated and promoted Lieutenant-General; the Lascelles family was spread across different towns in Yorkshire, including Northallerton, Whitby, Harewood House and Terrington but were rooted in a wider network of Nonconformist mercantile interests, with branches in London, New England and Barbados. His grandfather Peregrine, was one of three brothers, the others being Francis and Thomas, he married his will records him as resident in Lythe, outside Whitby. His father married Mary Wigginer, he does not appear to have married. In April 1706, he was commissioned into Lovelace's Regiment, a new unit raised as part of the expansion of the British army for the War of the Spanish Succession, he transferred to Lepell's Regiment of Foot in 1708, when Lovelace was appointed Governor-general of New Jersey. Posted to Spain, he fought at Almanara and Villaviciosa.
At the latter, his unit suffered heavy losses. The regiment was taken over by William Stanhope in March 1711 and disbanded in November 1712 as the army was cut back in the run-up to the 1713 Peace of Utrecht. Placed on half-pay, he was appointed Captain in Grants Regiment, a unit reformed in response to the 1715 Jacobite rising. In recognition of his service, Lascelles was made an honorary burgess of Glasgow, along with many others, including his relative Thomas. Grants was disbanded in 1718 and his movements following this remain unclear. In June 1731, he was made Captain-lieutenant in the First Foot Grenadier Guards captain in 1733, giving him an effective rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Army. In 1743, Lascelles took over as Colonel of Mordaunt's 47th Foot; the road was completed in May 1745, two months before Charles Stuart landed in Scotland and launched the 1745 Rising. After detaching two companies to garrison Edinburgh Castle and the rest of his regiment joined the field army commanded by Sir John Cope.
At the Battle of Prestonpans on 21 September, the Jacobites scattered the government army in less than 15 minutes. He was tried by a court-martial in 1746, along with Cope and his deputy Thomas Fowke, a former colleague from Lepells Regiment; the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle awarded Britain sovereignty over the whole of Nova Scotia, including parts claimed by France. Lascelles' regiment was posted there in 1750, changing its name in 1751 to the 47th Regiment of Foot as part of the reforms enacted by the Duke of Cumberland. Conflict between British and French settlers resulted in a series of clashes known as Father Le Loutre's War, the most significant being the June 1755 Battle of Fort Beauséjour. Lascelles remained in North America for at least part of the Seven Years' War, the 47th forming part of the force under James Wolfe that captured Louisbourg in 1758, he was promoted Lieutenant-General shortly afterwards and the 47th fought at the capture of Quebec in 1759, where Wolfe was killed, Sainte-Foy in 1760, before returning to Britain when the war ended in 1763.
It is not clear when he ceased active service, since it was common to retain the position of Colonel but delegate operational command. He died on 26 March 1772 and his will left £20 to fund the parish house in St Martins Lane, York; this was composed by John Dealtry, a long-time friend who worked as a doctor in York and named his eldest son Peregrine. A portrait in armour attributed to Sir Godfrey Kneller is in the Whitby Museum. Blaikie, Walter Biggar. Publications of the Scottish History Society. Scottish History Society. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Charlton, Lionel; the history of Whitby, of Whitby abbey, Volume III. A Ward, York. Hill, David. "Turner and Scotland #2: Loch Lomond from Colonel Lascelles' monument, 1801". Leslie, JH. Notes and Queries, 12th Series, Volume II. Frank Chance. Lord Elcho, Charteris, Edward Evan. A short account of the affairs of Scotland: in the years 1744, 1745, 1746. David Douglas, Edinburgh. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list Reid, Stuart. Sheriffmuir 1715. Frontline Books.
ISBN 978-1848327320. Royle, Trevor. Culloden. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-1408704011. Tumath, Andrew. "The British Army in Catalonia after the Battle of Brihuega 1710-1712". Journal of the
Battles of Saratoga
The Battles of Saratoga marked the climax of the Saratoga campaign, giving a decisive victory to the Americans over the British in the American Revolutionary War. British General John Burgoyne led a large invasion army southward from Canada in the Champlain Valley, hoping to meet a similar British force marching northward from New York City and another British force marching eastward from Lake Ontario, he fought two small battles to break out which took place 18 days apart on the same ground, 9 miles south of Saratoga, New York. They both failed. Burgoyne found himself trapped by superior American forces with no relief, so he retreated to Saratoga and surrendered his entire army there on October 17, his surrender, says historian Edmund Morgan, "was a great turning point of the war because it won for Americans the foreign assistance, the last element needed for victory."Burgoyne's strategy to divide New England from the southern colonies had started well but slowed due to logistical problems.
He won a small tactical victory over General Horatio Gates and the Continental Army in the September 19 Battle of Freeman's Farm at the cost of significant casualties. His gains were erased when he again attacked the Americans in the October 7 Battle of Bemis Heights and the Americans captured a portion of the British defenses. Burgoyne was therefore compelled to retreat, his army was surrounded by the much larger American force at Saratoga, forcing him to surrender on October 17. News of Burgoyne's surrender was instrumental in formally bringing France into the war as an American ally, although it had given supplies and guns, notably the de Valliere cannon which played an important role in Saratoga; this battle resulted in Spain joining France in the war against Britain. The battle on September 19 began when Burgoyne moved some of his troops in an attempt to flank the entrenched American position on Bemis Heights. Benedict Arnold placed significant forces in his way. Burgoyne did gain control of Freeman's Farm.
Skirmishing continued in the days following the battle, while Burgoyne waited in the hope that reinforcements would arrive from New York City. Patriot militia forces continued to arrive, swelling the size of the American army. Disputes within the American camp led Gates to strip Arnold of his command. British General Sir Henry Clinton moved up from New York City and attempted to divert American attention by capturing Forts Clinton and Montgomery in the Hudson River highlands on October 6, but his efforts were too late to help Burgoyne. Burgoyne attacked Bemis Heights again on October 7 after it became apparent that he would not receive relieving aid in time; this battle culminated in heavy fighting marked by Arnold's spirited rallying of the American troops. Burgoyne's forces were thrown back to the positions that they held before the September 19 battle, the Americans captured a portion of the entrenched British defenses; the American Revolutionary War was approaching the two-year point, the British changed their plans.
They decided to split the Thirteen Colonies and isolate New England from what they believed to be the more Loyalist middle and southern colonies. The British command devised a plan to divide the colonies with a three-way pincer movement in 1777; the western pincer under the command of Barry St. Leger was to progress from Ontario through western New York, following the Mohawk River, the southern pincer was to progress up the Hudson River valley from New York City; the northern pincer was to proceed southward from Montreal, the three forces were to meet in the vicinity of Albany, New York, severing New England from the other colonies. British General John Burgoyne moved south from the province of Quebec in June 1777 to gain control of the upper Hudson River valley, his campaign had become bogged down in difficulties following a victory at Fort Ticonderoga. Elements of the army had reached the upper Hudson as early as the end of July, but logistical and supply difficulties delayed the main army at Fort Edward.
One attempt to alleviate these difficulties failed when nearly 1,000 men were killed or captured at the August 16 Battle of Bennington. Furthermore, news reached Burgoyne on August 28 that St. Leger's expedition down the Mohawk River valley had turned back after the failed Siege of Fort Stanwix. General William Howe had taken his army from New York City by sea on a campaign to capture Philadelphia instead of moving north to meet Burgoyne. Most of Burgoyne's Indian support had fled following the loss at Bennington, his situation was becoming difficult, he needed to reach defensible winter quarters, requiring either retreat back to Ticonderoga or advance to Albany, he decided to advance. He deliberately cut communications to the north so that he would not need to maintain a chain of fortified outposts between his position and Ticonderoga, he decided to cross the Hudson River while he was in a strong position, he ordered Baron Riedesel, who commanded the rear of the army, to abandon outposts from Skenesboro south, had the army cross the Hudson just north of Saratoga between September 13 and 15.
The Continental Army had been in a slow retreat since Burgoyne's capture of Ticonderoga early in July, under the command of Major General Philip Schuyler, was encamped south of Stillwater, New York. On August 19, Major General Horatio Gates assumed command from Schuyler, whose political fortunes had fallen over the loss of Ticonderoga and the ensuing retreat. Gates and Schuyler were from different backgrou
Battle of Prestonpans
The Battle of Prestonpans known as the Battle of Gladsmuir, was fought on 21 September 1745, near the town of Prestonpans, in East Lothian. Jacobite forces led by the Stuart exile Charles Edward Stuart defeated a government army under Sir John Cope, whose inexperienced troops broke in the face of a highland charge; the battle lasted less than thirty minutes and was a huge boost to Jacobite morale, while a mythologised version of the story entered art and legend. In the late 1730s, French statesmen grew concerned by the expansion of British commercial power but while most agreed the threat had to be dealt with few considered the Stuarts a useful tool in that process; those who did included Louis XV, who backed an invasion of England to restore the Stuarts in February 1744 but storms sank much of the screening force and the transports never left harbour. In March, he abandoned these declared war on Britain. Charles Stuart had travelled to France to join the proposed invasion and despite its failure, he continued to agitate for another attempt.
With the bulk of British forces in Flanders and encouraged by the French victory at Fontenoy in April 1745, he sailed for Scotland in July 1745, gambling once there the French would have to support him. He landed at Eriskay on 23 July, accompanied only by the companions known as the Seven Men of Moidart; the most important was Donald Cameron of Lochiel, whose tenants provided a large proportion of the Jacobite force and the rebellion was launched at Glenfinnan on 19 August. Sir John Cope, government commander in Scotland, was a competent soldier with between 3,000 – 4,000 troops available, although many were inexperienced recruits, he was hampered by poor intelligence and advice from the Marquess of Tweeddale Secretary of State for Scotland, who underestimated the severity of the revolt. Once Charles' location was confirmed, Cope left his cavalry and artillery at Stirling under Thomas Fowke and marched on Corrieyairack Pass with his infantry; the Pass was the primary access point between the Western Highlands and the Lowlands and its control would allow Cope to block the route into Eastern Scotland.
Jacobite objectives remained unclear until early September, when Cope learned they were using the military road network to advance on Edinburgh. Concluding the only way to reach the city first was by sea, his troops were loaded onto ships at Aberdeen, they began disembarking at Dunbar on 17 September but once again he was too late. Cope was joined at Dunbar by the cavalry, although they arrived in poor condition, he was determined to bring on a battle, feeling he had sufficient resources to deal with a Jacobite army numbering around 2,000 and though chiefly composed of fit and hardy men, badly armed. Hearing of Cope's landing, Charles ordered his forces to move north and intercept, the two armies making contact on the afternoon of 20 September, his forces were drawn up facing south, with a marshy area in front, park walls protecting their right and cannon behind the embankment of the Tranent waggonway, which crossed the battlefield. The court-martial set up in 1746 to review Cope's conduct agreed the ground was well chosen and the disposition of his troops appropriate.
However, the effectiveness of his army was undermined by various factors, one being the poor quality of some of his senior officers. This was caused by the episode on 16 September when his regiment of dragoons fled in panic from a small party of Highlanders in the so-called'Coltbridge Canter.'This was compounded by the inexperience of Cope's infantry. In addition, his gunners were so poorly trained, he sent a messenger to Edinburgh Castle asking for replacements which were sent but never reached him; the review of Cope's positions led to a fierce debate between Prince Charles, who wanted to attack and Lord Murray. Murray convinced the majority only an attack against the open left flank of Cope's army stood any chance of success and Robert Anderson, a local farmer's son who knew the area well, told him of a route through the marshlands. At 4 am, the entire Jacobite force began moving three abreast along the Riggonhead defile, east of Cope's position. To prevent a surprise attack during the night, Cope kept fires burning in front of his position and posted no fewer than 200 dragoons and 300 infantry as pickets.
Three companies of Loudon's Highlanders were detailed to guard the baggage park in Cockenzie, while some 100 volunteers were dismissed until the next morning and missed the battle. Warned by his pickets of the Jacobite movement, Cope had enough time to wheel his army to face east and reposition his cannon; as the Highlanders began their charge, his artillerymen fled. The two dragoon regiments on the flanks panicked and rode off, leaving Gardiner mortally wounded on the battlefield and exposin
Father Le Loutre's War
Father Le Loutre's War known as the Indian War, the Micmac War and the Anglo-Micmac War, took place between King George's War and the French and Indian War in Acadia and Nova Scotia. On one side of the conflict, the British and New England colonists were led by British Officer Charles Lawrence and New England Ranger John Gorham. On the other side, Father Jean-Louis Le Loutre led the Mi'kmaq and the Acadia militia in guerrilla warfare against settlers and British forces. While the British captured Port Royal in 1710, the Mi'kmaq and Acadians continued to contain the British in settlements at Port Royal and Canso; the rest of the colony was in the control of the Catholic Mi ` Acadians. About forty years the British made a concerted effort to settle Protestants in the region and to establish military control over all of Nova Scotia and present-day New Brunswick, igniting armed response from Acadians in Father Le Loutre's War; the British settled 3,229 people in Halifax during the first years. This exceeded the number of Mi'kmaq in the entire region and was seen as a threat to the traditional occupiers of the land.
The Mi'kmaq and some Acadians resisted the arrival of these Protestant settlers. The war caused unprecedented upheaval in the area. Atlantic Canada witnessed more population movements, more fortification construction, more troop allocations than before. Twenty-four conflicts were recorded during the war, 13 of which were Mi'kmaq and Acadian raids on the capital region Halifax/Dartmouth; as typical of frontier warfare, many additional conflicts were unrecorded. During Father Le Loutre's War, the British attempted to establish firm control of the major Acadian settlements in peninsular Nova Scotia and to extend their control to the disputed territory of present-day New Brunswick; the British wanted to establish Protestant communities in Nova Scotia. During the war, the Acadians and Mi'kmaq left Nova Scotia for the French colonies of Ile St. Jean and Ile Royale; the French tried to maintain control of the disputed territory of present-day New Brunswick. Throughout the war, the Mi’kmaq and Acadians attacked the British forts in Nova Scotia and the newly established Protestant settlements.
They wanted to retard British settlement and buy time for France to implement its Acadian resettlement scheme. The war began with the British unilaterally establishing Halifax, which the Mi'kmaq believed was a violation of an earlier treaty, signed after Father Rale's War. In response, the Acadians and Mi'kmaq orchestrated attacks at Chignecto, Grand Pré, Canso and Country Harbour; the French erected forts at Fort Beauséjour and Fort Gaspareaux. The British responded by attacking the Mi ` Acadians at Mirligueche, Chignecto and St. Croix; the British unilaterally established communities in Lawrencetown. The British erected forts in Acadian communities located at Windsor, Grand Pre and Chignecto; the war ended after six years with the defeat of the Mi'kmaq and French in the Battle of Fort Beausejour. Acadian resistance to British-rule in Acadia began after Queen Anne's War, with the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1713; the treaty saw the French cede portions of New France to the British, including the Hudson Bay region and peninsular Acadia.
Acadians had supported the French in three conflicts known as the French and Indian Wars. Acadians joined French privateer Pierre Maisonnat dit Baptiste as crew members in his victories over many British vessels during King William's War. After the Siege of Pemaquid, d'Iberville led a force of 124 Canadians, Acadians, Mi'kmaq and Abenaki in the Avalon Peninsula Campaign, they destroyed every British settlement in Newfoundland, killed more than 100 British and captured many more. They deported 500 British colonists to England or France. During Queen Anne's War, Mi’kmaq and Acadians resisted during the Raid on Grand Pré, Piziquid and Chignecto in 1704; the Acadians assisted the French in protecting the capital in the First siege of Port Royal and the final second siege of Port Royal. However, with the signing of the Treaty of Portsmouth in 1713, peninsular Acadia was formally ceded to the British. Although peace was formally reestablished with the French, the British still faced resistance from the French colonists in the Acadian peninsula.
During Father Rale's War, the Maliseet raided numerous British vessels on the Bay of Fundy while the Mi'kmaq raided Canso, Nova Scotia in 1723. In the latter engagement, the Mi'kmaq were supported by the Acadians. During these conflicts, the French and Acadian settlers were aligned with the Mi’kmaq, fighting alongside them during the Battle of Bloody Creek The Mi'kmaq, which formed a part of the Wabanaki Confederacy, had a long history of protecting their land by killing British soldiers and civilians along the New England/Acadia border in Maine. During the 17th and early-18th century, the Wabanaki fought in several campaigns, including in 1688, 1703, 1723, 1724, 1745, 1746, in 1747. Hostilities between the British and French resumed during King George's War. Supported by the French, Jean-Louis Le Loutre led a forces of French soldiers, Acadians, Mi’kmaq militiamen in efforts to recapture the capital, such as the Siege of Annapolis Royal. During this siege, the French officer Marin had taken Brit
Nova Scotia is one of Canada's three Maritime Provinces, one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada. Its provincial capital is Halifax. Nova Scotia is the second-smallest of Canada's ten provinces, with an area of 55,284 square kilometres, including Cape Breton and another 3,800 coastal islands; as of 2016, the population was 923,598. Nova Scotia is Canada's second-most-densely populated province, after Prince Edward Island, with 17.4 inhabitants per square kilometre. "Nova Scotia" means "New Scotland" in Latin and is the recognized English-language name for the province. In both French and Scottish Gaelic, the province is directly translated as "New Scotland". In general and Slavic languages use a direct translation of "New Scotland", while most other languages use direct transliterations of the Latin / English name; the province was first named in the 1621 Royal Charter granting to Sir William Alexander in 1632 the right to settle lands including modern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton Island, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and the Gaspé Peninsula.
Nova Scotia is Canada's smallest province in area after Prince Edward Island. The province's mainland is the Nova Scotia peninsula surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, including numerous bays and estuaries. Nowhere in Nova Scotia is more than 67 km from the ocean. Cape Breton Island, a large island to the northeast of the Nova Scotia mainland, is part of the province, as is Sable Island, a small island notorious for its shipwrecks 175 km from the province's southern coast. Nova Scotia has many ancient fossil-bearing rock formations; these formations are rich on the Bay of Fundy's shores. Blue Beach near Hantsport, Joggins Fossil Cliffs, on the Bay of Fundy's shores, has yielded an abundance of Carboniferous-age fossils. Wasson's Bluff, near the town of Parrsboro, has yielded both Triassic- and Jurassic-age fossils; the province contains 5,400 lakes. Nova Scotia lies in the mid-temperate zone and, although the province is surrounded by water, the climate is closer to continental climate rather than maritime.
The winter and summer temperature extremes of the continental climate are moderated by the ocean. However, winters are cold enough to be classified as continental—still being nearer the freezing point than inland areas to the west; the Nova Scotian climate is in many ways similar to the central Baltic Sea coast in Northern Europe, only wetter and snowier. This is true in spite of Nova Scotia's being some fifteen parallels south. Areas not on the Atlantic coast experience warmer summers more typical of inland areas, winter lows a little colder. Described on the provincial vehicle licence plate as Canada's Ocean Playground, Nova Scotia is surrounded by four major bodies of water: the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to the north, the Bay of Fundy to the west, the Gulf of Maine to the southwest, Atlantic Ocean to the east; the province includes regions of the Mi'kmaq nation of Mi'kma'ki. The Mi'kmaq people inhabited Nova Scotia at the time the first European colonists arrived. In 1605, French colonists established the first permanent European settlement in the future Canada at Port Royal, founding what would become known as Acadia.
The British conquest of Acadia took place in 1710. The Treaty of Utrecht in 1713 formally recognized this and returned Cape Breton Island to the French. Present-day New Brunswick still formed a part of the French colony of Acadia. After the capture of Port Royal in 1710, Francis Nicholson announced it would be renamed Annapolis Royal in honor of Queen Anne. In 1749, the capital of Nova Scotia moved from Annapolis Royal to the newly established Halifax. In 1755 the vast majority of the French population was forcibly removed in the Expulsion of the Acadians. In 1763, most of Acadia became part of Nova Scotia. In 1769, St. John's Island became a separate colony. Nova Scotia included present-day New Brunswick until that province's establishment in 1784, after the arrival of United Empire Loyalists. In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation; the warfare on Nova Scotian soil during the 17th and 18th centuries influenced the history of Nova Scotia. The Mi'kmaq had lived in Nova Scotia for centuries.
The French arrived in 1604, Catholic Mi'kmaq and Acadians formed the majority of the population of the colony for the next 150 years. During the first 80 years the French and Acadians lived in Nova Scotia, nine significant military clashes took place as the English and Scottish and French fought for possession of the area; these encounters happened at Port Royal, Saint John, Cap de Sable and Baleine. The Acadian Civil War took place from 1640 to 1645. Beginning with King William's War in 1688, six wars took place in Nova Scotia before the British defeated the French and made peace with the Mi'kmaq: King William's War, Queen Anne's War, Father Rale's War, King George's War, Father Le Loutre’s War The Seven Years' War called the French and Indian War The battles during these wars took place Port Royal, Saint John, Chignecto, Dartmouth and Grand-Pré. Despite the British conquest of Acadia in 1710, Nova Scotia remained occupied
The Crimean War was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which the Russian Empire lost to an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France and Sardinia. The immediate cause involved the rights of Christian minorities in the Holy Land, a part of the Ottoman Empire; the French promoted the rights of Roman Catholics, while Russia promoted those of the Eastern Orthodox Church. The longer-term causes involved the decline of the Ottoman Empire and the unwillingness of Britain and France to allow Russia to gain territory and power at Ottoman expense, it has been noted that the causes, in one case involving an argument over a key, have never revealed a "greater confusion of purpose", yet they led to a war noted for its "notoriously incompetent international butchery". While the churches worked out their differences and came to an agreement, Nicholas I of Russia and the French Emperor Napoleon III refused to back down. Nicholas issued an ultimatum that the Orthodox subjects of the Ottoman Empire be placed under his protection.
Britain arranged a compromise that Nicholas agreed to. When the Ottomans demanded changes, Nicholas prepared for war. Having obtained promises of support from France and Britain, the Ottomans declared war on Russia in October 1853; the war started in the Balkans in July 1853, when Russian troops occupied the Danubian Principalities, which were under Ottoman suzerainty began to cross the Danube. Led by Omar Pasha, the Ottomans fought a strong defensive campaign and stopped the advance at Silistra. A separate action on the fort town of Kars in eastern Anatolia led to a siege, a Turkish attempt to reinforce the garrison was destroyed by a Russian fleet at Sinop. Fearing an Ottoman collapse and Britain rushed forces to Gallipoli, they moved north to Varna in June 1854, arriving just in time for the Russians to abandon Silistra. Aside from a minor skirmish at Köstence, there was little for the allies to do. Karl Marx quipped, "there they are, the French doing nothing and the British helping them as fast as possible".
Frustrated by the wasted effort, with demands for action from their citizens, the allied force decided to attack Russia's main naval base in the Black Sea at Sevastopol on the Crimean peninsula. After extended preparations, the forces landed on the peninsula in September 1854 and marched their way to a point south of Sevastopol after the successful Battle of the Alma; the Russians counterattacked on 25 October in what became the Battle of Balaclava and were repulsed, but at the cost of depleting the British Army forces. A second counterattack, at Inkerman, ended in stalemate; the front led to brutal conditions for troops on both sides. Smaller military actions took place in the Baltic, the Caucasus, the White Sea, the North Pacific. Sevastopol fell after eleven months, neutral countries began to join the Allied cause. Isolated and facing a bleak prospect of invasion from the west if the war continued, Russia sued for peace in March 1856. France and Britain welcomed this development; the Treaty of Paris, signed on 30 March 1856, ended the war.
It forbade Russia from basing warships in the Black Sea. The Ottoman vassal states of Wallachia and Moldavia became independent. Christians there were granted a degree of official equality, the Orthodox Church regained control of the Christian churches in dispute; the Crimean War was one of the first conflicts in which the military used modern technologies such as explosive naval shells and telegraphs. The war was one of the first to be documented extensively in written photographs; as the legend of the "Charge of the Light Brigade" demonstrates, the war became an iconic symbol of logistical and tactical failures and mismanagement. The reaction in the UK was a demand for professionalisation, most famously achieved by Florence Nightingale, who gained worldwide attention for pioneering modern nursing while treating the wounded; the Crimean War proved to be the moment of truth for Nikolaevan Russia. The humiliation forced Russia's educated elites to identify the Empire's problems and to recognize the need for fundamental transformations aimed at modernizing and restoring Russia's position in the ranks of European powers.
Historians have studied the role of the Crimean War as a catalyst for the reforms of Russia's social institutions: serfdom, local self-government and military service. More scholars have turned their attention to the impact of the Crimean War on the development of Russian nationalistic discourse; as the Ottoman Empire weakened during the 19th century, Russia stood poised to take advantage by expanding south. In the 1850s, the British and the French, who were allied with the Ottoman Empire, were determined not to allow this to happen. A. J. P. Taylor argues that the war resulted not from aggression but from the interacting fears of the major players: In some sense the Crimean war was predestined and had deep-seated causes. Neither Nicholas I nor Napoleon III nor the British government could retreat in the conflict for prestige once it was launched. Nicholas needed a subservient Turkey for the sake of Russian security. Mutual fear, not mutual aggression, caused the Crimean war. In the early 1800s, the Ottoman Empire
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –