The Monkey is the ninth of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar. The Year of the Monkey is associated with the Earthly Branch symbol 申. People born within these date ranges can be said to have been born in the "Year of the Monkey", while bearing the following elemental sign: Peter So. Kaori Working House, ed. Your Fate in 2016 - The Year of the Monkey. Translated by Jay Lowe. Forms Publications. ISBN 978-988-8325-85-6. Neil Somerville. Your Chinese Horoscope 2016: What the Year of the Monkey holds in store for you. 2015-02-22. Thorsons/HarperCollins. ISBN 9780007588268. Suzanne White. 2016 New Astrology Horoscopes - Chinese and Western: Fire Monkey Year - Monthly Horoscopes for All Signs. CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform. P. 360. ISBN 9781517127749
The Ethiopian calendar or Eritrean calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, Ethiopian-Eritrean Evangelicalism. It is a solar calendar which in turn derives from the Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A gap of 7–8 years between the Ethiopian and Gregorian calendars results from an alternative calculation in determining the date of the Annunciation. Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopic calendar has 12 months of 30 days plus 5 or 6 epagomenal days, which comprise a thirteenth month; the Ethiopian months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but their names are in Ge'ez. A 6th epagomenal day is added every 4 years, without exception, on August 29 of the Julian calendar, 6 months before the corresponding Julian leap day.
Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1900 and 2099, is September 11. However, it falls on September 12 in years before the Gregorian leap year. Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian New Year in Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet in Ge'ez, the term preferred by the Ethiopian & Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Churchs, it occurs on September 11th in the Gregorian Calendar. The Ethiopian Calendar Year 1998 Amätä Məhrät began on the Gregorian Calendar Year on September 11th, 2005. However, the Ethiopian Years 1992 and 1996 began on the Gregorian Dates of'September 12th 1999' and'2003' respectively; this date correspondence applies for the Gregorian years 1900 to 2099. The Ethiopian leap year is every four without exception, while Gregorian centurial years are only leap years when divisible by 400; as the Gregorian year 2000 is a leap year, the current correspondence lasts two centuries instead. The start of the Ethiopian year falls on August 30th.
This date corresponds to the Old-Style Julian Calendar. This deviation between the Julian and the Gregorian Calendar will increase with the passing of the time. You can observe the real start date in the future centuries in a Gregorian to Ethiopian Date Converter. To indicate the year and followers of the Eritrean churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on March 25, AD 9, as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400. Meanwhile, Europeans adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 instead, which placed the Annunciation 8 years earlier than had Annianus; this causes the Ethiopian year number to be 8 years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11 7 years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year. In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were widely used in Ethiopia and the Kingdom of Aksum; the most important era – once used by the Eastern Christianity, still used by the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria – was the Era of Martyrs known as the Diocletian Era, or the era of Diocletian and the Martyrs, whose first year began on August 29, 284.
Respective to the Gregorian and Julian New Year's Days, 31⁄2 to 4 months the difference between the Era of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 years. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian Era to obtain an entire 532 year medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the year Era of Martyrs 247 equal to year DXXXI, it is because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the solar cycle of 28 years. Around AD 400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era, the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Ethiopian chronologists; the twelfth 532 year-cycle of this era began on 29 August AD 360, so 4×19 years after the Era of Martyrs. Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as 25 March, thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC. In the Ethiopian calendar this was equivalent to 15 Magabit 5501 B.
C.. The Anno Mundi era remained in usage until the late 19th century; the 4 year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named the John-year, followed by the Matthew-year, the Mark-year. The year with the 6th epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. There are no exceptions to the 4 year leap-year cycle, like the Julian calendar but unlike the Gregorian calendar; these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. This is because 1900 and 2100 are not leap years in the Gregorian calendar, while they are still leap year
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC and 404 BC. It was founded by Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after his conquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh. A second period of Achaemenid rule in Egypt occurred under the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt; the last pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II at the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in May of 525 BC. Cambyses was crowned Pharaoh of Egypt in the summer of that year at the latest, beginning the first period of Persian rule over Egypt. Egypt was joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia to form the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, with Aryandes as the local satrap; as Pharaoh of Egypt, Cambyses' reign saw the fiscal resources of traditional Egyptian temples diminished considerably. One decree, written on papyrus in demotic script ordered a limitation on resources to all Egyptian temples, excluding Memphis and Wenkhem.
Cambyses left Egypt sometime in early 522 BC, dying en route to Persia, was nominally succeeded by his younger brother Bardiya, although contemporary historians suggest Bardiya was Gaumata, an impostor, that the real Bardiya had been murdered some years before by Cambyses, ostensibly out of jealousy. Darius I, suspecting this impersonation, led a coup against "Bardiya" in September of that year, overthrowing him and being crowned as King and Pharaoh the next morning; as the new Persian King, Darius spent much of his time quelling rebellions throughout his empire. Sometime in late 522 BC or early 521 BC a local Egyptian prince led a rebellion and declared himself Pharaoh Petubastis III; the main cause of this rebellion is uncertain, but the Ancient Greek military historian Polyaenus states that it was oppressive taxation imposed by the satrap Aryandes. Polyaenus further writes that Darius himself marched to Egypt, arriving during a period of mourning for the death of the sacred Herald of Ptah bull.
Darius made a proclamation that he would award a sum of one hundred talents to the man who could produce the next Herald, impressing the Egyptians with his piety such that they flocked en masse to his side, ending the rebellion. Darius took a greater interest in Egyptian internal affairs than Cambyses, he codified the laws of Egypt, notably completed the excavation of a canal system at Suez, allowing passage from the Bitter Lakes to the Red Sea, much preferable to the arduous desert land route. This feat allowed Darius to import skilled Egyptian laborers and artisans to construct his palaces in Persia; the result of this was a minor brain drain in Egypt, due to the loss of these skilled individuals, creating a demonstrable lowering of quality in Egyptian architecture and art from this period. Darius was more devoted to supporting Egyptian temples than Cambyses, earning himself a reputation for religious tolerance in the region. In 497 BC, during a visit by Darius to Egypt, Aryandes was executed for treason, most for attempting to issue his own coinage, a visible attempt to distance Egypt from the rest of the Persian Empire.
Darius died in 486 BC, was succeeded by Xerxes I. Upon the accession of Xerxes, Egypt again rebelled, this time under Psamtik IV, although different sources dispute that detail. Xerxes quelled the rebellion, installing his brother Achaemenes as satrap. Xerxes ended the privileged status of Egypt held under Darius, increased supply requirements from the country to fund his invasion of Greece. Furthermore, Xerxes promoted the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda at the expense of traditional Egyptian deities, permanently stopped the funding of Egyptian monuments. Xerxes was murdered in 465 BC by Artabanus, beginning a dynastic struggle that ended with Artaxerxes I being crowned the next King and Pharaoh. In 460 BC another major Egyptian rebellion took place, led by a Libyan chief named Inaros II assisted by the Athenians of Greece. Inaros defeated an army led by Achaemenes, killing the satrap in the process, took Memphis exerting control over large parts of Egypt. Inaros and his Athenian allies were defeated by a Persian army led by general Megabyzus in 454 BC and sent into retreat.
Megabyzus promised Inaros no harm would come of him or his followers if he surrendered and submitted to Persian authority, terms Inaros agreed to. Artaxerxes had Inaros executed, although how and when is a matter of dispute. Artaxerxes died in 424 BC. Artaxerxes successor, Xerxes II only ruled for forty-five days, being murdered by his brother Sogdianus. Sogdianus was murdered by his brother Ochus, who became Darius II. Darius II ruled from 423 BC to 404 BC, nearing the end of his reign a rebellion led by Amyrtaeus took place beginning as early as 411 BC. In 405 BC Amyrtaeus, with the help of Cretan mercenaries expelled the Persians from Memphis, declaring himself Pharaoh the next year and ending the 27th Dynasty. Darius II's successor, Artaxerxes II made attempts to begin an expedition to retake Egypt, but due to political difficulty with his brother Cyrus the Younger, abandoned the effort. Artaxerxes II was still recognized as the rightful Pharaoh in some parts of Egypt as late as 401 BC, although his sluggish response to the situation allowed Egypt to solidify its independence.
During the period of independent rule three indigenous dynasties reigned: the 28th, 29th, 30th Dynasty. Artaxe
The Javanese calendar is the calendar of the Javanese people. It is used concurrently with the Gregorian calendar and the Islamic calendar; the Gregorian calendar is the official calendar of the Republic of Indonesia and civil society, while the Islamic calendar is used by Muslims and the Indonesian government for religious worship and deciding relevant Islamic holidays. The Javanese calendar is used by the main ethnicities of Java island—that is, the Javanese and Sundanese people—primarily as a cultural icon and identifier, as a maintained tradition of antiquity; the Javanese calendar is used for cultural and spiritual purposes. The current system of the Javanese calendar was inaugurated by Sultan Agung of Mataram in the Gregorian year 1633 CE. Prior to this, the Javanese had used the Hindu calendar, which begins in 78 CE and uses the solar cycle for calculating time. Sultan Agung's calendar retained the Saka calendar year system of counting, but differs by using the same lunar year measurement system as the Islamic calendar, rather than the solar year.
The Javanese calendar is referred to by its Latin name Anno Javanico or AJ. The Javanese calendar contains multiple, overlapping measurements of times, called "cycles"; these include: the native five-day week, called Pasaran the common Gregorian and Islamic seven-day week the Solar month, called Mangsa the Lunar month, called Wulan the lunar year, or Tahun the octo-ennia cycles, or Windu the 120-year cycle of 15 Windu, called Kurup Days in the Javanese calendar, like the Islamic calendar, begin at sunset. Traditionally, Javanese people do not divide the night into hours, but rather into phases; the division of a day and night are: The native Javanese system groups days into a five-day week called Pasaran, unlike most calendars that uses a seven-day week. The name, pasaran, is derived from the root word pasar, but still today, Javanese villagers gather communally at local markets to meet, engage in commerce, buy and sell farm produce, cooked foods, home industry crafted items and so on. John Crawfurd suggested that the length of the weekly cycle is related to the number of fingers on the hand, that itinerant merchants would rotate their visits to different villages according to a five-day "roster".
The days of the cycle each have two names, as the Javanese language has distinct vocabulary associated with two different registers of politeness: ngoko and krama. The krama names for the days, second in the list, are much less common. ꦊꦒꦶ – ꦩꦤꦶꦱ꧀ ꦥꦲꦶꦁ – ꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ ꦥꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦥꦼꦠꦏ꧀ ꦮꦒꦺ – ꦕꦼꦩꦺꦁ ꦏ꧀ꦭꦶꦮꦺꦴꦤ꧀ – ꦲꦱꦶꦃ The origin of the names is unclear, their etymology remains obscure. The names may be derived from indigenous gods, like the European and Asian names for days of the week. An ancient Javanese manuscript illustrates the week with five human figures: a man seizing a suppliant by the hair, a woman holding a horn to receive an offering, a man pointing a drawn sword at another, a woman holding agricultural produce, a man holding a spear leading a bull. Additionally, Javanese consider these days' names to have a mystical relation to colors and cardinal direction: Legi: white and East Pahing: red and South Pon: yellow and West Wage: black and North Kliwon: blurred colors/focus and'center'. Most Markets no longer operate under this traditional Pasaran cycle, instead pragmatically remaining open every day of the Gregorian week.
However many markets in Java still retain traditional names that indicated that once the markets only operated on certain Pasaran days, such as Pasar Legi, or Pasar Kliwon. Some markets in small or medium size locations will be much busier on the Pasaran day than on the other days. On the market's name day itinerate sellers appear selling such things as livestock and other products that are either less purchased or are more expensive; this allows a smaller number of these merchants to service a much larger area much as in bygone days. Javanese astrological belief dictates that an individual’s characteristics and destiny are attributable to the combination of the Pasaran day and the "common" weekday of the Islamic calendar on that person's birthday. Javanese people find great interest in the astrological interpretations of this combination, called the Wetonan cycle; the seven-day-long week cycle is derived from the Islamic calendar, adopted following the spread of Islam throughout the Indonesian archipelago.
The names of the days of the week in Javanese are derived from their Arabic counterparts, namely: These two-week systems occur concurrently. This combination forms the Wetonan cycle; the Wetonan cycle superimposes the five-day Pasaran cycle with the seven-day week cycle. Each Wetonan cycle lasts for 35 days. An example of Wetonan cycle: From the example above, the Weton for Tuesday May 6, 2008 would be read as Selasa Wage; the Wetonan cycle is important for divinatory systems, important celebrations, rites of passage. Commemorations and events are held on days considered to be auspicious. An prominent example, still taught in primary schools, is that the Weton for the Proclamation of Indonesian Independence on 17 August 1945 took place on Jumat Legi. Therefore, Jumat Legi is considered an important night for pilgrimage. There are taboos
Xerxes I, called Xerxes the Great, was the fifth king of kings of the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia. Like his predecessor Darius I, he ruled the empire at its territorial apex, he ruled from 486 BC until his assassination in 465 BC at the hands of Artabanus, the commander of the royal bodyguard. Xerxes I is one of the Persian kings identified as Ahasuerus in the biblical Book of Esther, he is notable in Western history for his failed invasion of Greece in 480 BC. His forces temporarily overran mainland Greece north of the Isthmus of Corinth until the losses at Salamis and Plataea a year reversed these gains and ended the second invasion decisively. Xerxes crushed revolts in Egypt and Babylon. Roman Ghirshman says that, "After this he ceased to use the title of'king of Babylon', calling himself simply'king of the Persians and the Medes'."Xerxes oversaw the completion of various construction projects at Susa and Persepolis. Xerxes was born to Darius Atossa. Darius and Atossa were both Achaemenids.
While Darius was preparing for another war against Greece, a revolt spurred in Egypt in 486 BC due to heavy taxes and the deportation of craftsmen to build the royal palaces at Susa and Perseopolis. Under Persian law, the king was required to choose a successor before setting out on dangerous expeditions; when Darius decided to leave, Darius prepared his tomb at Naqsh-e Rustam and appointed Xerxes, his eldest son by Atossa, as his successor. However, Darius could not lead the campaign due to his failing health and died in October 486 BC at the age of 64. Artobazan claimed the crown as the eldest of all the children. Xerxes was helped by a Spartan king in exile, present in Persia at the time, Eurypontid king Demaratus, who argued that the eldest son does not universally mean they have claim to the crown, as Spartan law states that the first son born while the father is king is the heir to the kingship; some modern scholars view the unusual decision of Darius to give the throne to Xerxes to be a result of his consideration of the unique positions that Cyrus the Great and his daughter Atossa enjoyed.
Artobazan was born to "Darius the subject", while Xerxes was the eldest son born in the purple after Darius's rise to the throne, Artobazan's mother was a commoner while Xerxes's mother was the daughter of the founder of the empire. Xerxes was crowned and succeeded his father in October–December 486 BC when he was about 36 years old; the transition of power to Xerxes was smooth due again in part to the great authority of Atossa and his accession of royal power was not challenged by any person at court or in the Achaemenian family, or any subject nation. Xerxes crushed revolts in Egypt and Babylon that had broken out the year before, appointed his brother Achaemenes as satrap over Egypt. In 484 BC, he outraged the Babylonians by violently confiscating and melting down the golden statue of Bel, the hands of which the rightful king of Babylon had to clasp each New Year's Day; this sacrilege led the Babylonians to rebel in 484 BC and 482 BC, so that in contemporary Babylonian documents, Xerxes refused his father's title of King of Babylon, being named rather as King of Persia and Media, Great King, King of Kings and King of Nations.
This comes from the Daiva Inscriptions of Xerxes, lines 6–13. Darius died while in the process of preparing a second army to invade the Greek mainland, leaving to his son the task of punishing the Athenians and Eretrians for their interference in the Ionian Revolt, the burning of Sardis, their victory over the Persians at Marathon. From 483 BC, Xerxes prepared his expedition: The Xerxes Canal was dug through the isthmus of the peninsula of Mount Athos, provisions were stored in the stations on the road through Thrace, two pontoon bridges known as Xerxes' Pontoon Bridges were built across the Hellespont. Soldiers of many nationalities served in the armies of Xerxes from all over his multi-ethnic massive Eurasian-sized empire and beyond, including the Assyrians, Babylonians, Jews, European Thracians, Achaean Greeks, Aegean islanders, Greeks from Pontus, Colchians and many more. According to the Greek historian Herodotus, Xerxes's first attempt to bridge the Hellespont ended in failure when a storm destroyed the flax and papyrus cables of the bridges.
In retaliation, Xerxes ordered the Hellespont whipped three hundred times, had fetters thrown into the water. Xerxes's second attempt to bridge the Hellespont was successful; the Carthaginian invasion of Sicily deprived Greece of the support of the powerful monarchs of Syracuse and Agrigentum. Many smaller Greek states, took the side of the Persians Thessaly and Argos. Xerxes was victorious during the initial battles. Xerxes set out in the spring of 480 BC from Sardis with a fleet and army which Herodotus estimated was one million strong along with 10,000 elite warriors named the Persian Immortals. More recent estimates place the Persian force at around 60,000 combatants. At the Battle of Thermopylae, a small force of Greek warriors led by King Leonidas of Sparta resisted the much larger Persian forces, but were defeated. According to Herodotus, the Persians brok
500s BC (decade)
509 BC—Overthrow of Roman monarchy, beginning of Republican period. First pair of consuls elected. Tarquinian conspiracy formed, but discovered and the conspirators executed. Forces of Veii and Tarquinii, led by the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus defeated in the Battle of Silva Arsia by the Roman army. Consul Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first republican triumph on 1 March. September 13, 509 BC—The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Rome's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September. 508 BC—War between Rome and Clusium 508 BC—War between Clusium and Aricia 508 BC—Office of Pontifex Maximus created in Rome. 508 BC—Cleisthenes reorganizes Athens. He creates a local unit to serve as the basis of his political system. Citizenship is linked to the deme, for each deme keeps the roll of those within its jurisdiction, who are admitted to citizenship, he groups all the demes into ten tribes, which thus form the link between the demes and the central government. The central government includes an assembly of all citizens and a new council of five hundred members.
This is a early form of democracy. 507 BC—Cleisthenes, Greek reformer, takes power and increases democracy. 506 BC—Battle of Boju: during the Spring and Autumn period of Ancient China, the forces of the State of Wu under commander and strategist Sun Tzu defeat the forces of Chu, destroying the Chu capital of Ying and forcing King Zhao of Chu to flee. 505 BC–504 BC—War between Rome and the Sabines. 503 BC-502 BC-The Latin towns of Pometia and Cora, with the assistance of the Aurunci, unsuccessfully revolt against Rome. December 4, 502 BC—Solar eclipse darkens Egypt 502 BC—Naxos rebels against Persian domination sparking the Ionian Revolt. 501 BC—Naxos is attacked by the Persian Empire. 501 BC—In response to threats by the Sabines, Rome creates the office of dictator. 501 BC—Confucius is appointed governor of Chung-tu. 501 BC—Gadir is captured by Carthage. 500 BC—Bantu-speaking people migrate into south-west Uganda from the west. 500 BC—Refugees from Teos resettle Abdera. 500 BC—Darius I of Persia proclaims that Aramaic be the official language of the western half of his empire.
500 BC—Signifies the end of the Nordic Bronze Age civilization in Oscar Montelius periodization system and begins the Pre-Roman Iron Age. 500 BC—Foundation of first republic in Vaishali Bihar India. C. 500 BC—She-Wolf, with late 15th century or early 16th century additions, is made. It is now kept at the Museo Capitolino in Rome. 500 BC—World population: 100,000,000 85,000,000 in Eastern hemisphere, 15,000,000 in Western Hemisphere Mesoamerica. C. 500 BC—Vulca makes Apollo of Veii, from Portonaccio Temple. It is now kept at Museo Nazionale di Villa Rome. C. 500 BC—Yayoi period starts in Ancient Japan. C. 500 BC—Oldest known Zapotec writing. 500 BC - The Olmecs establish Monte Albán, the sacred city, continue building pyramids. Founded toward the end of the Middle Formative period at around 500 BC, by the Terminal Formative Monte Albán had become the capital of a large-scale expansionist polity that dominated much of the Oaxacan highlands and interacted with other Mesoamerican regional states such as Teotihuacan to the north.
The Gutaii tribe began in Middle and Southern Africa. C. 500 BC—Heraclitus, Greek philosopher Mahavir, Last Tirthankar Siddharta Gautama, Founder of Buddhism c. 585–501 BC—Pythagoras, mathematician Lucretia, Roman noblewoman Lucius Junius Brutus, Roman consul Aruns Tarquinius, Roman prince Shen Yin Shu, general of Chu Titus Junius Brutus, Roman noble and monarchist conspirator Tiberius Junius Brutus, Roman noble and monarchist conspirator
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon