Darius the Great
Darius the Great or Darius I was the fourth Persian king of the Achaemenid Empire. He ruled the empire at its peak, when it included much of West Asia, the Caucasus, parts of the Balkans, most of the Black Sea coastal regions, parts of the North Caucasus, Central Asia, as far as the Indus Valley in the far east and portions of north and northeast Africa including Egypt, eastern Libya and coastal Sudan. Darius ascended the throne by a claimed usurper; the new king quelled them each time. A major event in Darius's life was his expedition to punish Athens and Eretria for their aid in the Ionian Revolt and subjugate Greece. Although ending in failure at the Battle of Marathon, Darius succeeded in the re-subjugation of Thrace, expansion of the empire through the conquest of Macedon, the Cyclades and the island of Naxos and the sacking of the city of Eretria. Darius organized the empire by placing satraps to govern it, he organized Achaemenid coinage as a new uniform monetary system, along with making Aramaic the official language of the empire.
He put the empire in better standing by building roads and introducing standard weights and measures. Through these changes, the empire was centralized and unified. Darius worked on construction projects throughout the empire, focusing on Susa, Persepolis and Egypt, he had the cliff-face Behistun Inscription carved to record his conquests, an important testimony of the Old Persian language. Darius is mentioned in the biblical books of Haggai and Ezra–Nehemiah. Dārīus and Dārēus are the Latin forms of the Greek Dareîos, itself from Old Persian Dārayauš, a shortened form of Dārayavaʰuš; the longer form is seen to have been reflected in the Elamite Da-ri-a-ma-u-iš, Babylonian Da-ri-ia-muš, Aramaic drywhwš, the longer Greek form Dareiaîos. The name is a nominative form meaning "he who holds firm the good", which can be seen by the first part dāraya, meaning "holder", the adverb vau, meaning "goodness". At some time between his coronation and his death, Darius left a tri-lingual monumental relief on Mount Behistun, written in Elamite, Old Persian and Babylonian.
The inscription begins with a brief autobiography including his lineage. To aid the presentation of his ancestry, Darius wrote down the sequence of events that occurred after the death of Cyrus the Great. Darius mentions several times that he is the rightful king by the grace of Ahura Mazda, the Zoroastrian god. In addition, further texts and monuments from Persepolis have been found, as well as a clay tablet containing an Old Persian cuneiform of Darius from Gherla, Romania and a letter from Darius to Gadates, preserved in a Greek text of the Roman period. In the foundation tablets of Apadana Palace, Darius described in Old Persian cuneiform the extent of his Empire in broad geographical terms: Darius the great king, king of kings, king of countries, son of Hystaspes, an Achaemenid. King Darius says: This is the kingdom which I hold, from the Sacae who are beyond Sogdia to Kush, from Sind to Lydia - what Ahuramazda, the greatest of gods, bestowed upon me. May Ahuramazda protect me and my royal house!
Herodotus, a Greek historian and author of The Histories, provided an account of many Persian kings and the Greco-Persian Wars. He wrote extensively on Darius, spanning half of Book 3 along with Books 4, 5 and 6, it begins with the removal of the alleged usurper Gaumata and continues to the end of Darius's reign. Darius was the eldest of five sons to Hystaspes and Rhodugune in 550 BCE. Hystaspes was a leading figure of authority in Persia, the homeland of the Persians; the Behistun Inscription of Darius states that his father was satrap of Bactria in 522 BCE. According to Herodotus, Hystaspes was the satrap of Persis, although most historians state that this is an error. According to Herodotus, prior to seizing power and "of no consequence at the time", had served as a spearman in the Egyptian campaign of Cambyses II the Persian Great King. Hystaspes was a noble of his court. Before Cyrus and his army crossed the Aras River to battle with the Armenians, he installed his son Cambyses II as king in case he should not return from battle.
However, once Cyrus had crossed the Aras River, he had a vision in which Darius had wings atop his shoulders and stood upon the confines of Europe and Asia. When Cyrus awoke from the dream, he inferred it as a great danger to the future security of the empire, as it meant that Darius would one day rule the whole world. However, his son Cambyses was the heir to the throne, not Darius, causing Cyrus to wonder if Darius was forming treasonable and ambitious designs; this led Cyrus to order Hystaspes to go back to Persis and watch over his son until Cyrus himself returned. Darius did not seem to have any treasonous thoughts. There are different accounts of the rise of Darius to the throne from both Darius himself and Greek historians; the oldest records report a convoluted sequence of events in which Cambyses II lost his
5th century BC
The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. This century saw the establishment of Pataliputra as a capital of the Magadha Empire; this city would become the ruling capital of different Indian kingdoms for about a thousand years. This period saw the rise of two great philosophical schools of the east and Buddhism; this period saw Mahavira and Buddha spreading their respective teachings in the northern plains of India. This changed the socio-cultural and political dynamics of the region of South Asia. Buddhism would go on to become one of the major world religions; this period saw the work of Yaska, who created Nirukta, that would lay the foundation stone for Sanskrit grammar and is one of the oldest works on grammar known to mankind. This century is traditionally recognized as the classical period of the Greeks, which would continue all the way through the 4th century until the time of Alexander the Great; the life of Socrates represented a major milestone in Greek philosophy though his teachings only survive through the work of his students, most notably Plato and Xenophon.
The tragedians Aeschylus and Euripides, as well as the comedian Aristophanes all date from this era and many of their works are still considered classics of the western theatrical canon. The Persian Wars, fought between a coalition of Greek cities and the vast Achaemenid Persian Empire was a pivotal moment in Greek politics. After having prevented the annexation of Greece by the Persians, the dominant power in the coalition, had no intention of further offensive action and considered the war over. Meanwhile, Athens counter-attacked, liberating Greek subjects of the Persian Empire up and down the Ionian coast and mobilizing a new coalition, the Delian League. Tensions between Athens, its growing imperialistic ambitions as leader of the Delian League, the traditionally dominant Sparta led to a protracted stalemate in the Peloponnesian war. Demotic becomes the dominant script of ancient Egypt. 499 BC: Aristagoras, acting on behalf of the Persian Empire, leads a failed attack on the rebellious island of Naxos.
499 BC: Aristagoras instigates the Ionian Revolt, beginning the Persian Wars between Greece and Persia. 499 BC: Sardis sacked by Athenian and Ionian troops. 498 BC: Leontini subjugated by Hippocrates of Gela. 498 BC: Alexander I succeeds his father Amyntas I as king of Macedon. 496 BC: Battle of Lake Regillus: A legendary early Roman victory, won over either the Etruscans or the Latins. 496 BC: Sophocles is born. 495 BC: Temple to Mercury on the Circus Maximus in Rome is built. 494 BC: The Battle of Lade, where Persians take back Ionia. 494 BC: Two tribunes of the plebs and two plebeian aediles are elected for the first time in Rome: the office of the tribunate is established. 494 BC: The year Rome changed from an Aristocratic Republic to a Liberalized Republic. 493 BC: Piraeus, the port town of Athens, is founded. 493 BC: Coriolanus captures the Volscian town of Corioli for Rome. 492 BC: First expedition of King Darius I of Persia against Greece, under the leadership of his son-in-law Mardonius. This marks the start of the campaign that culminated in the Battle of Marathon in 490 BC. 491 BC: Leotychidas succeeds his cousin Demaratus as king of Sparta.
491 BC: Gelo becomes Tyrant of Gela. 490 BC: The Battle of Marathon, where Darius I of Persia is defeated by the Athenians and Plataeans under Miltiades 490 BC: Phidippides runs 40 kilometers from Marathon to Athens to announce the news of the Greek victory. 489 BC: Cities of Rhodes unite and start construction of the new city of Rhodes. 488 BC: Leonidas I succeeds his brother Cleomenes I as king of Sparta after Cleomenes is judged insane. 487 BC: Egypt revolts against the Persians. 487 BC: Aegina and Athens go to war. 487 BC: Athenian Archonship becomes elective by lot, an important milestone in the move towards radical Athenian democracy. 486 BC: First part of the Grand Canal of China is built. 486 BC: Xerxes I succeeds Darius I as Great King of Persia. 486 BC: Egypt revolts against Persian rule. 486 BC: First Buddhist Council at Rejgaha, under the patronage of King Ajatasattu. Oral tradition established for the first time. 484 BC: Athenian playwright Aeschylus wins a poetry prize. 484 BC: Xerxes I abolishes the Kingdom of Babel and removes the golden statue of Bel.
484 BC: Persians regain control of Egypt. 483 BC: Gautama Buddha dies. 483 BC: Xerxes I of Persia starts planning his expedition against Greece 481 BC: The Isthmus of Corinth ends a war between Athens and Aegina. 480 BC: King Xerxes I of Persia sets out to conquer Greece. 480 BC: Cimon and his friends burn horse-bridles as an offering to Athena and join the marines 480 BC: Pleistarchus succeeds his father Leonidas I as king of Sparta. August, 480 BC: Battle of Artemisium—The Persian fleet fights an inconclusive battle with the Greek allied fleet. August 11, 480 BC: The Battle of Thermopylae, a costly victory by Persians over the Greeks. September 23, 480 BC: Battle of Salamis between Greece and Persia, leading to a Greek victory. 480 BC: Battle of Himera—The Carthaginians under Hamilcar are defeated by the Greeks of Sicily, led by Gelon of Syracuse. 480 BC: Roman troops march against the Veientines. 479 BC: The Battle of Plataea, the Greeks defeat the Persians, ending the Persian Wars. 479 BC: Battle of Mycale.
479 BC: Potidaea is struck by a tsunami. 479 BC: Chinese philosopher Confucius dies. 478 BC: Establishment of the Temple of Confucius at Qufu. 477 BC: The Delian League is inaugurated. 476 BC: Archidamus II succeeds his grandfather Leotychides, banished to Tegea, as king of Sparta. 475 BC: King Xuan of Zhou becomes King of the Zhou Dynasty. 474 BC: Battle of Cumae—The Syracusans under Hiero
The Berber calendar is the agricultural calendar traditionally used by Berbers. It is known as the fellaḥi; the calendar is utilized to regulate the seasonal agricultural works. The Islamic calendar, a lunar calendar, is not suited for agriculture because it does not relate to seasonal cycles. In other parts of the Islamic world either Iranian solar calendars, the Coptic calendar, the Rumi calendar, or other calendars based on the Julian calendar, were used before the introduction of the Gregorian calendar; the current Berber calendar is a legacy of the Roman province of Mauretania Caesariensis and the Roman province of Africa, as it is a surviving form of the Julian calendar. The latter calendar was used in Europe before the adoption of the Gregorian calendar, with month names derived from Latin. Berber populations used various indigenous calendars, such as that of the Guanche autochthones of the Canary Islands; however little is known of these ancient calendrical systems. The agricultural Berber calendar still in use is certainly derived from the Julian calendar, introduced in the Roman province of Africa at the time of Roman domination.
The names of the months of this calendar are derived from the corresponding Latin names and races of the Roman calendar denominations of Kalends and Ides exist: El Qabisi, an Islamic jurisconsult by Kairawan who lived in the 11th century, condemned the custom of celebrating "pagans'" festivals and cited, among traditional habits of North Africa, that of observing January Qalandas. The length of the year and of the individual months is the same as in the Julian calendar: three years of 365 days followed by a leap year of 366, without exceptions, 30- and 31-day months, except for the second one that has 28 days; the only slight discrepancy lies in that the extra day in leap years is not added at the end of February, but at the end of the year. This means that the beginning of the year corresponds to the 14th day of January in the Gregorian calendar, which coincides with the offset accumulated during the centuries between astronomical dates and the Julian calendar. In addition to the subdivision by months, within the traditional agricultural calendar there are other partitions, by "seasons" or by "strong periods", characterized by particular festivals and celebrations.
Not all the four seasons have retained a Berber denomination: the words for spring and autumn are used everywhere, more sparingly the winter and, among northern Berbers, the Berber name for the autumn has been preserved only in Jebel Nafusa. Spring tafsut – Begins on 15 furar Summer anebdu – Begins on 17 mayu Autumn amwal / aməwan ( – Begins on 17 ghusht Winter tagrest - Begins on 16 numbír An interesting element is the existing opposition between two 40-day terms, one representing the coldest part of winter and one the hottest period of summer; the coldest period is made up by 20 "white nights", from 12 to 31 dujamber, 20 "black nights", beginning on the first day of yennayer, corresponding to the Gregorian 14 January. The first day of the year is celebrated in various ways in the different parts of North Africa. A widespread tradition is a meal with particular foods. In some regions, it is marked by the sacrifice of an animal. In Algeria, such a holiday is celebrated by many people who don't use the Berber calendar in daily life.
A characteristic trait of this festivity, which blurs with the Islamic Day of Ashura, is the presence, in many regions, of ritual invocations with formulas like bennayu, babiyyanu, bu-ini, etc. Such expressions, according to many scholars, may be derived from of the ancient bonus annus wishes. A curious aspect of the Yennayer celebrations concerns the date of New Year's Day. Though once this anniversary fell everywhere on 14 January, because of a mistake introduced by some Berber cultural associations active in recovering customs on the verge of extinction, at present in a wide part of Algeria it is common opinion that the date of "Berber New Year's Day" is 12 January and not the 14th; the celebration at the 12, two days before the traditional one, it had been explicitly signaled in the city of Oran. El Azara is the period of the year extending, according to the Berber calendar, from 3 to 13 February and known by a climate sometimes hot, sometimes cold. Before the cold ends and spring begins there is a period of the year, feared.
It consists of ten days straddling the months of furar and mars, it is characterised by strong winds. It is said that, during this term, one should suspend many activities, should not marry nor go out during the night, leaving instead full scope to mysterious powers, which in that period are active and celebrate their weddings. Due to a linguistic taboo, in Djerba these creatures are called imbarken, i.e. "the blessed ones", whence this period takes its name. Jamrat el Ma, "embers of the sea", 27 February, is marked by a rise in sea temperature. Jamrat el Trab, "land embers" in English, is the period from 6 to 10 March and known to be marked by a mixture of heavy rain and sunny weather. Jamrat or coal is a term used t
The Buddhist calendar is a set of lunisolar calendars used in mainland Southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Thailand as well as in Sri Lanka and Chinese populations of Malaysia and Singapore for religious or official occasions. While the calendars share a common lineage, they have minor but important variations such as intercalation schedules, month names and numbering, use of cycles, etc. In Thailand, the name Buddhist Era is a year numbering system shared by the traditional Thai lunisolar calendar and by the Thai solar calendar; the Southeast Asian lunisolar calendars are based on an older version of the Hindu calendar, which uses the sidereal year as the solar year. One major difference is that the Southeast Asian systems, unlike their Indian cousins, do not use apparent reckoning to stay in sync with the sidereal year. Instead, they employ their versions of the Metonic cycle. However, since the Metonic cycle is not accurate for sidereal years, the Southeast Asian calendar is drifting out of sync with the sidereal one day every 100 years.
Yet no coordinated structural reforms of the lunisolar calendar have been undertaken. Today, the traditional Buddhist lunisolar calendar is used for Theravada Buddhist festivals, no longer has the official calendar status anywhere; the Thai Buddhist Era, a renumbered Gregorian calendar, is the official calendar in Thailand. The calculation methodology of the current versions of Southeast Asian Buddhist calendars is based on that of the Burmese calendar, in use in various Southeast Asian kingdoms down to the 19th century under the names of Chula Sakarat and Jolak Sakaraj; the Burmese calendar in turn was based on the "original" Surya Siddhanta system of ancient India. One key difference with Indian systems is that the Burmese system has followed a variation of the Metonic cycle, it is unclear from where, how the Metonic system was introduced. The Burmese system, indeed the Southeast Asian systems, thus use a "strange" combination of sidereal years from Indian calendar in combination with the Metonic cycle better for tropical years.
In all Theravada traditions, the calendar's epochal year 0 date was the day in which the Buddha attained parinibbāna. However, not all traditions agree on when it took place. In Burmese Buddhist tradition, it was 13 May 544 BCE, but in Thailand, it was 11 March 545 BCE, the date which the current Thai lunisolar and solar calendars use as the epochal date. Yet, the Thai calendars for some reason have fixed the difference between their Buddhist Era numbering and the Christian/Common Era numbering at 543, which points to an epochal year of 544 BCE, not 545 BCE. In Myanmar, the difference between BE and CE can be 543 or 544 for CE dates, 544 or 543 for BCE dates, depending on the month of the Buddhist Era. In Sri Lanka, the difference between BE and CE is 544; the calendar recognizes two types of months: sidereal month. The Synodic months are used to compose the years while the 27 lunar sidereal days, alongside the 12 signs of the zodiac, are used for astrological calculations; the days of the month are counted in two halves and waning.
The 15th of the waxing is the civil full moon day. The civil new moon day is the last day of the month; because of the inaccuracy of the calendrical calculation systems, the mean and real New Moons coincide. The mean New Moon precedes the real New Moon; as the Synodic lunar month is 29.5 days, the calendar uses alternating months of 29 and 30 days. Various regional versions of Chula Sakarat/Burmese calendar existed across various regions of mainland Southeast Asia. Unlike Burmese systems, Lan Na, Lan Xang and Sukhothai systems refer to the months by numbers, not by names; this means reading ancient texts and inscriptions in Thailand requires constant vigilance, not just in making sure one is operating for the correct region, but for variations within regions itself when incursions cause a variation in practice. However, Cambodian month system, which begins with Margasirsa as the first month, demonstrated by the names and numbers; the Buddhist calendar is a lunisolar calendar in which the months are based on lunar months and years are based on solar years.
One of its primary objectives is to synchronize the lunar part with the solar part. The lunar months twelve of them, consist alternately of 29 days and 30 days, such that a normal lunar year will contain 354 days, as opposed to the solar year of ~365.25 days. Therefore, some form of addition to the lunar year is necessary; the overall basis for it is provided by cycles of 57 years. Eleven extra days are inserted in every 57 years, seven extra months of 30 days are inserted in every 19 years; this provides 20819 complete days to both calendars. This 57-year cycle would provide a mean year of about 365.2456 days and a mean month of about 29.530496 days, if not corrected. As such, the calendar adds an intercalary month in leap years and sometimes an intercalary day in great leap years; the intercalary month not only corrects the length of the year but corrects the accumulating error of the month to extent of half a day. The average length of the month is further corrected by adding a day to Nayon
500s BC (decade)
509 BC—Overthrow of Roman monarchy, beginning of Republican period. First pair of consuls elected. Tarquinian conspiracy formed, but discovered and the conspirators executed. Forces of Veii and Tarquinii, led by the deposed king Lucius Tarquinius Superbus defeated in the Battle of Silva Arsia by the Roman army. Consul Publius Valerius Publicola celebrates the first republican triumph on 1 March. September 13, 509 BC—The Temple of Jupiter Optimus Maximus on Rome's Capitoline Hill is dedicated on the ides of September. 508 BC—War between Rome and Clusium 508 BC—War between Clusium and Aricia 508 BC—Office of Pontifex Maximus created in Rome. 508 BC—Cleisthenes reorganizes Athens. He creates a local unit to serve as the basis of his political system. Citizenship is linked to the deme, for each deme keeps the roll of those within its jurisdiction, who are admitted to citizenship, he groups all the demes into ten tribes, which thus form the link between the demes and the central government. The central government includes an assembly of all citizens and a new council of five hundred members.
This is a early form of democracy. 507 BC—Cleisthenes, Greek reformer, takes power and increases democracy. 506 BC—Battle of Boju: during the Spring and Autumn period of Ancient China, the forces of the State of Wu under commander and strategist Sun Tzu defeat the forces of Chu, destroying the Chu capital of Ying and forcing King Zhao of Chu to flee. 505 BC–504 BC—War between Rome and the Sabines. 503 BC-502 BC-The Latin towns of Pometia and Cora, with the assistance of the Aurunci, unsuccessfully revolt against Rome. December 4, 502 BC—Solar eclipse darkens Egypt 502 BC—Naxos rebels against Persian domination sparking the Ionian Revolt. 501 BC—Naxos is attacked by the Persian Empire. 501 BC—In response to threats by the Sabines, Rome creates the office of dictator. 501 BC—Confucius is appointed governor of Chung-tu. 501 BC—Gadir is captured by Carthage. 500 BC—Bantu-speaking people migrate into south-west Uganda from the west. 500 BC—Refugees from Teos resettle Abdera. 500 BC—Darius I of Persia proclaims that Aramaic be the official language of the western half of his empire.
500 BC—Signifies the end of the Nordic Bronze Age civilization in Oscar Montelius periodization system and begins the Pre-Roman Iron Age. 500 BC—Foundation of first republic in Vaishali Bihar India. C. 500 BC—She-Wolf, with late 15th century or early 16th century additions, is made. It is now kept at the Museo Capitolino in Rome. 500 BC—World population: 100,000,000 85,000,000 in Eastern hemisphere, 15,000,000 in Western Hemisphere Mesoamerica. C. 500 BC—Vulca makes Apollo of Veii, from Portonaccio Temple. It is now kept at Museo Nazionale di Villa Rome. C. 500 BC—Yayoi period starts in Ancient Japan. C. 500 BC—Oldest known Zapotec writing. 500 BC - The Olmecs establish Monte Albán, the sacred city, continue building pyramids. Founded toward the end of the Middle Formative period at around 500 BC, by the Terminal Formative Monte Albán had become the capital of a large-scale expansionist polity that dominated much of the Oaxacan highlands and interacted with other Mesoamerican regional states such as Teotihuacan to the north.
The Gutaii tribe began in Middle and Southern Africa. C. 500 BC—Heraclitus, Greek philosopher Mahavir, Last Tirthankar Siddharta Gautama, Founder of Buddhism c. 585–501 BC—Pythagoras, mathematician Lucretia, Roman noblewoman Lucius Junius Brutus, Roman consul Aruns Tarquinius, Roman prince Shen Yin Shu, general of Chu Titus Junius Brutus, Roman noble and monarchist conspirator Tiberius Junius Brutus, Roman noble and monarchist conspirator
Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt
The Twenty-seventh Dynasty of Egypt known as the First Egyptian Satrapy was a province of the Achaemenid Persian Empire between 525 BC and 404 BC. It was founded by Cambyses II, the King of Persia, after his conquest of Egypt and subsequent crowning as Pharaoh of Egypt, was disestablished upon the rebellion and crowning of Amyrtaeus as Pharaoh. A second period of Achaemenid rule in Egypt occurred under the Thirty-first Dynasty of Egypt; the last pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty, Psamtik III, was defeated by Cambyses II at the battle of Pelusium in the eastern Nile delta in May of 525 BC. Cambyses was crowned Pharaoh of Egypt in the summer of that year at the latest, beginning the first period of Persian rule over Egypt. Egypt was joined with Cyprus and Phoenicia to form the sixth satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire, with Aryandes as the local satrap; as Pharaoh of Egypt, Cambyses' reign saw the fiscal resources of traditional Egyptian temples diminished considerably. One decree, written on papyrus in demotic script ordered a limitation on resources to all Egyptian temples, excluding Memphis and Wenkhem.
Cambyses left Egypt sometime in early 522 BC, dying en route to Persia, was nominally succeeded by his younger brother Bardiya, although contemporary historians suggest Bardiya was Gaumata, an impostor, that the real Bardiya had been murdered some years before by Cambyses, ostensibly out of jealousy. Darius I, suspecting this impersonation, led a coup against "Bardiya" in September of that year, overthrowing him and being crowned as King and Pharaoh the next morning; as the new Persian King, Darius spent much of his time quelling rebellions throughout his empire. Sometime in late 522 BC or early 521 BC a local Egyptian prince led a rebellion and declared himself Pharaoh Petubastis III; the main cause of this rebellion is uncertain, but the Ancient Greek military historian Polyaenus states that it was oppressive taxation imposed by the satrap Aryandes. Polyaenus further writes that Darius himself marched to Egypt, arriving during a period of mourning for the death of the sacred Herald of Ptah bull.
Darius made a proclamation that he would award a sum of one hundred talents to the man who could produce the next Herald, impressing the Egyptians with his piety such that they flocked en masse to his side, ending the rebellion. Darius took a greater interest in Egyptian internal affairs than Cambyses, he codified the laws of Egypt, notably completed the excavation of a canal system at Suez, allowing passage from the Bitter Lakes to the Red Sea, much preferable to the arduous desert land route. This feat allowed Darius to import skilled Egyptian laborers and artisans to construct his palaces in Persia; the result of this was a minor brain drain in Egypt, due to the loss of these skilled individuals, creating a demonstrable lowering of quality in Egyptian architecture and art from this period. Darius was more devoted to supporting Egyptian temples than Cambyses, earning himself a reputation for religious tolerance in the region. In 497 BC, during a visit by Darius to Egypt, Aryandes was executed for treason, most for attempting to issue his own coinage, a visible attempt to distance Egypt from the rest of the Persian Empire.
Darius died in 486 BC, was succeeded by Xerxes I. Upon the accession of Xerxes, Egypt again rebelled, this time under Psamtik IV, although different sources dispute that detail. Xerxes quelled the rebellion, installing his brother Achaemenes as satrap. Xerxes ended the privileged status of Egypt held under Darius, increased supply requirements from the country to fund his invasion of Greece. Furthermore, Xerxes promoted the Zoroastrian god Ahura Mazda at the expense of traditional Egyptian deities, permanently stopped the funding of Egyptian monuments. Xerxes was murdered in 465 BC by Artabanus, beginning a dynastic struggle that ended with Artaxerxes I being crowned the next King and Pharaoh. In 460 BC another major Egyptian rebellion took place, led by a Libyan chief named Inaros II assisted by the Athenians of Greece. Inaros defeated an army led by Achaemenes, killing the satrap in the process, took Memphis exerting control over large parts of Egypt. Inaros and his Athenian allies were defeated by a Persian army led by general Megabyzus in 454 BC and sent into retreat.
Megabyzus promised Inaros no harm would come of him or his followers if he surrendered and submitted to Persian authority, terms Inaros agreed to. Artaxerxes had Inaros executed, although how and when is a matter of dispute. Artaxerxes died in 424 BC. Artaxerxes successor, Xerxes II only ruled for forty-five days, being murdered by his brother Sogdianus. Sogdianus was murdered by his brother Ochus, who became Darius II. Darius II ruled from 423 BC to 404 BC, nearing the end of his reign a rebellion led by Amyrtaeus took place beginning as early as 411 BC. In 405 BC Amyrtaeus, with the help of Cretan mercenaries expelled the Persians from Memphis, declaring himself Pharaoh the next year and ending the 27th Dynasty. Darius II's successor, Artaxerxes II made attempts to begin an expedition to retake Egypt, but due to political difficulty with his brother Cyrus the Younger, abandoned the effort. Artaxerxes II was still recognized as the rightful Pharaoh in some parts of Egypt as late as 401 BC, although his sluggish response to the situation allowed Egypt to solidify its independence.
During the period of independent rule three indigenous dynasties reigned: the 28th, 29th, 30th Dynasty. Artaxe
An Olympiad is a period of four years associated with the Olympic Games of the Ancient Greeks. Although the Ancient Olympic Games were established during Archaic Greece, it was not until the Hellenistic period, beginning with Ephorus, that the Olympiad was used as a calendar epoch. Converting to the modern BC/AD dating system the first Olympiad began in the summer of 776 BC and lasted until the summer of 772 BC, when the second Olympiad would begin with the commencement of the next games. By extrapolation to the Gregorian calendar, the 3rd year of the 699th Olympiad will begin in mid-summer 2019. A modern Olympiad refers to a four-year period beginning on the opening of the Olympic Games for the summer sports; the first modern Olympiad began in 1896, the second in 1900, so on. The ancient and modern Olympiads would have synchronised had there been a year zero between the Olympiad of 4 BC and the one of 4 AD, but as the Gregorian calendar goes directly from 1 BC to 1 AD, the ancient Olympic cycle now lags the modern cycle by one year.
An ancient Olympiad was a period of four years grouped together, counting inclusively as the ancients did. Each ancient Olympic year overlapped onto two of our modern reckoning of BC or AD years, from midsummer to midsummer. Example: Olympiad 140, year 1 = 220/219 BC. Therefore, the games would have been held in July/August of 220 BC and held the next time in July/August of 216 BC, after four olympic years had been completed; the sophist Hippias was the first writer to publish a list of victors of the Olympic Games, by the time of Eratosthenes, it was agreed that the first Olympic games had happened during the summer of 776 BC. The combination of victor lists and calculations from 776 BC onwards enabled Greek historians to use the Olympiads as a way of reckoning time that did not depend on the time reckonings of one of the city-states; the first to do so was Timaeus of Tauromenium in the third century BC. Since for events of the early history of the games the reckoning was used in retrospect, some of the dates given by historian for events before the 5th century BC are unreliable.
In the 2nd century AD, Phlegon of Tralles summarised the events of each Olympiad in a book called Olympiads, an extract from this has been preserved by the Byzantine writer Photius. Christian chroniclers continued to use this Greek system of dating as a way of synchronising biblical events with Greek and Roman history. In the 3rd century AD, Sextus Julius Africanus compiled a list of Olympic victors up to 217 BC, this list has been preserved in the Chronicle of Eusebius. Early historians sometimes used the names of Olympic victors as a method of dating events to a specific year. For instance, Thucydides says in his account of the year 428 BC: "It was the Olympiad in which the Rhodian Dorieus gained his second victory". Dionysius of Halicarnassus dates the foundation of Rome to the first year of the seventh Olympiad, 752/1 BC. Since Rome was founded on April 21, in the last half of the ancient Olympic year, it would be 751 BC specifically. In Book 1 chapter 75 Dionysius states: "... Romulus, the first ruler of the city, began his reign in the first year of the seventh Olympiad, when Charops at Athens was in the first year of his ten-year term as archon."
Diodorus Siculus dates the Persian invasion of Greece to 480 BC: "Calliades was archon in Athens, the Romans made Spurius Cassius and Proculus Verginius Tricostus consuls, the Eleians celebrated the Seventy-fifth Olympiad, that in which Astylus of Syracuse won the stadion. It was in this year that king Xerxes made his campaign against Greece." Jerome, in his Latin translation of the Chronicle of Eusebius, dates the birth of Jesus Christ to year 3 of Olympiad 194, the 42nd year of the reign of the emperor Augustus, which equates to the year 2 BC. An Olympiad started with the holding of the games, which occurred on the first or second full moon after the summer solstice, in what we call July or August; the games were therefore a new years festival. In 776 BC this occurred on either July 23 or August 21.. Though the games were held without interruption, on more than one occasion they were held by others than the Eleians; the Eleians declared such games Anolympiads, but it is assumed the winners were recorded.
During the 3rd century AD, records of the games are so scanty that historians are not certain whether after 261 they were still held every four years. During the early years of the Olympiad, any physical benefit deriving from a sport was banned; some winners were recorded though, until the last Olympiad of 393AD. In 394, Roman Emperor Theodosius. Though it would have been possible to continue the reckoning by just counting four-year periods, by the middle of the 5th century AD reckoning by Olympiads had become disused; the modern Olympiad is a period of four years, beginning at the opening of the Olympic Summer Games and ending at the opening of the next. The Olympiads are numbered consecutively from the first Games of the Olympiad celebrated in Athens in 1896; the XXXI Olympiad began on August 5, 2016 and will end on July 24, 2020. The Summer Olympics are more referred to as the Games of the Olympiad; the first poster to announce the games using this term was the one for the 1932 Summer Olympics, in Los Angeles, using the phrase: Call to the games of the Xth Olympiad Note, that the official numbering of the Winter Olympics does