click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Louise Rosenblatt

Louise Michelle Rosenblatt was an American university professor. She is best known as a researcher into the teaching of literature. Rosenblatt was born in Atlantic City to Jewish immigrant parents, she attended Barnard College, the women's college at Columbia University in New York City, receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1925. Her roommate was the anthropologist, who urged her to study anthropology. A year behind Mead at Barnard, Rosenblatt took over her position as editor-in-chief of the Barnard Bulletin. While Rosenblatt planned to travel to Samoa after graduation in order to do field research, she decided instead to continue her studies in France. In Paris, she met French author André Gide and American expatriates Gertrude Stein and Robert Penn Warren. Rosenblatt obtained a Certitude d'etudes Françaises from the University of Grenoble in 1926, she continued her studies in Paris, receiving a PhD in Comparative Literature from the Sorbonne in 1931. That same year she married a professor at Rutgers University.

Rosenblatt published her first book in 1931. It was written in French and examined the "art for art's sake" movement that had stirred England in the latter portion of the nineteenth century. Rosenblatt was enrolled as an instructor at Barnard College in 1931, remained on the college's rolls through 1938. In 1938 she transferred to Brooklyn College, remained on that college's rolls through 1948. In 1948 she became a Professor of English Education at New York University's School of Education, where she remained until her retirement in 1972. Subsequently, she held visiting professorships at Rutgers and the University of Miami, along with a number of other short term appointments, although she maintained residence at her long-term home in Princeton, New Jersey. In 2002 she moved to Virginia, to live with her son Jonathan, she died of congestive heart failure at the Virginia Hospital Center in Arlington on 8 February 2005. During World War II Rosenblatt worked for the United States Office of War Information, analyzing reports concerning or coming from France, which at that time was controlled by the Germans.

Throughout her life, Rosenblatt was involved in political activism. Carrying on a tradition from her family championing the "underdog," her editorials in the Barnard Bulletin spoke to her concern for building democratic institutions, she was a strong supporter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, her socialist instincts led her to support Norman Thomas, before moving to FDR in the 1930s, in the 1990s and 2000s, she wrote her representatives to effect policy changes in relation to the No Child Left Behind Act. When Rosenblatt began teaching English Literature at Barnard, she developed an intense interest in each reader's unique response to a given text, her views regarding literacy were influenced by John Dewey, in the philosophy department at Columbia in the 1930s, as well as Charles Sanders Peirce and William James. She is best known for her two influential texts: Literature as Exploration was completed for the Commission on Human Relations and was a publication of the Progressive Education Association.

She argued that the meaning of any text lay not in the work itself but in the reader's transaction with it, whether it was a play by Shakespeare or a novel by Toni Morrison. Her work made her a well-known reader-response theorist. In her view, each "transaction" is a unique experience in which the reader and text continuously act and are acted upon by each other. A written work does not have the same meaning for everyone, as each reader brings individual background knowledge and context into the reading act. Rosenblatt's idea of the reading process, does not lead to all readings being accurate. For the reader's part, he or she must pay close attention to every detail of the text and pay equal attention to his or her own responses; this process exemplifies not only reader-response criticism but close reading. This inclusion of Rosenblatt's "transactional" theory within the designation "reader-response," however, needs to be contested. Rosenblatt herself contended that she was never propounding a view of reading centered on isolated, individual readers as was the case with "reception theory."

Instead, the focus of her thinking throughout her long career was on how individuals came to negotiate their readings in social terms. Such an ongoing conversation between reader and text was her way of emphasizing the importance of literature for human development in democratic settings; as part of her "transactional" theory, Rosenblatt distinguished between two kinds of reading, or "stances," which she viewed on a continuum between "efferent" and "aesthetic." Anchoring one end is Efferent reading, the most common kind, in which the reader seeks to derive information from the text. In this instance, a reader is concerned or with the gist, the message, the information, he or she can "carry away,", what "efferent" means, conducting away; such a reader does not care about. In contrast, if a reader approaches a text seeking to enjoy its formal characteristics—its rhythms, its word choices, its images, its connotations—then that person is reading "aesthetically." Such a reader hopes to participate in an aesthetic experience, much like listening to a great musical co

Effectiveness of sex offender registration policies in the United States

Prescott and Rockoff found that Sex Offender Registration policies in the United States were effective at reducing crime by providing general deterrence. The study found that non public registration policies were effective in reducing sex crime arrests due to enhanced police monitoring of existing offenders; however public registration was found to cause an increased rate of recidivism among Sex Offenders on the public register. There is considerable debate among academics as to. Many see the increased rate of recidivism among registered offenders as a failure, others point to the deterrent effect of Sex Offender Registration and Notification Laws as being evidence of success. Companies such as OffenderWatch are implementing new technology such as Data Analytics to make regimes more efficient and effective. OffenderWatch's analytics extension known as FOCUS helps law enforcement save time by identifying high risk offenders that need to be monitored. Sex offender registration and notification laws are accepted by the public, who believe that knowing the location of sex offenders residence may improve their ability to guard themselves and their children from sexual victimization.

Empirical observations do not support this assumption, however. According to the Office of Justice Programs' SMART Office, sex offender registration and notification requirements arguably have been implemented in the absence of empirical evidence regarding their effectiveness; the majority of research results do not find a statistically significant shift in sexual offense trends following the implementation of sex offender registration and notification regimes. A few studies indicate that sexual recidivism may have been lowered by SORN policies, while a few have found statistically significant increase in sex crimes following SORN implementation. According to Association for the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, the states where community notification has indicated some effectiveness employ empirically derived sex offender risk assessment procedures and apply public notification only on high risk offenders; some policies — residency restrictions and community notification — may adversely impact on public safety due to the obstacles they create to successful reintegration of an offender.

It has been suggested that sex offender registration and notification policies may be a specific deterrent for sex offenders. While these hypotheses were not empirically tested prior to the implementation of SORN requirements, a significant body of research using various methods has since examined the impact of SORN in relation to recidivism. One research method employed to assess the effectiveness of SORN for adult sexual offenders is interrupted time series analysis, which examines an outcome of interest using many observations before and after the implementation of a specific intervention. Several interrupted time series analyses assessing SORN have been completed in recent years. A study done in University of Chicago Law School compared data on over 9,000 sex offenders released from prison in 1994. About half of those offenders were released into states where they needed to register, while the other half did not need to register; the study found little difference in the two groups' propensity to re-offend.

In fact, those released into states without registration laws were less to re-offend. The study showed that blocks in Washington DC where sex offenders lived did not have higher rate of sex crimes nor overall crimes; the study concluded that registered sex offenders do not appear to have lower rates of recidivism than those sex offenders who are not required to register, that knowing where a sex offender lives does not reveal where sex crimes, or other crimes, will take place. A study conducted in University of Michigan Law School in 2008, distinguishing between the effects of registration and community notification, analyzed Uniform Crime Reports data from 15 states over more than 10 years; the study found evidence that police-only registration laws reduce the frequency of reported sex offenses when the number of registrants is large but making the registry information available to the broader public may "backfire", leading to higher overall rates of sex crime. An average-size registry was estimated to decrease crime by 1.21 sex offenses per 10,000 people, which correspond to 13 percent reduction on average.

This drop in crime was found to benefit local victims. The study found no evidence that registration had any effect to the level of crime against strangers; the same study found that notification laws may affect sex offense frequency, although not in a way as lawmakers intended. Notification laws were found to reduce the number of sex offenses when the size of the registry is small but these benefits disappear when more offenders are made subject to notification requirements. Making the registration information public was found to increase the number of sex offenses by more than 1.57 percent. The authors concluded that providing information on convicted sex offenders to local authorities may be beneficial as this increases monitoring and likelihood of punishment for recidivism, which translates to lower rate of recidivism as predicted in simple model of criminal behavior. By making the same information public offenders become more to commit crimes because the as

Danny Lyon

Danny Lyon is an American photographer and filmmaker. All of Lyon's publications work in the style of photographic New Journalism, meaning that the photographer has become immersed in with, is a participant of, the documented subject, he is the founding member of the publishing group Bleak Beauty. After being accepted as the photographer for Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Lyon was present at all of the major historical events during the Civil Rights Movement, he has had solo exhibits at the Whitney Museum of American Art, the Art Institute of Chicago, the Menil Collection, the M. H. de Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco and the Center for Creative Photography at the University of Arizona. Lyon twice received a Guggenheim Fellowship. Lyon was born in 1942 in Brooklyn, New York and is the son of Russian-Jewish mother Rebecca Henkin and German-Jewish father Dr. Ernst Fredrick Lyon, he was raised in Kew Gardens and went on to study history and philosophy at the University of Chicago, where he graduated with a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1963.

That same year, he published his first photographs working for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. His pictures appeared in The Movement, a documentary book about the Civil Rights Movement in the southern region of the United States. Lyon began creating his own books, his first, was a study of outlaw motorcyclists in the collection The Bikeriders, where Lyon did more than just photograph motorcyclists in the American Midwest from 1963 to 1967. Additionally, he became a member of the Chicago Outlaws motorcycle club and traveled with them, sharing their lifestyle. According to Lyon himself, the photographs were "an attempt to record and glorify the life of the American bikerider." The series was immensely influential in the 1960s and 1970s. By 1967 he was invited to join Magnum Photos, he never became a full member. During the 1970s, he contributed to the Environmental Protection Agency's DOCUMERICA project; the Destruction of Lower Manhattan was Lyon's next work, published by Macmillan Publishers in 1969.

The book documents the large-scale demolition taking place throughout Lower Manhattan in 1967. Included are photographs of soon to be demolished streets and buildings, portraits of the neighborhood's last remaining stragglers and pictures from within the demolition sites themselves; the book was remaindered for one dollar each, but soon attained the status of a collector's item. It was reprinted in 2005. Conversations with the Dead was published with full cooperation of the Texas Department of Corrections. Lyon photographed in six prisons over a 14-month period in 1967-68; the series was printed in book form in 1971 by Holt publishing. The introduction points to a statement of purpose that the penal system of Texas is symbolic for incarceration everywhere, he states, "I tried with whatever power I had to make a picture of imprisonment as distressing as I knew it to be in reality." Lyon befriended many of the prisoners. The book includes texts taken from prison records, letters from convicts, inmate artwork.

In particular, the book focuses on the case of Billy McCune, a convicted rapist whose death sentence was commuted to life in prison. In the foreword, Lyon describes McCune as a diagnosed psychotic, who one evening, while awaiting execution, "cut his penis off to the root and, placing it in a cup, passed it between the bars to the guard." All of Lyon's publications work in the style of photographic New Journalism, meaning that the photographer has become immersed, is a participant, of the documented subject. He is the founding member of the publishing group Bleak Beauty, he was encouraged in his photography by curator of the Art Institute of Chicago Hugh Edwards, who gave Lyon two solo exhibits as a young man. A filmmaker and writer, Lyon's films and videos include Los Niños Abandonados, Born to Film and Murderers, he has published the non-fiction book Like A Thief's Dream. Lyon began his involvement in the Civil Rights Movement when he hitch-hiked to Cairo, during a summer break after his junior year at the University of Chicago.

He was inspired by a speech. After his speech Lewis left to go attend a sit-in, Lyon was impressed by this, Lewis was putting action behind his words. Lyon decided to a march to a nearby segregated swimming pool, the demonstrators knelt down to pray as the pool-goers heckled them. Soon a truck came, it went through the crowd in an attempt to break it up, a young black girl was hit by the truck and Lyon knew that he wanted to be a part of the movement; the following fall Lyon was invited to Mississippi, to cover voter registrations. Shortly after, Lyon had a run-in with the police, one of whom threatened to kill him because he claimed to have a black father. Lyon left town; the next year Lyon went back. But the SNCC was reluctant to bring him aboard as their photographer. One job Lyon participated in was getting a picture of some high-school girls who were in prison at the Leesburg Stockade without any charges against them, he hid in the back of a car while someone else drove him to the prison, the young man who drove distracted the guards while Lyon snuck in the back to get the photo.

After being accepted as the photographer for SNCC, Lyon was present at all of the major historical events during the movement capturing the moments with his camera. The Bikeriders. London: Macmillan, 1968. Santa Fe, NM: Twin Palms, 1998. ISBN 978-0-944092-91-0. New York City: Aperture, 2014

Candice DeLong

Candice DeLong is a former FBI criminal profiler and criminologist. DeLong was the lead profiler in San Francisco and worked on the Unabomber case, she hosts the Investigation Discovery programs Deadly Women and Facing Evil with Candice DeLong. Born and raised in Chicago, Illinois, DeLong is the daughter of a building contractor father and a homemaker mother. Growing up, DeLong stated. Before entering the field of criminal profiling, DeLong worked as a psychiatric nurse at Northwestern University Hospital in Chicago, Illinois. However, by the time she was 28 years old, she was a divorcee with a young son. Wanting a new career, DeLong went to Virginia, in 1980 to attend the FBI training academy, she was one of only seven female recruits. DeLong worked in the FBI's Chicago office after graduating from Quantico. DeLong stated, she claimed that her three career goals were as follows: "to be involved with a high-profile national criminal, I wanted to apprehend a serial killer, I wanted to rescue a kidnap victim alive."

In 1982, DeLong became involved in the investigation of the Chicago Tylenol murders, in which seven people died from potassium cyanide-laced Tylenol capsules. Although no one was charged in the poisonings, the incident led to new packaging for over-the-counter medication and federal anti-tampering laws. Regarding the incident, DeLong stated that "You can thank the Tylenol killer for the fact that it now takes a blow torch to get into a bottle of Tylenol."In 1995, DeLong was one of the three handpicked FBI agents to mastermind the manhunt for the Unabomber, Ted Kaczynski. Kaczynski had sent 16 bombs over a 17-year period to target areas. After his 1995 capture in Lincoln, Montana, DeLong wrote that "he only cared about two things — his little quarter-acre of property and killing people."DeLong, a member of the Child Abduction Task Force in San Francisco, stated that the greatest day of her career was when she was able to rescue a nine-year-old kidnapping victim, given crack cocaine and been forced to participate in child pornography.

After learning of the abductor's whereabouts on a train in San Diego, the boy was saved. Following DeLong's July 2000 retirement from the FBI, she published a book entitled Special Agent: My Life on the Front Lines as a Woman in the FBI. In the book, she discusses the criminal profiling process and how she helped solve high-profile cases. DeLong dedicated a chapter in her book to personal safety, stating that "Prevention can be as simple as a deadbolt lock on your house."In the early days of the investigation of the disappearance of Laci Peterson, DeLong stated in an interview with Diane Sawyer on Good Morning America that Laci's husband Scott Peterson was speaking about Laci in the past-tense though her body had not yet been discovered. She was criticized by Scott's supporters for saying that a pregnant Longview, woman who had appealed to a store clerk for help could not have been Laci Peterson because the woman claimed to have been kidnapped. After the acquittal of Casey Anthony in the death of Caylee Anthony, DeLong told the Huffington Post that the prosecution must have offended the jury, because the amount of circumstantial evidence should have been enough to convict Casey.

DeLong hosts two programs on the Investigation Discovery Network: Deadly Women and Facing Evil with Candice DeLong. She serves as a subject-matter expert on Deadly Women, offering her professional opinions about the women profiled on the show. On Facing Evil, DeLong has profiled Jennifer Reali, Jennifer Hyatte, Susan Grund, Belinda Van Krevel, Patricia Olsen, Celeste Beard, Dawn Silvernail, Ashley Humphrey, Jill Coit, Rachel Wade, Shirley Jo Phillips, Tyonne Palmer, Jennifer Bailey, Melissa Vanover from the inside of a prison, discussing the women's motive for murder. DeLong has been a frequent interview guest of Ronn Owens on the San Francisco Bay Area radio station KGO

Vellore A. R. Srinivasan

Dr. Vellore A. R. Srinivasan is a classical Carnatic vocalist, percussionist and a Vaggeyakara, he is presently working as a Professor of Biochemistry at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Research Institute, one of the constituent colleges of Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, a Deemed University. Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Research Institute figures among the top 25 medical colleges in the country, as per India rankings 2018, released by National Institutional Ranking Framework. Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth is accredited by NAAC with A Grade. Prof. Srinivasan is the Registrar of Sri Balaji Vidyapeeth, placed among the top 100 Universities in India as per NIRF 2018, he had his undergraduate education at Voorhees College, Tamil Nadu and obtained a first class degree in Chemistry in 1982. He received the Madras University topper award in M. Sc. Biochemistry, having studied at Christian Medical College, Vellore, he received his Ph. D. degree in Biochemistry from Mysore University in 2000, following doctoral thesis work carried out at the Central Food Technological Research Institute, India.

Srinivasan is one of the inventors of a patent for "A process for the preparation of intracellular Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase enzyme". Training in music:Vellore A. R. Srinivasan received lessons in Carnatic vocal from the Vidwans:- Sri Sembiakudi Janakiraman, Sri M. R. Srinivasan and Sri Bellary M. Ragavendra. Srinivasan learnt the art of playing percussion instruments from Vidwan Vellore C. M. Kuttiappa. Presently, Srinivasan is receiving advanced training in percussion from the well known Guru Tiruvarur Sri R. Krishnamoorthy. Multifaceted musician:-Vellore Srinivasan has performed for temples and educational institutions; as a percussionist, he plays the morsing. He has composed over 800 songs, he has composed songs on the religious seers of India. He has received awards and titles which include Nadayoga Shironmani, instituted by YOGNAT, he is included in the Musicians’ Diary for his work in Carnatic vocals, along with his Kanjira and morsing work. 1.https://www.tripadvisor.in/Tourism-g1152780-Vellore_Vellore_District_Tamil_Nadu-Vacations.html www.mudhra.org/mudhrabhaskar.htm http://www.kutcheribuzz.com/ebroch/music/vellorearsrinivasan/default.htm http://www.indiansarts.com/velloresrinivasanpage.htm The Hindu, Bangalore edition, 27.05.1994 The Hindu, Bangalore edition, 16.4.2004 http://www.indiansarts.com/velloresrinivasanpage.htm http://www.bollywoodsargam.com/bollywoodsargam_search.php